Alzahra University
  • Tehran, Iran
Recent publications
Natural products have attracted the interest of the scientific community due to their importance and application. Alexine is a naturally polyhydroxylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid that is broadly found in plant sources and isolated from Alexa leiopetala . The biological properties such as glycosidase inhibitors, anti-virus, and anti-HIV activities, makes it interesting target for synthetical studies. This review reports different approaches and methodologies to the synthesis of alexine, and its stereoisomers as the target compounds in numerous studies. Graphical Abstract
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) utilizes photosensitizers (PSs) to produce reactive oxygen species (ROSs) upon irradiation, which causes the shutdown of vessels and deprives the tumor of nutrients and oxygen, and in turn induces adverse effects on the immune system. However, significant efforts are needed to increase the efficiency in PDT in terms of light delivery to specific PSs for the clinical treatment of tumors located deep under the skin. Even though PDT offers a disease site-specific treatment modality, current efforts are directed to improve the solubility (in body fluids and injectable solvents), photostability, amphiphilicity (for tissue penetration), elimination, and systemic toxicity of traditional PSs based on porphyrin derivatives. Nanostructured materials show promising features to achieve most of such combined efforts. They can be artificially engineered to carry multiple theranostic agents onto targeted tumor sites. However, recent studies on photosensitive Cd-based nanostructures, mostly used in PDT, indicate that leeching of Cd ²⁺ ions is stimulated when they are exposed to harsh biological conditions for continuous periods of time, thus making them acutely toxic and hindering their applications in in vivo settings. Since nanostructured materials are not completely immune to degradation, great strides have been made to seek new alternatives. In this review, we focus on the latest advances of Cd-free nanostructured metal transition sulfides (MTSs) as alternative PSs and study their high-energy transfer efficiency, rational designs, and potential applications in cancer-targeted PDT. Nanostructured MTSs are discussed in the context of their versatility to serve as phototherapy agents and superior properties, including their strong absorption in the NIR region, excellent photothermal conversion efficiency, controlled reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, versatile surface chemistry, high fluorescence, and structural and thermal stability. We discuss the latest advancements in correlating the self-aggregation of MTSs with their passive tumor cell targeting, highlighting their ability to efficiently produce ROSs, and mitigating their dark toxicity through polymeric functionalization. Treatment of deep-seated tumors by using these PSs upon preferential uptake by tumor tissues (due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect) is also reviewed. We finally summarize the main future perspectives of MTSs as next-generation PSs within the context of cancer theranostics. Graphical Abstract
To design highly efficient and broadband nanometer-sized absorbers based on the atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), we propose utilizing inclined gold gratings on MoS 2 monolayer. In the case of gold gratings with zero inclination, coverage of the absorption spectrum in the entire visible range occurs between the values of 42% to 73%. Considerable increase in the absorbed light occurs by introducing 13 nm inclination to the gold gratings with equal values of the grating’s period and width as 60 nm. With the application of this grating, maximum absorption of 88% is reached and the absorption bandwidth covers the entire visible spectrum with only 12% variation of the absorption value relative to this maximum (88%). Footprints of resonant excitation of two different modes in the absorber structure are evident: the named “reflection” mode and localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Inclination of the gratings leads the LSP modes to slide toward the MoS 2 and causes a remarkable increment in the absorption efficiency. An impressive absorption value of 56% in MoS 2 monolayer is gained by the gold grating’s inclination of 17 nm. The designed absorber paves a new way in designing TMDC-based absorbers with extended bandwidths and higher efficiencies.
Measuring the network complexity has been addressed in many studies in graph theory. In the context of complex networks, a class of complexity measures has been proposed based on structure entropy. Although the proposed measures can quantify the complexity of different networks, they are mainly focused on the nodes structural properties and ignore the links information. This is while the link analysis plays a crucial role in studying and comprehension of different types of complex networks. In this paper, we propose to employ the similarity-based link prediction measures to capture the links information and quantify it as an entropy measure. The findings of the experimental study based on several synthetic as well as real-world networks demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed complexity measure.
Because e-WOM is one of the useful digital marketing elements for any organization, a better understanding of its process will help individuals take more advantage of this concept. e-WOM enables individuals to form relationships with firms, brands, and other customers, which leads to benefits for both consumers and companies. It plays a significant role in a firm’s performance. The present study implements a different approach to reviewing by combining two bibliometric methods, multidimensional scaling analysis (MDS) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), via Bibexcel software to have a deeper investigation of the process. Considering the 468 journal papers on e-WOM allowed us to study the intellectual streams and significant perceptions underpinning e-WOM. By dividing the study timeframe into three periods, we realized that there have always been three main concepts in this field: consumer behavior, sales, and the tourism and hotel industry. Further, by proposing a framework, we have expanded these concepts accompanied by the role of artificial intelligence and robots in the process of e-WOM. Consequently, new concepts “r-WOM”, “automated user engagement”, and “smart selling” are introduced and demonstrated as a consequence of using technology-based tools in the process of e-WOM. Finally, the future scope of this field has been designed. We contribute to the literature by offering theoretical and managerial implications.
Based on data availability, this study investigates the impact of structural change on energy consumption (EC) in Iran from 1976 to 2017. Therefore, the economic complexity index (ECI) was incorporated into the energy demand besides real GDP (RGDP) and real energy price index (REPI), which is constructed based on Iran's leading energy carriers. Multiple econometrics techniques are applied to deliver a more reliable and accurate analysis, such as the autoregressive distributed lag model, error correction model, Bayer and Hanck cointegration test, and three cointegration regressions: fully-modified ordinary least square (OLS), dynamic OLS, and canonical cointegrating regression, and finally Breitung-Candelon Spectral Granger. In the short and long-run, RGDP and ECI increase (rebound effect) EC while REPI reduces it. Furthermore, the causality results show that RGDP, ECI, and REPI are linked to EC in the short, medium, and long run. The study's results have implications for policymakers to manage Iran's energy consumption. They highlighted the importance of raising public environmental awareness, diversifying the energy mix, and continuing to implement the law on targeted subsidy.
Medicine/nanotechnology as a new and applicable technique according to drug delivery systems has gained great consideration for cancer treatment. Polysaccharides including, cellulose, β-cyclodextrin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan as natural bio-materials, are appropriate candidates for designing and formulations of these nanosystems because of the exceptional advantages such as bio-compatibility, bio-degradability, non-toxicity, and gelling characteristics. An intelligent drug delivery platform based on these hybrids nowadays is developed, which can be used for dual-responsive dual-drug delivery. Nanotechnology accompany with biological molecules has been carefully considered to decrease the drawbacks of conventional cancer treatments. Consequently, this review is intended to state and investigate on the latest development on the combination treatment of platforms based on the hybrids of anticancer drugs/nanoparticles/Polysaccharides in the fields of biomedical therapeutics and cancer therapy owing to the bio-compatibility, great surface area, good chemical and mechanical features, the challenges and future perspectives are reported as well.
A new chemosensor based on silica entitled SBA-Pr-NMP was prepared by modification of SBA-15 with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-5-oxo-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehyde. The functionalized structure was characterized and confirmed via various methods like FT-IR, XRD, EDX, SEM, TGA, and BET. The sensing properties of SBA-Pr-NMP were studied using fluorescence spectroscopy in the presence of various metal ions, and the intensity increased remarkably with Ag⁺ ion compared to other cations. Also, a good linear relationship was obtained between the fluorescence intensity of SBA-Pr-NMP and the concentration of Ag⁺ with a calculated detection limit of 2.85 × 10–7 M. Graphical abstract
Novel SBA@Pr-3AP-SO3H is designed as a sulfonated mesoporous hybrid organic–inorganic catalyst, which is anchored to the pore walls of SBA-15. SBA@Pr-3AP-SO3H was fabricated through modification of SBA-15 with (3-chloropropyl)triethoxysilane to yield SBA-Pr-Cl, reacted with 2,4,6-triaminopyrimidine (3AP) to provide SBA-Pr-3AP, followed by the reaction with 1,4-,4-butane sultone (SO3H) to obtain SBA@Pr-3AP-SO3H as an efficient catalyst. It was used in the synthesis of various heterocyclic phenyl-[1,2,4]-triazolidines through the reaction of aldehydes, urazole, and dimedone. Graphical abstract
Green synthesis of a noble metal such as Ag nanoparticles is an enormously developed research area. In this study, a biochar/Fe3O4–Ag magnetic nanocatalyst was produced via a green path by using Celery stalk as a carbon-based substrate and Celery leaf extract as reducing and stabilizing agents to construct Ag nanoparticles. The synthesized nanocatalyst was determined using various techniques, such as UV–Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM/EDX spectroscopy (scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), and VSM (vibrating sample magnetometer). To survey the catalytic action of the biochar/Fe3O4–Ag nanocatalyst, it was used in the reduction reaction of disparate nitroaromatics, aldehydes, and ketones. This catalyst has demonstrated good characteristics in terms of the amount, reusability, recoverability, activity, and structural integrity of the catalyst during the reaction. In addition, biochar/Fe3O4–Ag could be detached magnetically and recycled multiple times without significantly reducing its catalytic performance.
Biallelic pathogenic variants in the genes encoding the dolichol‐phosphate‐mannose synthase subunits (DPM) which produce mannosyl donors for glycosylphosphatidylinositols, N‐glycan and protein O‐ and C‐mannosylation, are rare causes of congenital disorders of glycosylation. Pathogenic variants in DPM1 and DPM2 are associated with muscle‐eye‐brain (MEB) disease, whereas DPM3 variants have mostly been reported in patients with isolated muscle disease‐ dystroglycanopathy. Thus far, only one affected individual with compound heterozygous DPM3 variants presenting with myopathy, mild intellectual disability, seizures, and nonspecific white matter abnormalities (WMA) around the lateral ventricles has been described. Here we present five affected individuals from four unrelated families with global developmental delay/intellectual disability ranging from mild to severe, microcephaly, seizures, WMA, muscle weakness and variable cardiomyopathy. Exome sequencing of the probands revealed an ultra‐rare homozygous pathogenic missense DPM3 variant NM_018973.4:c.221A>G, p.(Tyr74Cys) which segregated with the phenotype in all families. Haplotype analysis indicated that the variant arose independently in three families. Functional analysis did not reveal any alteration in the N‐glycosylation pathway caused by the variant; however, this does not exclude its pathogenicity in the function of the DPM complex and related cellular pathways. This report provides supporting evidence that, besides DPM1 and DPM2, defects in DPM3 can also lead to a muscle and brain phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. We report three unrelated Iranian families and one from Sri Lanka with five children presenting with congenital muscle weakness, developmental delay/intellectual disability, epilepsy, and white matter abnormalities due to an ultra‐rare homozygous missense DPM3 variant. (created with biorender.com)
We are requesting a binding decision under Art. 53.4 of the ICN (Turland & al. in Regnum Veg. 159. 2018) as to whether Silene dicolor Retz. and S. discolor Sm. are sufficiently alike to be confused and thus should be treated as homonyms.
Background Obesity makes migraine more prevalent and severe. Serum level of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is associated with the severity of migraine attacks. Although the effect of weight and bariatric surgery has been studied on migraine, the role of CGRP in migraine remission after weight loss surgery needs more investigation. Methods Patients with severe obesity who were bariatric surgery candidates and had been diagnosed with chronic migraine were included in this study. Weight, BMI, number of days with headache in the past 3 months, and severity of headaches in 10-point Likert VAS, Migraine Disability Assessment Scale (MIDAS) and Migraine Specific Quality of life (MSQ) questionnaire scores, and serum CGRP levels were evaluated before and within 6–10 months after surgery. Result Sixty patients with chronic migraine with severe obesity were included. Ninety-five percent of patients reported a significantly lower number of attacks (21 to 8, p < 0.001) and severity of headaches within 90-day (7.7 to 4.8, p < 0.001); MIDAS (64.4 to 25.5, p < 0.001) and MSQ scores (44.6 to 26.8, p < 0.001) and CGRP level (252.7 to 130.1, p < 0.001) were significantly reduced after surgery with a mean follow-up of 7.5 months. Changes in MIDAS, MSQ, and CGRP were significantly associated with weight-related variables. Conclusion Bariatric surgery decreases the frequency of migraine attacks, lessens the severity of headaches, and improves the quality of life and disability as well as CGRP plasma levels, suggesting CGRP as a possible etiology in the migraine-obesity link. Graphical abstract
In this work, the asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) devices with three different electrolytes including aqueous, organic, and gel polymer electrolytes have been fabricated to investigate and compare the potential window and the capacitive efficiency of the fabricated devices. The aqueous electrolyte includes potassium hydroxide (KOH, 6.0 M), the organic electrolyte is a solution of lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6, 1.0 M in ethylene carbonate/dimethyl carbonate (EC/DMC)), and the gel polymer electrolyte includes porous poly(acrylonitrile-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane) membrane (P(A-POS)) moistened in 1.0 M solution of LiPF6 in EC/DMC. The positive electrode was a cobalt oxide-based electrode, i.e., Co3O4 nanoribbons (NRCo3O4), and the negative electrode was the activated carbon (AC). The specific capacitance of the supercapacitor with aqueous electrolyte (A-ASC) at the current density of 2 A g⁻¹ is 88.0 F g⁻¹, which has a higher specific capacitance than that of the supercapacitor with organic electrolyte (O-ASC) and the supercapacitor with gel polymer electrolyte (G-ASC). The gel polymer electrolyte for NRCo3O4//AC device shows a wide potential window of 4 V and low charge transfer resistance of 11 Ω. The specific capacitance of NRCo3O4//AC device with gel polymer electrolyte was 54.34 F g⁻¹ at 2 A g⁻¹, which is higher than the specific capacitance of O-ASC.
Social capital is a complex concept that is considered an effective factor in the development of societies. Considering the importance of burdens of psychiatric disorders in Iran, we studied the relationship between various dimensions of social capital of parents of children and adolescents and psychiatric disorders among them. In this cross-sectional study, 18,940 parents of children and adolescents aged 6 to 18 years old were randomly selected from all provinces of Iran and were evaluated by the Millon clinical multiaxial inventory-III (MCMI-III) and a modified version of Nahapiet and Ghoshal questionnaire. MCMI-III was designed as a self-report tool for investigating psychiatric clinical disorders and personality traits in the general population. Modified Nahapiet and ghoshal questionnaire has 20 items and measures four components of social capital included trust, values, communication, and collaboration. Validity and reliability of both questionnaires have been approved in Iran. In the regression model, the relationship between social capital components and clinical and sever clinical syndromes, in the form of regression weight and standard weight for trust was − 0.558 and − 0.062 with p value less than 0.0001, and for values was − 0.466 and − 0.057, respectively, with p value less than 0.0001. There was a reverse correlation between social capital components of parents of children and adolescents and psychiatric disorders in Iran. In regression statistical models, the two components of values and trust were negative predictors of psychiatric disorders. Considering the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Iran, it seems that the strengthening of cognitive and structural aspects of social capital of parents of children and adolescents is one of the effective factors in reducing the prevalence of these disorders among them.
Marrubium parviflorum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. and Marrubium cuneatum Russell, are naturally distributed in various parts of Iran. It is difficult to clearly identify these species, because of their morphological similarities. Therefore, in the current study, we investigated the morphological characteristics and genetic diversity among various populations of these species in the country to find more variable traits and compare their genetic structure. In total, we evaluated 16 populations of these species, with up to ten replications per each population. For morphology, we studied the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of both reproductive and vegetative organs. For molecular investigations, the nuclear DNA was extracted using modified CTAB method and amplified using twelve ISSR molecular primers. Data were analyzed using SPSS, PAST, GenAlex, STRUCTURE, and Geno–Dive. Results indicated that in both species, most of the quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics varied among and within the populations. Parameters of genetic diversity and polymorphism differed among the populations of both species. According to AMOVA test, the great proportion of significant genetic difference in M. parviflorum belonged to within populations, which was supported by a high rate of gene flow, a weak population genetic differentiation and clustering analyses. While, the reverse conditions were registered in M. cuneatum populations. According to Nei’s genetic distance and structure analysis, populations of M. parviflorum and M. cuneatum were clustered into seven and five genetics groups, respectively. However, the populations of both species were mixed together in morphological and ISSR dendrograms, which revealed similarity between them. It seems that the occurrence of ancestral gene flow or recent speciation were responsible for these similarities.
In this paper, a health social network-based PHR model denoted as HSN-PHR (Health Social Network-based Personal Health Record), is proposed as an extended version of the integrated PHR model that benefits social network analysis to model the consumers’ relationships. The proposed PHR model has benefits of all existing PHR models and more compliance with PHR definition. The HSN-PHR is a heterogeneous network with three main entities (including consumers, healthcare providers, and service provider entities) and various types of relationships. Validity of the HSN-PHR is investigated through its structural analysis. Based on consumers’ requirements, four networks named “Feature-mix”, “Social-family”, “Social-doctor” and “Social-lab” were constructed separately concerning four relationships including profile information similarity, family relationships, refer to same doctor or laboratory. Some social network features such as assortativity, transitivity, clustering coefficient, the number of communities, average shortest path and degree distribution were compared to Wiki-vote, Facebook and a small-world network. The results of social network analysis show that the assortativity coefficient in Feature-mix network was positive and greater than other HSN-PHR networks. The degree distribution diagram for Facebook, Wiki-Vote, and Social-lab was similar to the exponential diagram, while this diagram for Feature-mix, Social-doctor, Social-family and small-word network was similar to the normal distribution diagram. The proposed HSN-PHR provides the capabilities of serving as a PHR for the users. Developing such a social network improves consumers’ relationships through a platform for propagating health information, news, and consumer education. Moreover, structural features analysis results in the examination of meeting the users’ requirements more efficiently.
A 3-way (v,k,t)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$(v,k,t)$\end{document} trade T\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T$\end{document} of volume m\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m$\end{document} consists of three pairwise disjoint collections T1\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T_{1}$\end{document}, T2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T_{2}$\end{document} and T3\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T_{3}$\end{document}, each of m\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m$\end{document} blocks of size k\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$k$\end{document}, such that for every t\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$t$\end{document}-subset of v\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$v$\end{document}-set V\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$V$\end{document}, the number of blocks containing this t\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$t$\end{document}-subset is the same in each Ti\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T_{i}$\end{document} for 1≤i≤3\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$1\leq i\leq 3$\end{document}. If any t\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$t$\end{document}-subset of found(T\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T$\end{document}) occurs at most once in each Ti\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T_{i}$\end{document} for 1≤i≤3\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$1\leq i\leq 3$\end{document}, then T\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$T$\end{document} is called 3-way (v,k,t)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$(v,k,t)$\end{document} Steiner trade. We attempt to complete the spectrum S3s(v,k)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$S_{3s}(v,k)$\end{document}, the set of all possible volume sizes, for 3-way (v,k,2)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$(v,k,2)$\end{document} Steiner trades, by applying some block designs, such as BIBDs, RBs, GDDs, RGDDs, and r×s\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$r\times s$\end{document} packing grid blocks. Previously, we obtained some results about the existence some 3-way (v,k,2)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$(v,k,2)$\end{document} Steiner trades. In particular, we proved that there exists a 3-way (v,k,2)\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$(v,k,2)$\end{document} Steiner trade of volume m\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m$\end{document} when 12(k−1)≤m\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$12(k-1)\leq m$\end{document} for 15≤k\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$15\leq k$\end{document} (Rashidi and Soltankhah in Discrete Math. 339(12): 2955–2963, 2016). Now, we show that the claim is correct also for k≤14\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$k\leq 14$\end{document}.
Sustainable development (SD) has recently emerged as a critical axis in industrial strategic management and debate. Apart from the scarcity of resources, the influence of economic difficulties on human life and society has increased the relevance of SD. However, estimating and analyzing the SD of any business is still in its infancy. Thus, the SD of the sports goods industry is assessed using a multilayer artificial perceptron neural network (MLP) technique employing eight distinct characteristics connected to production efficiency, international and internal environment, export and domestic development by using Statistica software. To discover an ideal model for SD in the sports goods business, stepwise models with varied input parameters were built. The identity activation function was used to create and train an error propagation algorithm-based network. The results of various eight network models revealed that, among other models, the accuracy of our fifth model, which incorporates production efficiency, international and internal environment, strategic management, and domestic distribution organization, gives the best answer. This model has the lowest root mean square error (RMSE) = 0.002 and the greatest R square = 0.922, demonstrating its efficacy and effectiveness in terms of SD. Based on these findings, it is possible to conclude that using artificial neural networks is beneficial in determining an optimal solution for SD and other similar problems since this tool is important and would be utilized for forecasting and decision-making in any business.
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Nahid Maleki
  • Department of Physics
Abdolhamid Alizadeh
  • Department of Chemistry
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  • Accounting
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  • Department of Chemistry
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