In 1989–1990, five decorative belts worn by the Xianbei Period nomads were excavated from the Karban I cemetery in the Chemalsky District, Altai Republic. Their details (33 plaques, five buckles, six “units”, and two “pendant tips”) were found in four undisturbed graves of males (mounds 11, 27, 33, and 39). They are described with regard to function, decoration, and chronology. Parallels from the Altai and adjacent territories, dating to the late 1st millennium BC–early 1st millennium AD, are listed. A more precise attribution is the Early Xianbei Period (100–300 AD), correlating with the Bulan-Koby culture of the Altai. Available facts suggest that the style of these artifacts was influenced by the Xiongnu and Xianbei traditions. On the basis of the finds in situ, several variants of belt sets, some of which are hitherto unknown, have been reconstructed. The composition of the belts is unrelated to the owners’ age and evidently mirrors their personal preferences. The results demonstrate the social relevance of the belts, since most were found in burials of top-ranking males.
Lavandula angustifolia Mill. is an aromatic herb of the Lamiaceae family, which has been widely used by humans for many centuries. In the current study, we treated L. angustifolia samples with various concentrations of ZnO and Fe2O3 nanoparticles in the presence/ absence of NaCl salinity stress to evaluate the composition of essential oils, genetic structure, glandular trichome density and cellular Zn2+ and Fe2+ contents. We used Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) molecular markers to investigate the parameters of genetic diversity among the treated samples. Furthermore, the hydro-distilled essential oil from the aerial parts of the samples was subjected to GC and GC / MS analyses. SPSS ver. 15, PAST, PopGene, and GenAlex software were employed for statistical analyses. Intracellular concentrations of Fe2+ and Zn2+ differed under various concentrations of nanoparticles and salinity treatments, and a significant negative correlation was observed between these elements, however, nanoparticles treatment significantly increased intracellular concentrations of iron and zinc ions. We found four types of glandular trichomes on the surface of the leaf of the treated plants, and the ANOVA test revealed a significant variation for most of them. Meanwhile, the short-stalked capitate trichomes were the most frequent in most of the evaluated samples. The main and trace essential oil compounds were the same among the treated plants, meanwhile, their percentages varied among the samples. The percentages of 1,8- cineole and camphor decreased in treated plants, which affects the quality of essential oils. Parameters of genetic diversity differed among the treated samples. Furthermore, the AMOVA test demonstrated a significant genetic variation that its substantial part belonged to among treated samples. These findings revealed that the treatment of nanoparticles and salinity stress strongly influenced the genetic diversity, trichomes density, iron and zinc ions content in lavender plants.
Under the influence of digital technologies, there has been a total restructuring of contemporary journalism as a social institution and communication activity. The new phenomenon of IT-journalism was established, and, characterizing the form of its existence as a system, was based on the post-structural model. This is manifested in a change in sociocultural status; in the structural and functional transformations of media editorial offices and the journalism as profession; in change in the structure and methods of distribution of journalistic products; in diversifying of the “packaging” of content; in communicative inversion in the space of media texts; in “erosion” of the configuration and semantic structure of the traditional media text; in deviation from professional ethical standards of journalism. The authors of the article believe that the post-structuralist transformation of the traditional model of journalism is irreversible and in a number of aspects has enriched journalistic communicative practice. However, at the same time, they agree with the researchers who note its negative consequences that require more detailed analysis and institutional correction.
The article presents the results of an empirical study of academism in the assessments of professors of Russian classical universities. In total, 50 experts from various universities of Russia took part in the online survey. The aim of the study was to assess the role of academism in the development of university, maintaining the quality of education and maintaining the authority of professors at the university. The article gives a definition of the concept of academism, and reveals its structure. Basically, academism represents academic freedoms and the intellectual potential of the individual. The main results of the study include the following provisions: 1) academism is an integral part of a modern university and influences the formation of relevant values and traditions of university life; 2) academism influences the quality of students’ education, the preservation of high requirements in the educational process; 3) academism determines the authority of professors and teachers, promotes their active involvement in the social and cultural life of the university.
A distinctive feature of modern crimes is its qualitative complication and rapid development of hightech crimes characterized by the widespread use of the latest information technologies. As there is quite a low response rate in adapting the norms of law and judicial and investigative practice to new types of crimes, criminalistic theory and practice lag behind the ongoing changes. One of the aspects of this lag is the lack of development of private forensic methods for investigating high-tech crimes. The paper shows that the difficulties in the formation of such methods primarily result from negative factors related to the specifics of its sources. The shortcomings of the system regulation of public relations in the field of countering high-tech crime, contradictions and inconsistencies in the application of criminal and criminal procedure legislation are among such factors for the legal norms source. The difficulties in using scientific knowledge are associated with their weak formation, which is natural for new types of crimes. Low representativeness of empirical data presented by insufficiently developed forensic investigative practice plays a negative role, which significantly complicates the generalization of the experience of investigations. The paper proves that a promising approach to overcoming problems in building a private method for investigating new types of crimes is the development of a predictive method that reflects the most likely features of the relevant crimes, trends in their development and patterns of their investigation. The author proposes and substantiates some principles of creating such a method, including the expansion of the role of the general criminalistic methodology, the use of the provisions of private methods developed for close groups of crimes, as well as the extrapolation of empirical data on crimes with similar criminalistic characteristics to a new group of crimes. It is shown that in conditions of insufficient representativeness of forensic investigative practice, the involvement of the method of expert assessments is of particular importance.
Potentials for describing interatomic interactions in a γFe-Mn-C-N multicomponent system, modified Hadfield steel, where face-centered cubic (f.c.c.) iron is the main component, are proposed. To describe the Fe-Fe interactions in austenite, it is proposed to use Lau EAM potential. For all other interactions, Morse potentials are proposed, the parameters of which were found from various experimental characteristics: in particular, the energy of dissolution and migration of an impurity in an f.c.c. iron crystal, the radius of atoms, their electronegativity, mutual binding energy, etc. The found potentials are intended for modeling the atomic structures and processes occurring at the atomic level in Hadfield steel using relatively large computational cells by the molecular dynamics method.
Recombinant chymosins (rСhns) of the cow and the camel are currently considered as standard milk coagulants for cheese-making. The search for a new type of milk-clotting enzymes that may exist in nature and can surpass the existing “cheese-making” standards is an urgent biotechnological task. Within this study, we for the first time constructed an expression vector allowing production of a recombinant analog of moose chymosin in the expression system of Escherichia coli (strain SHuffle express). We built a model of the spatial structure of moose chymosin and compared the topography of positive and negative surface charges with the correspondent structures of cow and camel chymosins. We found that the distribution of charges on the surface of moose chymosin has common features with that of cow and camel chymosins. However, the moose enzyme carries a unique positively charged patch, which is likely to affect its interaction with the substrate. Biochemical and technological properties of the moose rChn were studied. Commercial rСhns of cow and camel were used as comparison enzymes. In some technological parameters, the moose rChn proved to be superior to the reference enzymes. Сompared with the cow and camel rСhns, the moose chymosin specific activity is less dependent on the changes in CaCl 2 concentration in the range of 1–5 mM and pH in the range of 6–7, which is an attractive technological property. The total proteolytic activity of the moose rСhn occupies an intermediate position between the rСhns of cow and camel. The combination of biochemical and technological properties of the moose rСhn argues for further study of this enzyme.
This paper aims to study the international experience (in the aspect and taking into account the specifics of regions of the world) integrating the SDGs into corporate strategies and to identify the following: (1) supported SDGs (UN standards); (2) implemented measures of corporate social responsibility to support the SDGs and (3) approach from the positions of risks for profit. Based on a sample of 193 countries (seven regions of the world) from 2020–2021 (386 observations) based on the method of structural equation modelling (SEM), it was discovered that the SDGs (UN standards) are supported by companies to a different extent in the different world regions, but, on the whole, they are strongly integrated into the corporate strategies in each region. The largest support of the SDGs from business is observed in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). The risks of integrating the SDGs (UN standards) into corporate strategies for profit are low (moderate in the OECD). The commercial approach to integrating the SDGs into corporate strategies is implemented in all regions of the world. The theoretical significance of the results consists in the fact that the discovered differences pointed at the necessity for and set the foundation for the transition from global to regional management of the integration of the SDGs (UN standards) into corporate strategies. The practical significance of the authors’ conclusions and developments consists in the fact that they allow increasing the effectiveness of risk management of the practices of corporate social responsibility for profit.
The paper reveals modern trends in the world market of sunflower seeds and indicates the place of Russia and its major regions in the gross harvest of this crop. The authors find that the increase in the area of sunflower sowing and its share in the arable land in the regions of the Siberian Federal District reduce economic efficiency and increase the negative impact of the crop on the soil state. The increase in yields is provided mainly by the intensification of production in violation of environmental requirements. The authors indicate that it is possible to improve the efficiency of sunflower cultivation by implementing science-based farming systems focused on organic farming.
Abstract This study aims to provide a summary of the most common procedures and how fish quality varies from harvest to plate. Fish is frequently seen as a challenging culinary product due to its proclivity for spoilage, oxidation, and the development of off-flavours as a result of improper treatment. Several variables have a major impact on the nutritional and sensory quality of fish preservation. In this study, the most widely utilized storing and preservation methods for fish will be discussed, as well as their influence on overall quality. It's critical to tailor processing to the unique needs of a product like fish, which is susceptible to bacterial deterioration and oxidation. However, items with excellent quality, good sensory characteristics, and a positive nutritional value may be obtained by combining and using preservation strategies in a creative way.
The paper studies successful global practices of responsible agriculture for sustainable development. The authors develop an alternative methodological approach to studying responsible agricultural practices for sustainable development. The new approach involves using regression analysis to find the dependence of the index of corporate environmental responsibility and climate change on responsible agriculture. First, this approach allows clarifying the results on the Sustainable Development Goals related to environmental protection. Second, it allows for separating voluntary environmental initiatives of agricultural businesses from environmental requirements and standards developed by governments. The authors analyze a Monte Carlo scenario, which identifies the prospects for improving the practices of responsible agriculture for sustainable development in developed and developing countries up to 2030. The results showed that the impact of responsible agriculture on the index of corporate environmental responsibility and climate change is much more positive only in developing countries, though it is moderate. The optimistic scenario improves the index of corporate environmental responsibility and combating climate change in developing countries by 3.34%. The conducted research scientifically identified and accurately quantified the direct contribution of responsible agriculture to progress toward the environmental SDGs.
This paper is an overview of the field of industrial ecology, which notes a significant contribution to research and applied developments, leading to the position at which it is now. A short overview of the term is given, and scholars and practitioners who helped defining this field as an important contribution to the efforts on environment protection and management are discussed. Industrial ecology takes energy from various sources, and the concepts that enriched this field and made it attractive have to be analyzed. This discussion sheds light at certain aspects that constitute the field of industrial ecology’s competence and how it looks today. The paper contains the main characteristics of industrial ecological studies, which should be observed and evaluated in order to implement the methods for a constructive analysis and criticism of these characteristics in the future. The historical approach to development of industrial ecology helps understanding the dynamic formation of the field, which still consists of participants and ideas that are rooted in various disciplines, including almost all fields of natural and technical sciences, and certain fields of social sciences. Understanding of its historical development means that the concepts that lie in the basis of industrial ecology and the components of its competencies could be evaluated from the point of view of their substantiation (Glotko et al. in Journal of Environmental Management and Tourism 10, 3(35): 613–621 2019).
The environmental management system is particularly useful in the environmental work of companies. An environmental management system is a framework for guiding an organization to achieve or maintain good environmental performance by supporting company goals or meeting regulatory standards. More conservational work is necessary to improve the quality of the environment, but limited resources will constrain companies’ efforts to protect the environment. Therefore, the planning stage should set the priorities for environmental goals.
This study focuses on studying government policies, the importance of creating ties between politics, environment, and economy, and the policies of local authorities concerning industrial ecology. The study is based on the concept of political science—an approach that studies the government’s understanding of government-citizen interactions. All competing definitions of public policies state that the policies are a result of decisions made by governments and that the government’s inactions are equal to its actions. Modern analysts recognize the general need for a holistic and comprehensive approach to public policy.
In examining issues of ecology and natural resource management, we should begin, for the sake of conceptual clarity, with a brief explanation of the term “ecology.” The subject of ecology is the interactions between living systems and their environment. Ecology refers to the study of organisms in their natural habitat; its purpose is to discover and understand the relationships between living things and their environment. Webster’s dictionary gives the following definition of ecology—“the totality or pattern of relations between organisms and their environment.” The term may also be interpreted as the interaction of organisms with their chemical and physical environments. An environmental scientist deals with the effects of the environment on the organism and its interaction with other organisms under specific conditions. Autoecology and synecology are two different fields of ecology that study particular species or communities, respectively. There are also specialized fields of ecology: the ecology of forests, deserts, grasslands, freshwater, seawater, etc. But conservation, ecology, resource ecology, and pollution ecology have recently gained more importance for applied studies.
Determining the quality of service consists of assessing the importance of said quality and establishing the measurement system for its evaluation. The main task of service is satisfying the needs of customers. For example, waiting is a service provided at a restaurant. However, this logic does not provide any insight into what makes service a service. Service is not the same as a good. Therefore, any theory of goods cannot be applied to services. To understand service, one must first distinguish between service products (e.g., food or clothes) and service delivery. The main parameters that separate a delivery from a product are: intangibility, simultaneous production and consumption, and heterogeneity.
The appeal of eco-industrial parks (EIP) to industry lies in the potential for increased profitability and cost savings among tenant enterprises due to economies of scale and value-added products. The amount and type of technological products with market value increases since they can be brought back into the production cycle as raw materials for other companies. The opportunity to increase competitiveness by improving operating performance is manifested in return on assets by 30–50% above the industry average. Eco-industrial parks create opportunities for waste exchange, recycling and innovative technologies, and production processes to improve energy and material efficiency. As a result, there appear new opportunities for technological development, such as low-temperature manufacturing, new recycling and recovery technologies, and research and development of new materials consisting of recycled resources. New production opportunities can create profitable niches in the regional economy.
Due to the growing complexity of products and stricter standards of safety, product recall is inevitable; however, it damages a company’s work and requires effective management. An important decision related to recall of products is selection of the time of recall, which influences future sales of a company and the risks of product safety. Companies make a lot of temporary decisions during the whole process of recall. Soon after a potential defect is spotted, a company has to study whether the defect requires a wide recall and, if this is justified, to initiate the recall. Prompt recall (right after companies spot products’ defects) could lead to large losses in sales, while postponed recall could lead to large expenditures for correction of defects, large safety risks for consumers, and large fines from government bodies (Shenshinov in Labour quality management. North-East Asia Academic Forum, 2012 (Shenshinov, 2012)). Product safety is of the utmost importance for consumers and society.
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