The awareness of edge computing is attaining eminence and is largely acknowledged with the rise of Internet of Things (IoT). Edge-enabled solutions offer efficient computing and control at the network edge to resolve the scalability and latency-related concerns. Though, it comes to be challenging for edge computing to tackle diverse applications of IoT as they produce massive heterogeneous data. The IoT-enabled frameworks for Big Data analytics face numerous challenges in their existing structural design, for instance, the high volume of data storage and processing, data heterogeneity, and processing time among others. Moreover, the existing proposals lack effective parallel data loading and robust mechanisms for handling communication overhead. To address these challenges, we propose an optimized IoT-enabled big data analytics architecture for edge-cloud computing using machine learning. In the proposed scheme, an edge intelligence module is introduced to process and store the big data efficiently at the edges of the network with the integration of cloud technology. The proposed scheme is composed of two layers: IoT-edge and Cloud-processing. The data injection and storage is carried out with an optimized MapReduce parallel algorithm. Optimized Yet Another Resource Negotiator (YARN) is used for efficiently managing the cluster. The proposed data design is experimentally simulated with an authentic dataset using Apache Spark. The comparative analysis is decorated with existing proposals and traditional mechanisms. The results justify the efficiency of our proposed work.
Raising sugarcane nurseries by single bud nodes cutting and using peat moss or coco peat as growth substrates are getting popular in many top sugarcane-producing countries worldwide. However, to reduce production costs, commercial growers involved in the sugarcane nursery raising business want to avoid peat moss or coco peat, which are expensive as growth substrates. We hypothesized that composted Melia azedarach (Chinaberry tree) sawdust can be a suitable replacement. The objective was to assess the viability, sprouting, and seedling establishment of single bud nodes of sugarcane in composted M. azedarach sawdust mixtures in two independent pot culture experiments. The experimental treatments were, T1: soil (control) (100%) (v/v), T2: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (100%) (v/v), T3: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (80%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v), T4: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (60%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v) + composted shells of eggs (20%) (v/v), and T5: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (60%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v) + composted shells of eggs (20%) (v/v) + Urea at the rate 225 kg N ha−1. The results exhibited that composted M. azedarach sawdust mixtures provoked early sprouting and triggered the growth of single bud node seedlings of sugarcane than in soil (control). The composted M. azedarach sawdust mixtures produced taller seedlings, more number of leaves plant−1, an increase in stem diameter, chlorophyll content index, leaf area, and root and shoot dry weight. It was concluded that composted M. azedarach sawdust mixture [T5: composted sawdust of M. azedarach (60%) (v/v) + composted peels of banana (20%) (v/v) + composted shells of eggs (20%) (v/v) + Urea at the rate 225 kg N ha−1] may be a suitable and productive alternative soilless substrate to raise single bud node seedlings of the sugarcane for nursery production.
Metal sulfides exhibit rich surface chemistry and electrochemical features and their comparison with polyaniline may give a new perspective to supercapacitor applications. Active chromium sulfide nanoparticles and polyaniline nanofibers were synthesized using the solvothermal and polymerization process, respectively. Chromium sulfide nanoparticles reveal a good specific capacitance of 594.38 F/g at the current density of 1 mA/cm2, meanwhile, the polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a maximum specific capacitance of 150 F/g at the current density of 4 mA/cm2, through the galvanostatic charge‐discharge profile. The power density of the polyaniline was found 3111 W/Kg, which is greater due to the conductive nature of polyaniline, meanwhile, chromium sulfide nanoparticles also exhibit a reasonable power density of 2403.06 W/Kg. Comparatively, chromium sulfide nanoparticles maintained specific capacitance and power density. The two electrodes asymmetric system exhibits a good coulomb efficiency of 100 % at 1 mA/cm2. So, chromium sulfide nanoparticles exhibit good electrochemical characteristics for supercapacitor applications. Active chromium sulfide nanoparticles show a good Csp of 684.90 F/g through CV and Csp of 594.38 F/g through GCD. Polyaniline nanofibers exhibit a power density of 3111 W/Kg at the current density of 8 mA/cm2. The two electrodes asymmetric system exhibits a good coulomb efficiency of 100 % at the 1 mA/cm2. Comparatively, active chromium sulfide nanoparticles maintained the Csp and power density.
Software-defined networking (SDN) is an evolving technology providing proper segregation between the control part and data-forwarding domain of network devices. The expansion of the Internet of Things (IoTs) and embedded mobile devices increases the volume of traffic at the network backbone and causes processing costs in the control plane. This directly affects the Ternary Content Addressable Memory (TCAM) of the switches because insufficient space makes it more challenging to manage the flow-entries. In this situation, providing services to specific users who newly authenticate after the successful handoff from the previous SDN domain is challenging. This paper proposes a method for implanting the users’ primary domain’s flow-rules in the serving SDN domain. As the TCAM is already suffering from a short space, it is hard to handle the flow-tables of multiple SDN domains in limited TCAM storage. The SDN-based Integration of the Interdomain Flow-rule in the SDN (IIF-SDN) scheme maximizes the proficiency of the switches by effectively storing flow-table and flow-entries. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is benchmarked with proactive and reactive SDN approaches.
Liver fibrosis is a major pathological feature of chronic liver disease and effective therapies are limited at present. The present study focuses on the hepatoprotective potential of L. corymbulosum against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage in rats. Analysis of Linum corymbulosum methanol extract (LCM) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed the presence of rutin, apigenin, catechin, caffeic acid and myricetin. CCl4 administration lowered (p < 0.01) the activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione (GSH) content as well as soluble proteins, whereas the concentration of H2O2, nitrite and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was higher in hepatic samples. In serum, the level of hepatic markers and total bilirubin was elevated followed by CCl4 administration. The expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), x-box binding protein-1 total (XBP-1 t), x-box binding protein-1 spliced (XBP-1 s), x-box binding protein-1 unspliced (XBP-1 u) and glutamate–cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) was enhanced in CCl4-administered rats. Similarly, the expression of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- ), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) was strongly increased with CCl4 administration to rats. Co-administration of LCM along with CCl4 to rats lowered (p < 0.05) the expression of the above genes. Histopathology of the liver showed hepatocyte injury, leukocyte infiltration and damaged central lobules in CCl4-treated rats. However, LCM administration to CCl4-intoxicated rats restored the altered parameters towards the levels of control rats. These outcomes indicate the existence of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory constituents in the methanol extract of L. corymbulosum.
The corn cob is still a significant component of the corn residue. It is estimated that maize cob accounts for 40 to 50 percent of total corn production. Corn cob is considered an agriculture waste (byproduct of sweet corn). This byproduct causes environmental pollution, which produces health problems. Its phytochemicals and prebiotic potential provide large benefits for humans when it is consumed. Therefore, corn cob has functional properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, anticancer and reduces the blood glucose level. Corn cob may be used as opportunistic raw material in food products and other possible applications. Current review, explained nutritional composition of corn cob and its possible health benefits. In conclusion, corn cobs have potential for the development of value‐added products which are gluten free and also contribute to flourish business of food development and nutraceutical manufacturing industries.
Promoting the green development of resource-based cities is an essential way to achieve sustainable regional economic development. Based on 2009-2019 panel data of the Yellow River Basin cities, this study adopts the super-directional distance function model to measure the green development efficiency of these selected cities. Furthermore, based on the Malmquist-Luenberger index, this paper focuses on the dynamic change trend of green development efficiency and internal driving factors. Furthermore, the Tobit model is used to specifically explore the influencing factors affecting the green development of cities. The findings suggested that the green development efficiency of selected cities falls in the middle to high range and that the efficiency varies among all cities in the Yellow River Basin. Likewise, technical efficiency improvements and technological progress drive development efficiency, and the former contributes more to green development. However, financial development, energy structure adjustments, and environmental regulation can strongly contribute to the green development of cities, and each influencing factor has obvious temporal and regional differences. This paper proposes appropriate policy suggestions to promote the coordinated development of the economic development and environmental protection of the Yellow River Basin.
In the current state of huge waste production and energy crisis, there is a need to find additional alternate energy resources and options for waste management. The present study was designed to measure the potential of different fruit wastes to serve as substrate for lipid accumulation in oleaginous bacteria. For this purpose, three novel bacterial strains (AF3, KM1 and KM10) isolated from the crude oil samples were systematically compared for their lipid accumulation potential using three types of waste including orange waste (OW), mango waste (MW) and apple waste (AW). Using waste as sole substrate, it was observed that maximum lipid accumulation by each strain was above 20%, which confirms that the bacteria belong to the oleaginous group. However, each bacterial isolate represented differential accumulative capacity with varying organic matter removal efficiency. Maximum lipid accumulation was achieved by KM10 (>25%) with AW as substrate, and KM1 (>24%) with MW as substrate; however, AF3 represented only 21% lipid accumulation using AW as substrate. Similarly, the maximum removal efficiency was recorded for KM10 in AW, followed by OW, where >60% and >50% of volatile solids (VS) removal, respectively, were achieved over the period of 7 days of incubation. This showed that the oleaginous strains also exhibit excellent waste treatment efficiency. The 16s RNA gene sequencing results showed that these KM1 and KM10 strains were Serratia surfactantfaciens and Serratia liquefaciens. In the end, a circular economy model was presented to highlight the significance of the mechanisms, which offers dual benefits over the linear economy model. Overall, the findings of the present study revealed that the novel oleaginous strains not only provide considerable lipid accumulation, but are simultaneously capable of low-cost waste treatment.
Since the Chernobyl disaster in 1986, decision support systems and modelling tools are utilized in response to nuclear and radiological emergencies. The Java-based Real-time On-line Decision Support System (JRODOS) is a decision support tool that can be utilised in response to an emergency in managing off-site radiological consequences. This article documents the customization and use of JRODOS for Pakistan. The JRODOS was tailored to the local Pakistan conditions, and a case study for a theoretical nuclear power plant accident was used to assess JRODOS's feasibility as a decision support tool. A worse case probabilistic accident scenario was used to identify zones and areas where urgent protective actions, early protective actions and food restriction and other response actions could be required. The areas and distances identified for the implementation of protective and response actions for such a hypothetical accident were found to be in agreement with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) suggested emergency planning zones and distances. Additionally, the implications of meteorological and source term input parameters on predicting the radiation doses to members of the public were investigated. It was identified that the output of such tools strongly depends on the availability and accuracy of the input parameters such as radioactive release and meteorological data. Limitations and uncertainties associated with these tools need to be considered in deciding on protective and other response actions in response to a nuclear accident. As established by the IAEA, protective and other response actions need to be applied on a graded approach taking into account the protection strategy and uncertainties and limitation in the available information and criteria, based on the conditions at the facility and off the site.
Abstract Food safety with maintained fruit quality is an important challenge for postharvest industry of citrus fruits. The present study was designed to check the effects of gamma irradiation on postharvest fruit quality of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin stored at 5 ± 1 °C and 90 ± 5% Relative Humidity. In the first experiment, fruits were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation (100-500 Gy), while after analyzing the results of first experiment, in the second experiment fruits were treated with 500, 600, 800 and 1000 Gy of gamma radiation. It was observed that higher doses of gamma irradiation exhibited lower weight loss and disease incidence as well as inhibiting the increase of soluble solid content (SSC) and retained higher titratable acidity (TA) and lower SSC: TA ratio. After 90 days of storage, maximum levels ascorbic acid, total phenolic contents and total antioxidants along with catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were recorded higher in fruits treated with 800 Gy. These fruit also exhibited higher score of taste, aroma and texture during storage. Overall results suggest that pre-storage treatment of 800 Gy is the most effective treatment and have potential application for quality management of ‘Kinnow’ mandarin under long term cold storage.
Objectives: To observe the effects of dietary counselling on weight management after liposuction. Methods: The case-control study was conducted at the La Chirurgie Cosmetic Surgery Centre and Hair Transplant Institute, F-8/3, Islamabad, Pakistan, from January to July 2018, and comprised adults (100) of either gender undergoing liposuction and/or abdominoplasty who were followed for three months in the postoperative period. The subjects were divided into dietary-counselled group A, which received diet plans, and control group B, which followed up without any dietary advice. Lipid profile was done at baseline and three months post-liposuction. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. Results: Of the 100 subjects enrolled, 83(83%) completed the study; 43(51.8%) in group A and 40(48.2%) in group B. Overall, there were 19(22.9%) males, 64(77.1%) females, and 55(66.3%) were aged <40 years, while 28(33.7%) were aged ≥40 years. Intra-group improvement was significant for total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides for both the groups (p<0.05). The change for very low-density lipoprotein in group B was not significant (p>0.05). Change in high-density lipoprotein was for the better in group A, while it decreased in group B and the change in both cases was significant (p<0.05). Inter-group differences were not significant (p>0.05) except for total cholesterol (p<0.05). Conclusions: Liposuction alone resulted in the improvement of lipid profile, while dietary intervention resulted in better values with respect to very low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein.
Polyunsaturated fatty acids may be derived from a variety of sources and could be incorporated into a balanced diet. They protect against a wide range of illnesses, including cancer osteoarthritis and autoimmune problems. The PUFAs, ω‐6, and ω‐3 fatty acids, which are found in both the marine and terrestrial environments, are given special attention. The primary goal is to evaluate the significant research papers in relation to the human health risks and benefits of ω‐6 and ω‐3 fatty acid dietary resources. This review article highlights the types of fatty acids, factors affecting the stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids, methods used for the mitigation of oxidative stability, health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and future perspectives in detail. This review article highlights the types of fatty acids, factors affecting the stability of polyunsaturated fatty acids, methods used for the mitigation of oxidative stability, and the health benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The use of proteinaceous material is desired as it forms a protective gelation around the active core, making it safe through temperature, pH, and O2 in the stomach and intestinal environment. During the boom of functional food utilization in this era of advancement in drug delivery systems, there is a dire need to find more protein sources that could be explored for the potential of being used as encapsulation materials, especially vegetable proteins. This review covers certain examples which need to be explored to form an encapsulation coating material, including soybeans (conglycinin and glycinin), peas (vicilin and convicilin), sunflower (helianthins and albumins), legumes (glutenins and albumins), and proteins from oats, rice, and wheat. This review covers recent interventions exploring the mentioned vegetable protein encapsulation and imminent projections in the shifting paradigm from conventional process to environmentally friendly green process technologies and the sensitivity of methods used for encapsulation. Vegetable proteins are easily biodegradable and so are the procedures of spray drying and coacervation, which have been discussed to prepare the desired encapsulated functional food. Coacervation processes are yet more promising in the case of particle size formation ranging from nano to several hundred microns. The present review emphasizes the significance of using vegetable proteins as capsule material, as well as the specificity of encapsulation methods in relation to vegetable protein sensitivity and the purpose of encapsulation accompanying recent interventions. During the boom of functional food utilization in this era of advancement in drug delivery systems, there is a dire need to find more protein sources that could be explored for the potential of being used as encapsulation materials, especially vegetable proteins. This review covers certain examples which need to be explored to form an encapsulation coating material, including soy beans (conglycin and glycinin), peas (vicilin, convicilin), sunflower (helianthinins, albumins), legumes (glutenins, albumins), and proteins from oats, rice and wheat.
Social media use equalizes the power among public and politicians, which promotes cyber democracy. This study explores dialogic interaction between Pakistani politicians and the public by examining Twitter accounts of politicians of major parties i.e., Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf (PTI), Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) PML (N), and Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) for the year of 2021. It was hypothesized that among dialogic interaction features, it is more likely that conversations of visitors, usefulness of information, and the style of dialogic interaction will be the dominant features as compared to dialogic loop in Twitter accounts of Pakistani politicians. Content analysis was conducted on twitter accounts of Pakistani politicians (two politicians from each party). Total number of tweets during the selected time was 5421 from which 989 tweets were selected for analysis. The result showed that politicians are using usefulness of information followed by a style of dialogic interaction, dialogic loop and conversation of visitors. The results do not support hypothesis as dialogic loop is not least used feature in tweets of Pakistani politicians.
Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) are biological polymers with unique structural features have gained particular interest in the fields of food, chemistry and medicine, and food industry. EPS from the food-grade lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can be used as a natural food additives to commercial ones in the processing and development of functional foods and nutraceuticals. The current study was aimed to explore the EPS-producing LAB from the dahi; to optimize the fermentation conditions through Plackett–Burman (PB) and response surface methodology (RSM); and to study its physicochemical, rheological, functional attributes, and cholesterol-lowering activity. Lactiplantibacillus paraplantarum NCCP 962 was isolated among the 08 strains screened at the initial stage. The PB design screened out four independent factors that had a significant positive effect, i.e., lactose, yeast extract, CaCl2, and tryptone, while the remaining seven had a non-significant effect. The RSM exhibited lactose, yeast extract, and CaCl2, significantly contributing to EPS yield. The maximum EPS yield (0.910 g/L) was obtained at 6.57% lactose, 0.047% yeast extract, 0.59% CaCl2, and 1.37% tryptone. The R² value above 97% explains the higher variability and depicts the model’s validity. The resulted EPS was a heteropolysaccharide in nature with mannose, glucose, and galactose monosaccharides. FTIR spectrum reflected the presence of functional groups, i.e., O–H, C–H, C = O, C–O–H, and CH2. SEM revealed a porous and rough morphology of EPS, also found to be thermally stable and negligible weight loss, i.e., 14.0% at 257 °C and 35.4% at 292.9 °C was observed in the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively. Rheological attributes revealed that strain NCCP 962 had high viscosity by increasing the EPS concentration, low pH, and temperature with respectable water holding, oil capacities, foaming abilities, and stability. NCCP 962 EPS possessed up to 46.4% reduction in cholesterol concentration in the supernatant. Conclusively, these results suggested that strain NCCP 962 can be used in food processing applications and other medical fields. Key points • The fermentation conditions affect EPS yield from L. paraplantarum and significantly increased yield to 0.910 g/L. • The EPS was heteropolysaccharide in nature and thermally stable with amorphous morphology. • Good cholesterol-lowering potential with the best rheological, emulsifying, and foaming capacities.
Although social media is a vital platform in our life, it is blamed for poor efforts to moderate content included mis/disinformation and fake news. This could have an impact on its legacy and on sustainability in society in the long term. This research examined the role of social media in spreading misinformation during the COVID-19 outbreak in Jordan. A cross-sectional design questionnaire (350 responses) was used. The results revealed that social media played a key role in updating users with COVID-19 information. However, the availability of misinformation remained highly prevalent. Respondents revealed that they relied heavily on social media for information gathering and knowledge sharing about COVID-19 updates. The role of behavioural intention remained prominent and highly significant for these two reasons. Their behavioural intention was linked to the sharing of unchecked information, suggesting that online information in Jordan needs greater regulation to reduce the spread of misinformation.
Elaeagnus angustifolia (EA) mediated green chemistry route was used for the biofabrication of NiONPs without the provision of additional surfactants and capping agents. The formation of NiONPs was confirmed using advanced different characterization techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy, UV, Fourier transmission-infrared, RAMAN, and energy dispersal spectroscopic and dynamic light scattering techniques. Further, different biological activities of EA-NiONPs were studied. Antibacterial activities were performed using five different bacterial strains using disc-diffusion assays and have shown significant results as compared to standard Oxytetracycline discs. Further, NiONPs exhibited excellent antifungal performance against different pathogenic fungal strains. The biocompatibility test was performed using human RBCs, which further confirmed that NiONPs are more biocompatible at the concentration of 7.51–31.25 µg/mL. The antioxidant activities of NiONPs were investigated using DPPH free radical scavenging assay. The NiONPs were demonstrated to have much better antioxidant potentials in terms of % DPPH scavenging (93.5%) and total antioxidant capacity (81%). Anticancer activity was also performed using HUH7 and HEP-G2 cancer cell lines and has shown significant potential with IC50 values of 18.45 μg/mL and 14.84 μg/mL, respectively. Further, the NiONPs were evaluated against Lesihmania tropica parasites and have shown strong antileishmanial potentials. The EA-NiONPs also showed excellent enzyme inhibition activities; protein kinase (19.4 mm) and alpha-amylase (51%). In conclusion, NiONPs have shown significant results against different biological assays. In the future, we suggest various in vivo activities for EA-NiONPs using different animal models to further unveil the biological and biomedical potentials.
Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a contagious viral transboundary disease and is enlisted in notifiable diseases by the World Organization of Animal Health (WOAH). The first disease suspicion was determined in Pakistan in late 2021. Since then, various outbreaks are now reporting from different regions of all provinces across the country. In the current study, samples from a few earlier outbreaks among cattle populations in Sindh and Punjab provinces were investigated and partial GPCR, p32, and RP030 genes-based phylogenetic analysis were conducted subsequent to molecular characterization. Collectively, LSDV strains originating from outbreaks in Pakistan noticeably clustered together with LSDV strains reported from African, Middle East, and Asian countries including Egypt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, India, China, and Thailand. The reasons behind the origin of virus strain and disease spread to Pakistan are unknown; suggesting to investigate of more outbreaks across the country for the establishment of effective disease control strategies including a mass vaccination campaign across Pakistan.
In this paper, we introduce orthogonal multivalued contractions, which are based on the recently introduced notion of orthogonality in the metric spaces. We construct numerous fixed point theorems for these contractions. We show how these fixed point theorems aid in the generalization of a number of recently published findings. Additionally, we offer a theorem that establishes the existence of a fractional differential equation’s solution.
Heart rate classification is a challenging problem primarily due to spectral overlap of normal heart sound with internal sources like extra heart sounds, extra systole, murmurs, respiration sounds and external sources like body motion. In order to address this challenging problem, we have proposed a technique that relies on signal filtering, time segmentation, spectrogram generation, hybrid classification and finally a voting based mechanism. The proposed method carries out analysis at cycle as well as at signal level. Evaluation of the proposed technique on a challenging public dataset (PASCAL 2011) results in precision, recall and accuracy values of greater than 95% using 5-fold cross validation. Furthermore, the reported results also validate our claim that 2–3 s of data suffices for classification.
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