All-Russian research institute of fundamental  and applied parasitology of animals and plants of name K.I. Scriabina
Recent publications
In experiments on narcotized male rats (n=85), the mean electroimpedance Z and peak-to-peak magnitudes (the swing ranges) of passive (ΔZp) and active (ΔZa) pulsatile electroimpedance oscillations of isolated segment of femoral arteries were determined in situ. These rheographic parameters (RP) were measured in intact animals and in those with modeled chronic myocardial infarction, chronic denervation of the right hind leg, as well as in rats subjected to sham operations to mimic denervation or infarction (with thoracic trauma). The rats with modeled myocardial infarction demonstrated decreasing trends of all RP. In sham-operated rats with thoracic trauma, ΔZp increased significantly on postsurgery months 2-4 by 4.3 times in comparison with the control. No essential correlation was found in denervated rats between RP of any femoral artery and severity of neuropathic pain syndrome assessed by autotomy of the operated leg. In these rats, the mean electroimpedance Z of any femoral artery was significantly greater than the control level. They demonstrated especially high values of ΔZp with significant difference between ΔZp of innervated and denervated hind leg. In denervated rats, ΔZa was significantly greater than the control value without significant difference between ΔZa of both femoral arteries. The paradoxically great increase of ΔZp (100- and 50-fold for innervated and denervated legs, respectively) and a significant 3-fold increment of ΔZa in both hind legs provoked by denervation of one of them are discussed in relation to searching for the ways of systemic influences on vascular network in clinics and experiments.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant clinical problem that pregnant women and children commonly experience. Escherichia coli is the primary causative organism, along with several other gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Antimicrobial drugs are commonly prescribed to treat UTIs in these patients. Conventional treatment can range from using broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs for empirical or prophylactic therapy or patient-tailored therapy based on urinary cultures and sensitivity to prospective antibiotics. The ongoing emergence of multi-drug resistant pathogens has raised concerns related to commonly prescribed antimicrobial drugs such as those used routinely to treat UTIs. Consequently, several natural medicines have been explored as potential complementary therapies to improve health outcomes in patients with UTIs. This review discusses the effectiveness of commonly used natural products such as cranberry juice/extracts, ascorbic acid, hyaluronic acid, probiotics, and multi-component formulations intended to treat and prevent UTIs. The combination of natural products with prescribed antimicrobial treatments and use of formulations that contained high amounts of cranberry extracts appear to be most effective in preventing recurrent UTIs (RUTIs). The incorporation of natural products like cranberry, hyaluronic acid, ascorbic acid, probiotics, Canephron® N, and Cystenium II to conventional treatments of acute UTIs or as a prophylactic regimen for treatment RUTIs can benefit both pregnant women and children. Limited information is available on the safety of natural products in these patients’ populations. However, based on limited historical information, these remedies appear to be safe and well-tolerated by patients.
Background: Mycosis fungoides (MF) is the most common subtype of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to produce up-to-date information on different phototherapy approaches on skin cytokines in patients with MF. Methods: A total of 27 patients with mycosis fungoides were treated with phototherapy: NB-UVB (narrow-band ultraviolet B therapy) (10 patients) and PUVA (long-wavelength ultraviolet radiation of spectrum A with the use of skin-photosensitizing furocoumarins) therapy (17 patients). Evaluation of the effectiveness of treatment was carried out using BSA (body surface area) and the modified assessment of the severity of the skin lesions scale (mSWAT) used to quantify tumor mass in cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Average numbers of procedures were 30.2 and 27.8 in the NB-UVB and PUVA groups, respectively. The median total dose of NB-UVB irradiation was 19.9 J/cm2 and PUVA therapy was 104.0 J/cm2. The overall response to therapy including complete and partial remission was 74.9% in the total group; 70% in the NB-UVB group, and 77.7% in the PUVA therapy group. In the obtained biopsies from lesions, surrounding tissue before treatment and skin samples of four healthy volunteers, the concentration of the IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IL-25, IL-31, IL-33, IFN-γ, sCD40L, and TNF-α cytokines was studied. An increase in IL-4 and TNF-α levels was shown in the lesional skin of patients compared to the skin of healthy controls. After the treatment, positive correlations of mSWAT with the levels of IL22, IL33, and TNF-α in the tumor tissue were found. The levels of IL10 and IFN-γ after PUVA treatment were increased in comparison to baseline. There was no difference in cytokine levels before/after NB-UVB therapy.
Schisandra chinensis Bail. polysaccharides from China (CSP) and Russia (RSP) were separated by DEAE-52 cellulose column chromatography. The content of neutral polysaccharide was determined by the phenol concentrated sulfuric acid method, the content of acid polysaccharide by the hydroxybiphenyl method, and the monosaccharide composition and molecular weight arrangement of CSP and RSP by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) pre-column derivatization HPLC. The effects of CSP and RSP on the exercise endurance of mice were compared by the forelimb grip strength test, rota-rod test and weight-bearing swimming. The results showed that one neutral polysaccharide and three acidic polysaccharides could be eluted from a DEAE-52 cellulose column from CSP and RSP, respectively. The content of acidic and neutral polysaccharides in RSP was higher than that in CSP, and the anti-fatigue effect of RSP was more significant than that of CSP.
Agrimoniin is a polyphenol from the group of tannins with antioxidant and anticancer activities. It is assumed that the anticancer action of agrimoniin is associated with the activation of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, but its mitochondrial targets have not been estimated. We examined the direct influence of agrimoniin on different mitochondrial functions, including the induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) as the primary mechanism of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. Agrimoniin was isolated from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb by multistep purification. The content of agrimoniin in the resulting substance reached 80%, as determined by NMR spectroscopy. The cytotoxic effect of purified agrimoniin was confirmed on the cultures of K562 and HeLa cancer cells by the MTT assay. When tested on isolated rat liver mitochondria, agrimoniin at a low concentration (10 µM) induced the low-amplitude swelling, which was inhibited by the MPTP inhibitors ADP and cyclosporine A, activated the opening of MPTP by calcium ions and stimulated the respiration supported by succinate oxidation. Also, agrimoniin reduced the electron acceptor DCPIP in a concentration-dependent manner and chelated iron ions. Owing to all these properties, agrimoniin can stimulate apoptosis or activate mitochondrial functions, which can be helpful in the prevention and elimination of stagnant pathological states.
Humans used plants for thousand of years as food, drugs, or fuel to keep homes warm. People commonly used fruits and roots, and other parts of the plant were often wasted. This review aims to discuss the potential of rational stem-to-stern use of three highly versatile and valuable plants with hepatoprotective properties. Milk thistle ( Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus ), and chicory ( Cichorium intybus L.) have well-characterized hepatoprotective properties. These plants have been chosen since liver diseases are significant diseases of concern worldwide, and all parts of plants can be potentially utilized. Artichoke and chicory are commonly used as food or dietary supplements and less often as phytodrugs. Various dietary supplements and phytodrugs prepared from milk thistle (MT) fruits/seeds are well-known to consumers as remedies supporting liver functions. However, using these plants as functional food, farm animal feed, is not well-described in the literature. We also discuss bioactive constituents present in various parts of these plants, their pharmacological properties. Distinct parts of MT, artichoke, and chicory can be used to prepare remedies and food for humans and animals. Unused plant parts are potentially wasted. To achieve waste-free use of these and many other plants, the scientific community needs to analyze the complex use of plants and propose strategies for waste-free technologies. The government must stimulate companies to utilize by-products. Another problem associated with plant use as a food or source of phytodrug is the overharvesting of wild plants. Consequently, there is a need to use more active cultivation techniques for plants.
Numerous species of Origanum (Lamiaceae) have been widely used as spices to extend the shelf life of foods. Essential oils extracted from this genus have attracted much attention owing to their potential applications as bactericides. Here, we evaluated the chemical compositions of eight oregano essential oils (OEOs) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and assessed their antibacterial activities. The chemical compositions of OEOs were affected by the cultivar factor, and seven common compounds, including carvacrol, were identified among eight OEOs. Partial least squares discriminant analysis enabled the distinction of three groups among these OEOs, as characterized by the proportions of carvacrol, thymol, and sesquiterpenes. OEOs effectively inhibited Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with varying antibacterial activities. Spearman correlation network highlighted core antibacterial contributors in the chemical profiles of OEOs. Our results revealed that the bacteriostatic effects of OEOs could be explained by core compounds and their synergistic effects.
Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common variant of male pattern baldness in which occurrence and development of multiple genetic, hormonal, and metabolic factors are involved. We aimed to estimate plasma element content (Mg, Ca, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe), vitamin status (B12, D, E, and folic acid) in patients with AGA using direct colorimetric tests or atomic absorption spectrometry, and the influence of these parameters in the formation of various hair loss patterns. The study included 50 patients with I–IV stages of AGA divided into two groups with normal and high levels of dihydrotestosterone compared with 25 healthy individuals. The presence of two patterns of pathological hair loss in the androgen-dependent (parietal) and androgen-independent (occipital) areas of the scalp was confirmed. It was shown that all patients with AGA have a deficiency of elements (Zn, Cu, Mg, Se) and vitamins (B12, E, D, folic acid). However, the hair loss rate was not due to their content. А positive interrelation between quantitative trichogram parameters in the occipital region and iron metabolism in pairs “hair density vs Fe” and “hair diameter vs ferritin” was shown. In turn, in the parietal region, an inverse correlation of hair diameter with plasma Cu level was found, the most pronouncing in patients with high levels of dihydrotestosterone. The obtained results indicate the importance of multiple micronutrient deficiencies in the AGA occurrence accompanied by the existence of two different hair loss patterns, differently related to the content of certain trace elements and androgens in the blood.
This review discusses the main methods of breeding material development, the current state, problems and prospects for medicinal and essential oil plants breeding. The relevance of this area has especially increased due to the sanctions, the resulting shortage of medicinal plants and their low quality, which does not meet the requirements of the pharmaceutical industry. To produce a stable plant raw material base, it is necessary to actively develop a breeding process to create new highly productive varieties of medicinal plants resistant to biotic and abiotic environments. In breeding with the use of modern molecular biological methods, related species and generic complexes of the All-Russian Research Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (VILAR) collection can be involved, where there is extensive original genetic material of medicinal, essential oil, rare and endangered species. In the breeding of medicinal and essential oil crops, traditional methods of individual and individual-family selection, polyploidy, chemical mutagenesis and a combination of methods to obtain original breeding material are still promising. VILAR has created more than 90 varieties of medicinal and essential oil crops, most of which have been approved for use throughout the Russian Federation.
Biological control of pathogenic Fusarium species through the promotion of detrital food webs is a promising option for agricultural production and could be of high value in organic farming. To obtain quantitative information on the impact of detrital subsidy on the development of Fusarium infection in winter wheat seedlings, we established a 60-day laboratory experiment in which the soil was amended with either a N-poor or a N-rich mixture of straw and compost containing the same amount of organic carbon (200 g C m⁻²). Compared with the control treatment (no subsidy), shoot biomass decreased by 27% in the N-poor mulch treatment and increased by 24% in the N-rich mulch treatment. For both of the added mulch treatments, the population of mycophagous and predatory mites increased fivefold compared to the control. The abundance of Enchytraeidae also increased in both N-poor (by 68%) and N-rich (by 46%) mulch treatments. Unexpectedly, the abundance of gene copies of total soil fungi and of genus Fusarium in particular, as well as the abundance of Fusarium-specific polysaccharide protein conjugate (FPPC), were not affected by either mulch addition. Nevertheless, wheat seedlings were not infected by Fusarium wilt in either mulch treatment, whereas in the control treatment, the infection incidence was about 9%. The quantitative information obtained here may be important for the development of an ecological control method for cereal diseases caused by pathogenic Fusarium species.
The World Health Organization declared the pandemic situation caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) in March 2020, but the detailed pathophysiological mechanisms of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are not yet completely understood. Therefore, to date, few therapeutic options are available for patients with mild-moderate or serious disease. In addition to systemic and respiratory symptoms, several reports have documented various neurological symptoms and impairments of mental health. The current review aims to provide the available evidence about the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on mental health. The present data suggest that SARS-CoV-2 produces a wide range of impairments and disorders of the brain. However, a limited number of studies investigated the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-CoV-2. Although the main features and outcomes of COVID-19 are linked to severe acute respiratory illness. The possible damages on the brain should be considered, too.
Temperature is the main exogenous factor that determines the growth, development and productivity of agricultural plants, including seed germination. In this work, we studied the thermosensitivity of heterogeneous dill seeds ( Anethum graveolens ). The study aimed to study the short-term (1-5 days) effect of high temperature (40°C) on the growth of the embryo and germination of dill seeds formed on different umbels of the mother plant. The growth of the embryo had a significant effect on seed germination ( r = 0.976; P < 0.001). Seeds collected from primary umbels have a more developed embryo and can overcome the effects of thermal stress. We also found that the duration of heat exposure at 40°C, leading to a decrease in viability, can vary from 1-5 days for seeds from primary umbels, to 1-2 days for seeds from secondary umbels, which, in our opinion, is due to the heteromorphism. The influence of the place of seed formation on the mother plant and the high temperature during germination is critical for embryo growth and dill seeds’ germination.
Various samples of praziquantel (PZQ) with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (SDS) with increased aqueous solubility and efficacy against the cestodes Hymenolepis nana and Moniezia expansa were obtained using mechanochemical technology. The anthelmintic activity of the obtained samples of PZQ supramolecular complexes was studied on a laboratory model of hymenolepiasis in white mice and sheep naturally infected with M. expansa using results of helmintological necropsy of the small intestines and taking into account the number of detected cestodes. The supramolecular complex of PZQ with PVP and SDS in a 10:89:1 ratio at doses of 3, 2, and 1 mg of active compound per kg of body mass were highly efficacious (>97%) against H. nana and M. expansa. In contrast, PZQ substance and a mechanical mixture of PZQ with PVP and SDS at a dose of 1 mg of PZQ per kg showed weak efficacy. The supramolecular complex of PZQ turned out to be a promising anthelmintic drug with increased pharmacological activity.
The purpose of the research is assessment of karyopathic effect and general safety of Trichinella spiralis and Echinococcus multilocularis protein extracts in mice. Materials and methods . To assess the karyotic effect bone marrow cells were isolated and preparations were prepared using a metaphase method (Ford C. E., Hamerton J. L., 1956). Cytological analysis of bone marrow smears was performed to determine the white cell lineage counts. The main hematological indices of mice were determined at hematological analyzer «Abacus JuniorVet» («Diatron», Austria); differential white blood cell count was analyzed using common method. Blood biochemical indices were determined at biochemical analyzer A-15/25 (BioSystems S.A., Spain). Results and discussion . The intraperitoneal administration of T. spiralis and E. multilocularis protein extracts induced K-mitosis in mice bone marrow cell population. Systemic disorders associated with that cytogenetic effect and general reaction of organism to administration of protein extracts, in particular changes in bone marrow white cell lineage counts and peripheral blood indices were revealed. T. spiralis and E. multilocularis protein products showed some negative effects on liver and kidney function in mice.
Background: A supramolecular complex of praziquantel (PZQ) with disodium salt of glycyrrhizic acid (Na2GA) was obtained by mechanochemical technology to increase solubility, absorption rate and hence bioavailability of the drug and reduction its therapeutic doses. The aim of our study was evaluation of anthelmintic efficacy of supramolecular complex of PZQ. Methods: Different samples of PZQ with Na2GA were obtained by mechanochemical processing and examined for some physico-chemical properties. The anthelmintic activity of the most perspective samples was studied on the laboratory model of Hymenolepis nana infection of mice and Moniezia expansa infection of sheep by the results of helminthological necropsy of the small intestines (the controlled test). Results: A high efficacy (> 98%) of supramolecular complex of PZQ with Na2GA (1/10) was shown at doses of 3; 2 and 1 mg/kg of body weight at single oral administration against H. nana in mice and M. expansa in sheep. While the basic PZQ had 27.19% and 36.64% efficacy respectively at the dose of 1 mg/kg. The PZQ:Na2GA 1/10 physical mixture (without mechanochemical processing) revealed no anthelmintic efficacy. Conclusion: Joint mechanochemical treatment the PZQ substance and Na2GA led to increased solubility, reduction of particle sizes, amorphization of substance, incorporating it with micelles of glycyrrhizic acid and high anthelmintic efficacy in reduced dose. The supramolecular complex of praziquantel was found to be a perspective anthelminthic with enhanced pharmacological activity that needs further research.
Introduction Three major classes of natural products (NPs) for medicinal purposes or improving wellbeing are generally available in the US: conventional drugs of herbal origin, botanical drugs, and dietary supplements (DSs). Consumer consumption of DSs is growing annually, with >50% of adults in the US taking dietary supplements. The US FDA regulates conventional and botanical drugs for safety and efficacy; however, DSs are minimally regulated. Areas covered This article will: i) highlight the importance of NP as a significant source of prescription drugs; ii) discuss differences in the regulation of conventional drugs of NP product, botanical drugs, and DSs; iii) discuss the safety and efficacy of DSs and iv) make recommendations for improvement of safety for minimally regulated NPs. The authors conducted a comprehensive literature search in two electronic databases, relevant NP and U.S. government websites for articles and regulatory documents published between January 1994 and April 2020. Expert opinion Toxicities associated with the use of NPs, including vitamins and DSs, are mainly due to excessive use and interactions with conventional drug(s) and may represent challenges for clinicians. Conventional and botanical-based prescription drugs are rarely associated with unknown toxicities. However, DSs are minimally regulated and can produce severe adverse effects. We believe that clinical pharmacologists can have a role in developing criteria for DS safety analysis. There is also the potential for a standardized NP stewardship program(s) and the development of NP policies and practices nationally and globally.
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27 members
Berezhko Vera
  • Laboratory of immunodiagnostics and cellular technology
Amina Aslanovna Haidarova
  • Laboratory immunodiagnostic and cellular technolog
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Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya Street, 28, 117218, Moscow, Moscow, Russia
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Успенский А.В. A.V. Uspenskiy
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http://www.vniigis.ru/en/
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