Aligarh Muslim University
  • Alīgarh, UP, India
Recent publications
The potential of nanotechnology is a vast field that includes a variety of technologies in modernization in the agricultural and food industries. Diverse nanosensor types are being produced to gratify the altering agri/food industry load, comprising food components, elegant packaging, and speedy detection systems. It paves the new path for the latest research and directs the utilization of green nanomaterials for various applications, primarily in biotechnology and agricultural areas. It is mandatory for the understanding of mechanisms and their toxic properties. Quite a few nations around the globe have consequently been worried about testing their governmental outlines' suitability to deal with nanotechnologies. Environmental issues, socio-ethical issues, health and safety risks, issues connected to the receiving of goods via consumers, and market exact may prevail through the manufacturing and creation of green nanomaterials. We review the most recent nanosensor developments, concentrate on the vastly difficult assignments, and show potential possibilities from the preferred newest research in the agri-food sector. The significant points are (1) knowledge gaining and improvement of nanosensor life cycle techniques, risk assessment, toxicity, bioaccumulation, beneficial, and unconstructive crash assessment. (2) The toxicological essentials and the exposure risk linked with the procedure of nanosensors in agri/food and the environment are moreover addressed. (3) Regulation and laws are crucial for ruling nanosensor production, processing, implementation, and disposal. This chapter summarizes green nanomaterials, environmental impact, legal, health, and safety issues, and their purpose in the agricultural sector.
Background Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common microvascular complication of diabetes. There is strong evidence suggesting that DR has an inheritable component. The interaction between advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and their receptor is integral in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy and its various complications, retinopathy being one of them. Overview and methodology This review discusses the existing literature on the association between single nucleotide variants (SNV) of AGER gene and the risk of DR. It also discusses the current understanding of the AGE- AGER pathway in diabetic retinopathy. Through our article we have tried to consolidate all the available information about these SNVs associated with diabetic retinopathy in a succinct tabular form. Additionally, a current understanding of the AGE- AGER interaction and its deleterious effects on the cells of the retina has been discussed in detail to provide comprehensive information about the topic to the reader. A literature review was performed on PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar for studies to find existing literature on the association between AGER gene SNVs and the risk, progression and severity of developing DR. This article will encourage scientific communication and discussion about possibly devising genetic markers for an important cause of blindness both in developed and developing countries, i.e., diabetic retinopathy. Result Based on genetic studies done in Indian and Chinese population G82S(rs2070600) was positively associated with Diabetic Retinopathy. Patients of diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian population had −T374A(rs1800624) polymorphism. + 20T/A was found to be associated with the disease in a study done in UK. Association with G1704T(rs184003) was seen in Chinese and Malaysian population. A Chinese study found its association with CYB242T. -T429C(rs1800625) SNV was not associated with DR in any of the studies. G2245A(rs55640627) was positively associated with the disease process in Malaysian population. It was not associated in Malaysian and Chinese population. Promoter variant rs1051993 has also been found to a susceptible SNV in the Chinese population. Conclusion While providing a comprehensive review of the existing information, we would like to emphasize on a large, multi-centric, trial with a much larger and varied population base to definitely determine these single nucleotide variants predisposing diabetic individuals.
Stabilization of the subgrade soil is a primary and significant phase in highway construction. In constructing a flexible pavement subgrade, soil investigation is an important parameter, as the load is transferred to it under a repetitive vehicle load. Subgrade soils with low strength of bearing are incapable of bearing heavy loads and are considered unsuitable for construction. The author proposed a solution for the weak subgrade of flexible pavements in this paper. This study aims to address weak subgrade issues by using fly ash reinforced with reinforcement. The California bearing ratio test (CBR) unsoaked was performed on the fly ash positioning with square and circular reinforcement patterns in the center of the loaded area. The test was performed using different reinforcement of diameters 1 and 2 and twisted 2 mm (1 mm diameter reinforcement overlap, then it was twisted over each other to make a 2 mm diameter twisted reinforcement). The CBR value for plain fly ash is found to be 14.64%, and the maximum CBR value for square and circular reinforcement is 34.89% and 24.23%, respectively. The percentage increase in the CBR value for square and circular reinforcement is to be 138.31% and 65.50%, respectively. The study found that the reinforcement spacing pattern affects the subgrade bearing capacity. As the reinforcement spacing decreases, the bearing capacity of the fly ash increases with the increment of reinforcement diameter. This study is important for subgrade soil strengthening since this fine reinforcement has increased the bearing capacity of poor soils.
In this paper, an outline of microgrid arrangements and control methods at various hierarchical levels of Packed U-Cell (PUC) converters are provided. The paper discusses the control of these topologies using various techniques. The goal of these control strategies is to maintain a small THD, superior steady-state, fast-dynamic response, and high-power factor while balancing capacitor voltages under different operating conditions. The PI current controller is modelled on five and seven-level PUC inverters. The PI voltage and current controllers have also been modelled on a seven-level PUC inverter. Thereafter, model predictive control of five, seven and fifteen level inverters are also formulated and then simulated using MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, HIL validation of different PUC inverters is performed.
The present work aims at the simulation and multiobjective optimisation (MOO) of dry microalgae-based in-situ biodiesel plant, modelled using the Aspen Plus V11. The process optimisation was carried out by excel-based multiobjective optimisation (EMOO) considering the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II). Economic and environmental criteria were considered for constrained MOO with total annualised cost (TAC), organic wastes, and CO2 emissions as objectives. The statistical trade-offs were analysed by assessing the impacts of the decision variables on the chosen objectives. Firstly, bi-objective optimisation scenarios were studied, and finally, a tri-objective optimisation scenario was investigated. The results imply that the TAC increases with the decrease in organic waste generation and CO2 emissions. The decision-makers will be able to assess the Pareto-optimal front to find the preferred optimal solution to enhance plant performance. The first rank solution in the generated Pareto-optimal front was chosen by the net flow method (NFM). Compared to the base case study with a TAC of 69.31 million USD, Scenario A, Scenario B, and Scenario C resulted in an optimal plant operation with a TAC of 62.64 million USD, 61.52 million USD, and 60.23 million USD, respectively, with a saving of 6.67 million USD, 7.79 million USD, and 9.08 million USD respectively. Simultaneous optimisation of all three conflicting objectives yielded significant reductions in TAC (13.1%), organic waste (55%), and CO2 emissions (41%), respectively.
This study explored the effect of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) amount (1, 3, and 5 wt%) loading on the MoO3/TiO2 nanocomposite (Gr1/MoO3/TiO2 NCs, Gr3/MoO3/TiO2 NCs, and Gr5/MoO3/TiO2 NCs) for their photocatalytic activity against the Tetracycline (TC) antibiotic drug and Rhodamine B (RhB) dye under visible light illumination and compared it with the MoO3/TiO2 nanocomposite. Crystallite sizes of MoO3/TiO2 NCs, Gr1/MoO3/TiO2 NCs, Gr3/MoO3/TiO2 NCs, and Gr5/MoO3/TiO2 NCs are 17.69 nm, 16.24 nm, 12.64 nm, and 11.74 nm, respectively, with energy band gaps of 2.72 eV, 2.59 eV, 2.49 eV, and 2.38 eV correspondingly. The photocatalytic performance of the nanocomposites was revealed to be highly affected by the weight ratio of RGO on MoO3–TiO2. The results showed that about 98% of RhB and 94% of TC drug were photodegraded under visible light irradiation during the 60 min and 80 min respectively. RhB and TC drug photocatalysis degradation showed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics, with order rate constants of 0.06435 min⁻¹ and 0.0351 min⁻¹, respectively. By electrostatic interactions, the stacked MoO3 being bound to the surface of TiO2 nanoparticles and concurrently anchored onto graphene nanosheets through π–π stacking. In addition, the inclusion of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets was shown to enhance photocatalytic activity. The mechanism was also portrayed: the synergetic (interfacial) interaction of the graphene sheets and the MoO3/TiO2 was responsible for the excellent photo-degradation impact of the RhB dye and the TC drug pollutants through the Gr/MoO3/TiO2. Furthermore, the MoO3/TiO2 has been used as a migration vehicle for the visible light carrier, while a high surface area and the number of active sites of the reduced graphene sheet enhanced the photocatalytic activity.
Gladiolus (Gladiolus grandiflorus L.) is a commercial ornamental plant cultivated for its inflorescences. Improving quality and vase life (VL) of gladiolus inflorescences is an important research topic for both the growers and the sellers. For this reason, we studied the effects of preharvest potassium (K⁺) foliar application on postharvest physiological and biochemical changes. Our hypothesis was that K⁺ foliar application could improve preharvest physicochemical responses such as photosynthesis and stomatal conductance and also improve postharvest quality by reducing oxidative damage in cells. In series of pot experiments we studied the effects of 0 %, 1 %, 2 % and 3 % K⁺ on net CO2 assimilation (As), stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), water use efficiency (WUE), soluble sugars (SS), total soluble proteins (TSP), VL and antioxidant activity of gladiolus cv. Manhatten. The results showed that K⁺ application, especially on inflorescences treated with the highest K⁺ concentrations, positively affected As and WUE. This resulted in higher SS and TSP by 45 % and 93 %, respectively. Potassium supplementation improved VL and reduced postharvest oxidative stress by enhancing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzyme activities. The 3 % K⁺ treatments increased SOD by up to 107 % and CAT by up to 188 %, compared to the control inflorescences. K⁺ treatments at 3 % significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents, by up to 42 % and 57 %, respectively indicating a strong reduction of oxidative stress. We suggest that, K⁺ supplementation strategies may improve postharvest quality of cut gladiolus inflorescences and extend VL by enhancing antioxidant activity and reduce oxidative stress.
Biodiesel is known as one of the best alternative fuels for diesel engines. Low-cost Jatropha oil is considered a potential non-edible feedstock for biodiesel production in India and many other parts of the world. Jatropha oil contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFA), and soap formation occurs during the alkali catalysed trans-esterification process, hence decreasing the biodiesel yield. The acid catalyst is less sensitive to FFA, but the reaction rate is extremely slow if the transesterification reaction occurs by conventional heating. In the present investigation, microwave heating was used for biodiesel production by the single-step transesterification reaction of Jatropha oil in the presence of an acidic catalyst (sulphuric acid). The central composite rotatable design (CCRD) matrix of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to determine the optimum design conditions for the transesterification reaction under microwave irradiation. The effects of three selected variables, namely reaction time, catalyst concentration, and methanol, on the oil molar ratio, were assessed. The maximum yield of biodiesel produced in the selected design space by microwave heating was found to be 61.10% under the 11:7 M ratio of the methanol to oil, 2 wt% catalyst concentration, and 90 min reaction time, which was much higher than the biodiesel yield by conventional heating method (3.8%) for the same reaction time. The modified polynomial model for the microwave heating method was developed with the help of ANOVA, main effect plots, interaction plots, and surface plots. The experimental and predicted yield values for fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) showed a linear relationship. The validation of experiments confirmed the accuracy of the suggested model. The produced biodiesel was of good quality, as all the properties were within the prescribed limits of the ASTM D6751 standard. The results of this study showed that the microwave heating method can be used efficiently to obtain a high biodiesel yield from low-cost, high-FFA feedstock such as Jatropha oil in a sulphuric acid-catalysed single-step transesterification reaction.
To validate the effect of metal ions in analogous ligand scaffolds on DNA binding and cytotoxic response, we have synthesized a series of water-soluble ionic N-phthaloylglycinate conjugated bis(diaminocyclohexane)M2+ complexes where M = Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) (1-3). The structural characterization of the complexes (1-3) was achieved by spectroscopic {FT-IR, EPR, UV-vis absorption data, 1H NMR, ESI-MS and elemental analysis} and single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, which revealed different topologies for the late 3d-transition metals. The Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes exhibited an octahedral geometry with coordinated labile water molecules in the P1̄ space group while the Cu(II) complex revealed a square planar geometry with the P21/c space lattice. In vitro DNA-complexation studies were performed employing various complementary biophysical methods to quantify the intrinsic binding constant Kb and Ksv values and to envisage the binding modes and binding affinity of (1-3) at the therapeutic targets. The corroborative results of these experiments revealed a substantial geometric and electronic effect of (1-3) on DNA binding and the following inferences were observed, (i) high Kb and Ksv values, (ii) remarkable cleavage efficiency via an oxidative pathway, (iii) condensation behavior and (iv) good cytotoxic response to HepG2 and PTEN-caP8 cancer cell lines, with copper(II) complex 2 outperforming the other two complexes as a most promising anticancer drug candidate. Copper(II) complexes have been proven in the literature to be good anticancer drug entities, displaying inhibition of uncontrolled-cell growth by multiple pathways viz., anti-angiogenesis, inducing apoptosis and reactive oxygen species mediated cell death phenomena. Nickel(II) and zinc(II) ionic complexes 1 and 3 have also demonstrated good chemotherapeutic potential in vitro and the bioactive 1,2-diaminocyclohexane fragment in these complexes plays an instrumental role in anticancer activity.
Silver oxide nanoparticles (Ag2O NPs) were synthesized from solid homogeneous solution of silver oxide material. X‑ray diffraction pattern, energy dispersive spectroscopy spectra, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy revealed 38.23 nm size. Effect of synthesized Ag2O NPs was observed as foliar spray and seed priming in two concentrations i.e. 0.10 and 0.20 gL⁻¹ on bacterial and fungal diseases of tomato. Scanning electron microscopy revealed disturbed shape of conidia, bacterial cells and fragmented mycelium of pathogens i.e. Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Ralstonia solanacearum (Rs), Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Fol) and Alternaria solani (As). In vitro study also revealed adverse effects of Ag2O NPs on fungal and bacterial test pathogens. Foliar spray of NPs caused a greater increase in plant growth, carotenoids, chlorophyll, proline and defense enzymes activities i.e. catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) than seed priming both in the presence and absence of test pathogens. Disease suppression of tomato and increase in plant growth was Ag2O NPs concentration dependent. Foliar spray of 0.20 gL⁻¹ NPs reduced disease indices to the utmost, and caused highest increase in plant growth parameters, chlorophyll, carotenoid and proline contents. Role of Ag2O NPs in disease containment and plant growth augmentation was also revealed by principal component analysis.
The root-knot nematode was examined using magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO-NPs) made from strawberries. The biologically synthesized MgO-NPs were characterized by UV, SEM, FTIR, EDS, TEM, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Nanoparticles (NPs) were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and shown to be spherical to hexagonal nanoparticles with an average size of 100 nm. MgO-NPs were tested on the root-knot nematode M. incognita (Meloidogynidae) and the plant pathogenic bacteria Ralstonia solanacearum. The synthesized MgO-NPs showed a significant inhibition of R. solanacearum and the root-knot nematode. MgO-NPs cause mortality and inhibit egg hatching of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita under the in vitro assay. This study aims to examine the biological activity of biogenic MgO-NPs. The findings marked that MgO-NPs may be utilized to manage R. solanacearum and M. incognita and develop effective nematicides. In addition, the antioxidant capacity of MgO-NPs was determined by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH).
Ethylene regulates the photosynthetic efficiency of plants grown under challenging environments by the regulation of the antioxidant system and other biomolecules, such as osmolytes (proline). The role of ethylene in modulating proline biosynthesis and subsequent changes in antioxidant system to protect wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. WH-711) against heat stress was studied. The effects of exogenously sourced ethylene (as 200 µL L⁻¹ ethephon: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) and proline (50 mM) were studied in the protection of photosynthetic performance and heat stress tolerance by studying mechanisms of proline biosynthesis, activity and gene expression of antioxidants, and ethylene evolution. The cultivars WH-711, RAJ-3765, PBW-373, HD-2967, PBW-550, DBW-17, PBW-343, and UP-2338 were screened for their proline accumulation capacity and tolerance to heat stress. Plants of the cultivar WH-711 with higher proline accumulation and heat tolerance capacity were subjected to a temperature of 40 °C for 6 h per day over 15 days and then allowed to recover at 28 °C. These plants showed increased H2O2 and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances), proline accumulation, and ethylene evolution, activity of antioxidant enzymes, and reduced photosynthetic characteristics. Ethephon plus proline supplementation under heat stress upregulated the antioxidant defense system, reduced oxidative stress, and upregulated psbA and psbB expression and photosynthesis. The study’s outcome may be taken to improve photosynthetic performance and heat stress tolerance through ethylene-enhanced proline accumulation and antioxidant defense system.
With the increasing demand for high-speed data, rapid deployments of the 5G terrestrial heterogeneous wireless networks are expected worldwide in the next decade. In such networks, sub-6 GHz macro-cells overlapped by mmWave small-cells are being used to cater to densely populated regions. As a result, several challenges arise with the antenna design technologies used at the mobile terminal, access points, or backhaul/front haul levels. These challenges are being addressed using multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), massive-MIMO, and phased array antenna technologies. In order to implement these antenna technologies, considering the expanding 5G scenario, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW) offers a viable solution due to its low-cost, low-profile, high-power handling, low transmission loss, and ease of integration with the radio circuits; therefore, the SIW plays a vital role in developing the modern radio systems. The proposed study aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of SIW MIMO and phased array antennas operating in the 5G sub-6 GHz and mmWave bands. It deliberates the specific issues related to the band of operations and challenges in designing different antenna structures. After careful investigation and detailed analysis, this paper identified existing research gaps and suggested possible antenna design solutions for prospective researchers who intend to explore further the aforementioned promising area and present future research directions.
Direct numerical simulation of Taylor-Couette flow subject to opposition control is investigated at Reynolds number (Re) of 3000. The idea is to impose exact opposite velocities of the detection plane at the walls to counteract near-wall stream-wise vortices. In this study, various velocity control strategies, namely wall-normal, axial, combined and blowing only, have been investigated from the viewpoint of skin-friction drag reduction. Further, the effects of skipping spatial points in azimuthal and axial directions and in time have been investigated from a drag reduction point of view. Based on the emergence of a virtual wall that hinders the vertical transport of momentum (i.e., on reduction of Reynolds shear stress production as well as sweep & ejection events), flow physics has been explained via statistical analysis of fluctuations, Reynolds shear stresses, and near-wall coherent structures. The spatial density of near-wall vortical structures shows a marked reduction, followed by quadrant contribution analysis of Reynolds shear stresses reveals a decrease in ejection and sweep events, leading to reduced production of Reynolds shear stresses and skin-friction drag.
Voltage lift is a well‐known technique to improve the voltage gain of the converter. A combination of switched inductor and the conventional voltage lift technique can be used to achieve high gain, but the semiconductor's stress is still high. An improved voltage lift technique by employing an extra diode and capacitor and a switched inductor is proposed, which significantly increases the voltage boosting factor and reduces the voltage stress of semiconductor devices. The proposed converter is transformerless and non‐isolated in nature. The proposed topology has a continuous input source current and has a common connection between the source and the load. The converter is controlled by a single switch, making it simple to use. The steady‐state relations are drawn out in both continuous conduction mode (CCM) and discontinuous conduction mode (DCM). The effect of the unequal inductance on the voltage gain is carried out in detail. The improved voltage lift technique can develop the n‐stage converter to improve voltage gain further and reduce stress on semiconductors. The proposed topology is compared with the recent converters, and the effect of the non‐idealities on the voltage gain and losses occurring in the components is discussed in detail. A hardware prototype with a rating of 20V/300V, 250 W is built to test the suggested topology's performance and theoretical analysis. At a 20‐V input, the highest efficiency was measured to be 95.8%.
Silicon is absorbed as uncharged mono-silicic acid by plant roots through passive absorption of Lsi1, and influx transporter belonging to the aquaporin protein family. Lsi2 then actively effluxes silicon from root cells towards the xylem from where it is exported by Lsi6 for silicon distribution and accumulation to other parts. Recently, it was proposed that silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) might share a similar route for their uptake and transport. SiNPs then initiate a cascade of morphophysiological adjustments that improve the plant physiology through regulating the expression of many photosynthetic genes and proteins along with photosystem I (PSI) and PSII assemblies. Subsequent improvement in photosynthetic performance and stomatal behaviour correspond to higher growth, development, and productivity. On many occasions, SiNPs have demonstrated a protective role during stressful environments by improving plant-water status, source-sink potential, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, and enzymatic profile. The present review comprehensively discusses the crop improvement potential of SiNPs stretching their role during optimal and abiotic stress conditions including salinity, drought, temperature, heavy metals, and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Moreover, in the later section of this review, we offered the understanding that most of these upgrades can be explained by SiNPs intricate correspondence with phytohormones, antioxidants, and signalling molecules. SiNPs can modulate the endogenous phytohormones level such as abscisic acid (ABA), auxins (IAAs), cytokinins (CKs), ethylene (ET), gibberellins (GAs), and jasmonic acid (JA). Altered phytohormones level affects plant growth, development, and productivity at various organ and tissue levels. Similarly, SiNPs regulate the activities of catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle leading to an upgraded defence system. At the cellular and subcellular levels, SiNPs crosstalk with various signalling molecules such as Ca2+, K+, Na+, nitric oxide (NO), ROS, soluble sugars, and transcription factors (TFs) was also explained.
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5,212 members
Munawwar Husain
  • Department of Forensic Medicine
Yasser Azim
  • Department of Applied Chemistry, Z. H. College of Engineering & Technology
Vivek kumar Sharma
  • Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry
Javed Musarrat
  • Department of Agricultural Microbiology
Prof. (Dr.) Farhan Ahmad Khan
  • Department of Pharmacology
Information
Address
202002, Alīgarh, UP, India
Head of institution
Prof.Tariq Mansoor
Website
http://www.amu.ac.in/
Phone
+91 9870706356