Alexandria University
  • Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Recent publications
Amongst the membrane distillation techniques, the air gap configurations showed an outstanding thermal efficiency, while a decline in productivity was recorded due to the additional thermal and mass resistances. The current study proposes minimizing the additional thermal and mass resistances by altering the condensation process to dropwise condensation. Depositing a layer of reduced graphene oxide using the electrophoretic deposition technique on the copper condensation plate was investigated to obtain a hydrophobic nature and attain dropwise condensation. Moreover, different operating conditions were examined for the optimum conditions, which were 45 V, 30 s, 1 cm, and 0.5 mg/ml, for the applied voltage, deposition time, distance between electrodes, and concentration, respectively. This modified condensation plate was investigated experimentally on the lab-scale test rig and showed an improvement in the productivity of 12.5% and 28.5% at the minimum and maximum feed temperatures, respectively. On the other hand, solar energy was utilized to eliminate the heating source required for the membrane distillation unit. A high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) unit was introduced numerically in the current work with 36 multijunction cells. Furthermore, a microchannel heat sink was successfully designed to keep the cells from thermal degradation. The numerical results showed that the HCPV system could supply hot water up to 55 °C and produce electric power up to 230 W.
Induction motor is a major component in the industrial sector. It is experiencing great development concerning size, market share, and technological design. Any sudden failure in this element may lead to great damage. Condition monitoring is a fast emerging technology for the online detection of induction motor incipient faults. It avoids unexpected failure of a critical system, by increasing the life expectancy of the concerning elements while reducing operation and maintenance costs. This paper presents the condition monitoring techniques used with these machines, focusing on the Transient Motor Current Signatures Analysis method that has proven its effectiveness in diagnosing faults of electrical rotating machines, gathering a review on the most important applications that can be used with this technology, and how to process these signals to find out the type and cause of the fault. What distinguishes this paper is that it focuses on applications with variable speeds, so two promising techniques that will be effective in non-stationary signals frequency estimation are presented, which are the Adaptive Notch Filtering method and the Adaptive-Observer approach. Challenges and future goals are also discussed to guide researchers wishing to delve into this field.
Converter based distributed energy resource (DER) units are intended to be integrated into the power system using grid-forming converters (GFCs). It proposes to emulate the synchronous machines dynamics and forms the grid voltage/frequency by instantaneously balance the load changes without peer-to-peer coordination. However, the damping and coupling characteristics of GFCs in multi-vendor interoperability-based network have not yet been fully explored. The paper proposes a step-by-step analytic method based on participation factor analysis to efficiently analyze the oscillatory modes and the coupling characteristics in the GFCs-based network, especially where the GFCs are controlled by different control techniques. Moreover, to efficiently damp these oscillatory modes and such control coupling, a hybrid damping method based on an oscillation damper and a decoupling controller is proposed. A mathematical modelling is derived to confirm the role of the proposed decoupling controller especially during transient periods. Design guidelines using pattern search algorithm are presented to identify the optimum parameters of the proposed hybrid damping method. Finally, the experimental results using Controller-hardware-in-the-loop (CHiL) verify the theoretical analysis and the efficient damping against large disturbances. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Multiphase drives exhibit remarkable advantages (e.g., fault tolerance) over three-phase ones. Six-phase drives are particularly attractive, given their moderate complexity and suitability for off-the-shelf three-phase converters. Regarding the stator winding arrangement, the symmetrical one offers superior postfault capabilities in most scenarios. On the other hand, resistance asymmetry in the stator phases or connections may arise due to different causes. The conventional full-range minimum-loss strategy (FRMLS) generates stator-current references under open-phase (infinite resistance) faults so that torque ripple is prevented while minimizing the losses for each torque (d-q current) value and maximizing the torque range; however, this method is unsuitable for unequal resistances of finite value. This paper proposes an FRMLS for setting the current references to reach these goals in symmetrical six-phase drives with any resistance asymmetry. The optimum references are found online depending on the resistances, without look-up tables. The phase currents are individually limited by an iterative algorithm, so that minimum stator copper loss (SCL) is achieved over the maximum admissible torque range. In this manner, unlike the conventional FRMLS, minimum SCL and maximum torque range are attained even for finite resistance imbalance. The currents in phases affected by high resistances are suitably reduced. Experimental results are provided.
Pyrazole and quinoxaline synthesis is gaining popularity due to its wide range of pharmacological qualities, including antiviral, antagonist, antibacterial, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anti-prostate cancer, herbicidal, acaricidal, and insecticidal effects. A novel and innovative heterocyclic biologically active compound, 3-[5-(hydroxy1methyl)-1-phenylpyrazol-3-yl]-2-[2, 4, 5-trimethoxybenzylidine] hydrazonyl-quinoxaline abbreviated as (TMPyrQu) is prepared by simple low-cost method. The chemical structure of the compound is assigned based on IR, ¹H NMR, ¹³C NMR as well as elemental analysis. TMPyrQu showed potent antimicrobial activity: higher antibacterial activity against p. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, Streptomyces (inhibition zone (mm) 16, 14, 19, 18, 12), respectively, than the standard antibiotic ampicillin for bacteria with corresponding inhibition zone (mm) (12, 11, 9, 13).The antifungal activity of TMPyrQu is higher than ampicillin Fluconazole biocide (inhibition zone of 16 mm and 11 mm, respectively). It also demonstrated robust antiviral activity against the hepatitis B and good anticancer activity and cytotoxicity on the cell lines HepG-2 (liver carcinoma) and MCF-7 (breast carcinoma), with higher performance for breast cancer. The TMPyrQu molecule has the potential to be a powerful anticancer and immunosuppressive medication. TMPyrQu showed strong antioxidant activity that represented a first-line defense against free radical and reactive oxygen species (ROS), that target lipids, protein, and nucleic acid contributing to the progression of many chronic diseases. The novelty of this study is that it is the first time a multidisciplinary biologically active compound has been synthesized and evaluates its biological activity as well as its effectiveness against breast and liver tumor from a chemical, biochemical and medicinal perspective. The lack of adequate evaluation of such promising biocompatible biologically active compounds, despite the fact that the COVID-19 virus affects the entire world is the driving factor behind this work.
Ethnopharmacological relevance Different Physalis plants have been widely employed in traditional medicine for management of diabetes mellitus. Previous studies with respect to the in vivo antidiabetic activity of Physalis plants illustrated that they improved glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin (STZ) -induced diabetic rats yet the mechanism of action of bioactive constituents of the different organs of Physalis plants on diabetes remains obscure. Aim of study Our objective is to study the effects of the different organs of ground cherry (P. pruinosa) on diabetes in rat models and elucidate their mechanism of actions through serum pharmacochemistry combined to network pharmacology analyses and in-vivo testing. Materials and methods Characterization of the constituents in the drug-dosed serum samples relative to the blank serum after treatment with different extracts was performed by UPLC -MS/MS technique. The absorbed metabolites where then subjected to network pharmacology analysis to construct an interaction network linking “compound-target-pathway”. In vivo verification was implemented to determine a hypothesized mechanism of action on a STZ and high fat diet induced type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model based on functional and enrichment analyses of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome and Gene Ontology. Results Identification of a total of 73 compounds (22 prototypes and 51 metabolites) derived from P. pruinosa extracts was achieved through comparison of the serum samples collected from diabetic control group and extracts treated groups. The identified compounds were found to belong to different classes according to their structural type including withanolides, physalins and flavonoids. The absorbed compounds in the analyzed serum samples were considered as the potential bioactive components. The component-target network was found to have 23 nodes with 17 target genes including MAPK8, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1. Quercetin and withaferin A were found to possess the highest combined score in the C-T network. Integrated serum pharmacochemistry and network pharmacology analyses revealed the enrichment of leaves extract with the active constituents, which can be utilized in T2DM treatment. In the top KEGG pathways, lipid and atherosclerosis metabolic pathways in addition to T2DM pathways were found to be highly prioritized. The diabetic rats, which received leaves extract exhibited a substantial increment in GLUT2, INSR, IRS-1, PI3K-p85 and AKT-ser473 proteins by 105%, 142%, 109%, 81% and 73%, respectively relative to the untreated diabetic group. The immunoblotting performed for MAPK and ERK1/2 part of the inflammatory pathway studied in STZ induced diabetic rats revealed that leaves, calyces and stems extracts resulted in a substantial diminish in p38-MAPK, ERK 1/2, NF-κB, and TNF-α. Histopathological examination revealed that the hepatic histoarchitecture was substantially improved in the leaves, stems, and clayces-treated rats in comparison with untreated diabetic rats. Further, pancreatic injuries, which induced by STZ were dramatically altered by the treatment with P. pruinosa leaves, calyces and stems extracts. β-cells in diabetic rats received leaves extract disclosed moderate insulin immunostaining with a notable increase in the mean insulin area%. Conclusions The study in hand offers a comprehensive study to clarify the bioactive metabolites of the different organs of P. pruinosa. The basic pharmacological effects and underlying mechanism of actions in the management of STZ and high fat diet induced T2DM were specifically covered in this paper.
Creatine monohydrate is the most widely used supplement form of Creatine (Cr). It is de novo synthesized from the amino acids: arginine, glycine, and methionine or supplied exogenously from red meat and fish. Tissues store Cr in both free and phosphorylated forms (Phosphocreatine, PCr). Cr and PCr, through the Phosphocreatine shuttle system, play an important role in the regulation and homeostasis of cellular energy metabolism especially in muscles and the central nervous system, where the mitochondria are key players in this energy production machinery. This chapter will focus on the application of Cr monohydrate as a mitochondrial nutrient and an energy-boosting compound by increasing Cr/PCr stores. This results in improvement of physical performance, increased muscular strength, improved recovery after exercise, improved memory and neuronal activity. The application of Cr supplementation as a possible treatment for muscular, neurological, and neuromuscular diseases and its relation to the mitochondrial creatine kinase will be reviewed.
In this study, hydrogen harvesting from fermentation of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was promoted by maintaining synergism between sulfonated graphene (SGR) catalyst and paper mill sludge (PMS). The sulfonic acid (–SO3H) groups in the catalyst played a major role in destructing the β-1,4 glycosidic bonds of sugarcane bagasse, releasing readily biodegradable sugars into the fermentation medium. The cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin conversion efficiency were improved by 127.5%, 495.0%, and 109.2%, respectively with 20 mgSGR/gVS catalyst addition, compared with the control samples. These values were also higher than those obtained by non-sulfonated graphene catalyst. The hydrogenation of sugarcane bagasse was maximized at a sulfonated graphene catalyst dosage of 60 mgSGR/gVS, providing the highest hydrogen harvesting of 4104 ± 321 mL. This was associated with an increase of the Proteobacteria phyla up to 52.0%, Firmicutes phyla to 13.9%, and Acinetobacter sp. to 39.8% compared with only 37.0%, 11.3% and 11.1% in the control assay respectively. Moreover, sulfonated graphene catalyst supplementation promoted the acetate fermentation reaction pathway by increasing the acetate/butyrate ratio up to 4.1. Nevertheless, elevating the catalyst dosage up to 120 mgSGR/gVS reduced the hydrogen harvesting (1190 ± 92 mL) due to the release of furfural (1.76 ± 0.02 g/L) in the fermentation cultures, deteriorating the microbes’ internal composition and metabolism bioactivities. Finally maximizing the hydrogen productivity from sugarcane bagasse is feasible by incorporation of paper mill sludge and sulfonated graphene catalyst at dosage not exceeding 60 mgSGR/gVS. However, investigating the recyclability and disposal of digestate containing sulfonated graphene catalyst and the associated economic feasibility needs more attention in the future.
Grape seed (GS) oil is one of the potential functional foods. For the first time, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of GS oil saponifiable (Sap)-fraction from black (BSap) and green (GSap) grapes on MCF-7 cells and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. The fatty acid composition of BSap and GSap was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Approximately twelve distinct fatty acids were detected in BSap and eleven in GSap. BSap showed a greater cytotoxic effect on MCF-7 cells than GSap did by inducing apoptosis and reducing inflammation, while both grape fractions had superior potency to 5-FU. Furthermore, BSap massively boosted apoptosis and lowered redox potential (Eh) and CD44⁺ cells in EAC cells of EAC-bearing mice more than GSap, and both fractions were more efficient than 5-FU. Blood tests and liver histopathology revealed significant improvement in EAC-induced pathological alterations with these fractions. The in silico analysis implied the competitive inhibitory impacts of the most abundant fatty acid composites in BSap and GSap on cancer-metastasis-associated proteases (cathepsin B and MMP9). Also, this analysis predicted that the apoptotic action of these Sap fractions is independent of the 5ˈAMP-activated protein kinase. Therefore, grape Sap-fraction, especially BSap, may be a useful agent for cancer prevention.
Identifying Photovoltaic (PV) array faults is crucial for improving the service life and consolidating system performance overall. The strategies based on the supervised Machine Learning (ML) approach represent an attractive solution to identify the PV array faults. However, attainable labeled data to train supervised ML algorithms present challenges in practice. Therefore, this work introduces a novel strategy that employs an ensemble learning concept in conjunction with a semi-supervised learning approach based on a self-training philosophy to realize the faults diagnosis of an arc, line-to-line, power tracker unit, open-circuit, and partial shading, under different of aspects which can directly be impacting faults behavior. The developed ensemble learning paradigm comprises multiple merged ML models, which enhances the overall diagnostics performance. Moreover, it works to alleviate the resource-intensive process, which, in turn, contributes to overcoming standard supervised ML algorithms limitations. To ensure high fault diagnostic capabilities through the proposed fault identification strategy, the principal component analysis is introduced to mitigate the correlation between variables. Moreover, the Bayesian optimization method is adopted to control the behaviors of training ML algorithms, providing models with better characterization results. The merits of the proposed strategy are corroborated through simulation and experimental case studies.
Searching for a new eco-friendly marine fuel has become necessary to eliminate the adverse effects arising from ships’ emissions. The current paper investigates using blue/green ammonia as a marine alternative fuel from environmental and economic points of view. A new RO/RO vessel under construction is investigated as a case study. Three propulsion systems are considered: heavy fuel diesel engine, blue/green ammonia diesel engine and blue/green solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Environmentally, SOFC green ammonia-fueled ship is the best selection with NOx and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions’ reduction of 93.4% and 92% compared with the traditional propulsion system. Economically, SOFC blue ammonia-fueled ship will be the best selection with total ship saving cost of 5.71% and annual levelized cost of energy 0.19 $/kWh. Finally, SOFC green ammonia-fueled ship proposes to be eco-friendly with cost effectiveness of 172.92 $/ton-emissions as a step forward to achieve IMO 2030 strategy.
Objectives Atrial fibrillation is a common complication associated with cardiac surgery after cardiopulmonary bypass with a deleterious effect on morbidity and mortality. The current study aimed to compare between dexmedetomidine and propofol in reducing atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery. Design A randomized prospective cohort study. Setting Conducted in Alexandria main university hospital. Participants 98 patients of either sex ASA II physical status aged 40–60 years. Interventions All patients were subjected to either propofol or dexmedetomidine infusion after cardiac surgery according to the assigned group. Measurements and Main Results The patients were divided into two groups where first group received dexmedetomidine infusion as postoperative sedation and the second group received propofol infusion. Both groups were assessed for incidence of atrial fibrillation, hypotension and length of intensive care stay. Incidence with atrial fibrillation was 0.9% in dexmedetomidine group vs. 13% in propofol group (P = 0.001) and intensive care stay was prolonged in propofol group 4.6 ± 1.2 day vs. 2.7 ± 1 for dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.002). There was no statistically significant difference between both groups regarding blood pressure or heart rate. Conclusion The use of dexmedetomidine for sedation after cardiac surgery was associated with a lower incidence of atrial fibrillation and hence decreased the duration of intensive care stay.
Lysine acetylsalicylate (LAS) is an analgesic used for the prevention of cardiovascular disease with few adverse though its effect on the hepatorenal and hematological parameters remains unclear. 45 mature male Wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Group I, II, and III received daily intramuscular doses of 0.25 mL saline, 40, and 80 mg/kg b. wt. of LAS respectively for 2-weeks. After 2, 4, and 8 weeks from beginning of drug administration, 5 rats/group were assessed for hepatorenal function, complete blood-count, and histopathological findings of liver and kidney. LAS induced a significant increase (p ≤ 0.05) in serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, and creatinine in a dose-dependent manner, but a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) observed in the hematological parameters. Histopathological alterations were a dose-dependent manner, and persisted for 8-weeks at the higher dose. In conclusion, LAS induced reversible deleterious effects on hepatorenal functions and various hematological parameters in a dose-dependent manner.
Novel intra-articular nanoreservoirs were implemented employing different cartilage targeting approaches to improve cartilage bioavailability of a chondroprotective drug, cassic acid (CA), for effective amelioration of cartilage deterioration off-targeting CA gastrointestinal disorders. Herein, we compared active cartilage-targeting approach via chondroitin sulfate (CHS) functionalization versus passive targeting using positively charged nanoparticles to target negatively charged cartilage matrix. Firstly, CA integrated nanoreservoirs (CA-NRs) were fabricated based on ionic conjugation between CA and cationic hydrophobic surface modifier octadecylamine (ODA) and were further functionalized with CHS to develop CHS-CA-NRs. Confocal laser microscope was used to visualize the accumulation of nanoparticles into the cartilage tissue. Both targeting approaches promoted CA local cartilage availability and prolonged its residence time. Compared to passive targeted CA-NRs, active targeted CHS-CA-NRs showed higher fluorescence signals in proximity to and inside chondrocytes which lasted for up to 21 days. In MIA-osteoarthritic rats, CHS-CA-NRs showed superior antiosteoarthritic activity, exhibiting highest cartilage repair compared to CA-NRs. Additionally, CHS-CA-NRs significantly inhibited OA inflammatory cytokine, degradation enzyme and oxidative stress and improved cartilage matrix biosynthesis. Conclusively, CHS-CA-NRs improved OA repair showing a superior efficacy for articular cartilage targeting with CHS which could be a potential advance for OA therapy.
Background A workplace-based assessment (WBA) is used to assess learners’ competencies in their workplaces. Many workplace assessment tools are available and validated to assess various constructs. The implementation of workplace-based assessment requires proper training of the staff. Objective This study aimed to explore the impact of staff training on WBA practices and evaluate the inter-rater reliability of these practices while using entrustment scales, performance descriptors, and personal judgment. Design A quasi-experimental study, in which the staff members of the orthopedic department were invited to participate in a training program on the use of entrustment scales and assessment descriptors within the WBA tools. As a response to the training, subjective judgment was replaced by entrustment scales and performance descriptors in a trauma course offered by the orthopedic department. The inter-rater reliability of the WBA was evaluated using various rating scales. Results The entrustment scales had higher inter-rater reliability of the assessment tools than performance descriptors and the personal judgment. Conclusion The inter-rater reliability was highest when using entrustment scales for WBAs, which could indicate that the entrustment scales achieve good psychometric properties as regards consistency among different raters. Thus, they decrease the confounding effect of differences in assessors. They may also give a clearer image of the actual academic level of the learners.
Poor wound healing is considered an obstacle in diabetics, which requires effective therapy. Our goal was to investigate the combined effect of mint and silver nanoparticle hydrogel films as wound-healing agents in diabetic rats. Thirty rats were arranged into five groups. The hydrogel films were prepared through an eco-friendly method, excluding toxic solvents and diluents. Gel 1 and fucidin showed complete wound-healing effect on the 22nd day, while Gel 2 showed a faster effect on the 16th day, all compared to group 1 which healed in 25 days. Diabetic rats in group 2 healed beyond 25 days. Moreover, Gel 1 and Gel 2 decreased the fasting blood glucose. Gel 2 enhances wound healing in diabetic rats via multiple mechanisms of action, possibly due to the ability of mint and silver nanoparticles to sustain their concentration at the wound site with limited toxicity. Abbreviations: CO: castor oil; CS: corn starch; DIW: deionized water; H: hydrogel film; H-MME: hydrogel film developed with CS, PVA, CO and MME; H-SMME: hydrogel film developed with CS, PVA, CO and MME/ SNP; MME: methanolic mint extract; PVA: polyvinyl alcohol; SNP: silver nanoparticles; STZ: streptozotocin
Background Cerebrovascular stroke is one of the most disabling chronic conditions, as it is often associated with devastating long-term neurologic deficits. Design A prospective observational study. Setting Critical Care Units of Alexandria Main University Hospital. Patients 60 adult mechanically ventilated stroke patients of both genders according to sample size calculation. Objective Compare the outcome of early versus late tracheotomy on diaphragmatic function, assessed by ultrasonographic assessment in mechanically ventilated stroke patients. Methods Patients were randomized blindly into two groups: group I was subjected to early bedside percutaneous tracheotomy within 4 days of ICU stay, while group II was tracheostomized after 14 days. A Sonosite Mindray DP10 2015–08 with a 3–5 MHz linear probe was used to assess the diaphragm daily before and after tracheotomy. Measures taken were diaphragmatic excursion (DE) and diaphragmatic thickness (DT). Primary outcome was impact of early tracheotomy on diaphragmatic ultrasound measurements. Secondary outcomes were days of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay, and 28-day mortality. Results After tracheotomy, a significant improvement in DE and DTF in group I was encountered more than group II (p < 0.01). There was a significant decrease in ventilator days, and ICU stay in group I (p < 0.01), without statistical significance in the 28-day mortality (p = 0.612). Conclusion Early tracheotomy in mechanically ventilated stroke patients could improve diaphragmatic ultrasound measurements resulting in rapid weaning off mechanical ventilation and less ICU stay without significant effect on 28-day mortality.
Background Portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) is an overlooked complication of liver cirrhosis, as it is a source of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding and cause of chronic blood loss. Objective To assess the role of narrow band endoscopy in the diagnosis of PHG in cirrhotic patients. Methods Fifty patients with liver cirrhosis were examined by both conventional White Light Endoscopy (WLE) and Narrow Band Technology Variable Intelligent Staining Technology (VIST) using Sonoscape endoscope HD500. Biopsies were taken from the body of gastric mucosa during endoscopy. Results The prevalence of PHG among patients with liver cirrhosis is around 94% by WLE, 92% by VIST, and 55.3% by pathology. There is no statistical significance between VIST and WLE in case of PHG p = 0,750. The risk of developing oesophageal varices grade 3 in severe PHG is higher than in no or mild PHG (OR = 6.8571, 95% CI 1.6270 to 28.9001, p = 0.0087). Conclusion VIST is comparable and complementary to WLE in diagnosis of PHG. There is poor correlation between pathology and WLE in diagnosis of PHG.
A simple low-cost one-pot photodeposition synthesis with no hazardous reactants or products is used to make silver nanoparticles-activated carbon composite (SNPs@AC). The SNPs are homogenously and photodeposited and absorbed into the activated carbon matrix. Both SNPs and SNPs@AC composite have particle sizes around 10 nm and 100 nm, respectively. The SNPs@AC composite showed good antiviral activity to VERO (ATCC ccl-81) cells. Zeta potential of SNPs@AC composite is −25 mV, showing that this colloidal system is electrically stable and resistant to coagulation. For many Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, the SNPs@AC composite demonstrated strong antibacterial efficacy. The SNPs@AC composite has 75.72 percent anti-inflammatory effect at concentration 500 µg/mL. This composite has a maximum non-toxic concentration (MNTC) of 78.125 g/mL, which corresponds to antiviral activity of up to 96.7 percent against hepatitis A. virus (HAV). It is suggested as a candidate for pharmaceutical formulations, such as integration into the manufacture of N95 masks for COVID-19 infection protection. Concentration 160 μg/mL SNPs@AC composite has antioxidant activity 42.74% percent. The SNPs@AC composite exhibited selective catalytic activity for the organosynthesis hydrazination reaction of 4-chloro-3, 5-di-nitro-benzo-triflouride, giving 1-hydroxy-4-nitro-6-trifluoro-methyl benzotriazole, a common antiviral drug for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). SNPs@composite's well-defined pores provide suitable active sites for binding reactants: 4-Cl-3, 5-di-NO2-benzotriflouride, and hydrazine, which react to create 1-hydroxy-4-nitro-6-trifluoromethyl benzotriazole, which diffuses into solution away from the catalyst surface, leaving the catalyst surface unaffected.
Surgical experiences are always stressful for both children and parents. Preoperative anxiety in children is very common. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of parent active participation in anesthesia induction on the preoperative anxiety levels of 120 children who were scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery at EL Hadara Orthopedic University Hospital. Children were randomly assigned to two groups. The experimental group intervention included parent active sharing in anesthesia induction, whereas the other group of parent attended anesthesia induction. The primary outcome was anxiety during induction of anesthesia (modified Yale Preoperative Anxiety Scale). Secondary outcomes were self-reported and observed pain, emergence delirium, need for rescue analgesia and parental anxiety. When compared with the other group, the results showed that children and parents in active participation group experienced significantly decreased anxiety levels (P < .001). Parent active participation reduces children’s preoperative anxiety and improves their compliance with induction of anesthesia.
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12,253 members
Mohamed El-Ziney
  • Department of Dairy Science and Technology
Elsayed Elkhatib
  • Department of Soil and Water Sciences
Eman Shawky
  • Faculty of Pharmacy
Reda Elmazoudy
  • Department of Zoology
22, Al-Guish Avenue, 21526, Alexandria, Alexandria, Egypt
Head of institution
Abdelaziz Konsowa
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