Multiphase permanent-magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) with nonsinusoidal back-electromotive force (back-EMF) offer high fault tolerance and torque density for electric vehicles. Most current-reference generation methods either minimize stator copper loss (SCL) or maximize achievable torque. Optimization of both goals is accomplished by full-torque-range minimum-loss (FRML) strategies, but so far just for sinusoidal back-EMF. Thus, FRML for nonsinusoidal back-EMF should be sought. Moreover, many methods are only suitable for healthy conditions or specific machines, harmonics, or open-phase-fault (OPF) scenarios. Additionally, the torque range may be extended by permitting torque ripple or (transiently) greater rms current, but this approach is not general nor FRML yet. This paper proposes online FRML current-reference generation for multiphase PMSMs with nonsinusoidal back-EMF: nonsinusoidal-back-EMF FRML (NSBE-FRML). When the torque reference is feasible, minimum SCL is attained while maximizing the achievable torque (i.e., FRML). For higher torque references, the instantaneous torque deviation is minimized, and the torque reference is saturated in consecutive samples limiting the torque ripple to a pre-specified threshold. Furthermore, the rms current is limited after transient overload by automatically decreasing the torque reference. The NSBE-FRML is suitable for any harmonics, healthy/OPF conditions, and multiphase PMSMs with negligible saliency ratio. Experiments are performed with a six-phase PMSM.
Six-phase induction motor (6PIM) drives offer enhanced fault tolerance and reduced per-phase ratings. Hysteresis current control (HCC) is attractive for 6PIMs because it is simple, robust and fast. HCC is conventionally implemented so that each leg voltage is directly set based on the respective phase-current error. However, this approach does not consider that, in multiphase drives, phase voltages and currents are related through a combination of equivalent impedances corresponding to various subspaces. In general, there is a notable dissimilarity between these impedances, being typically small for secondary (xy) subspaces. This can cause large current distortion and poor reference tracking. This article proposes an improved HCC for 6PIM drives. Instead of directly inputting the per-phase current error to the hysteresis comparator and directly applying the switching states chosen by it, the input and output components associated with different subspaces are segregated. The input and output xy components are nullified in open loop so that the xy impedance no longer affects the HCC behavior, even if low. This prevents the disrupting xy currents, ensures effective tracking of the torque/flux-producing alpha-beta reference current, and enables reconfiguration-less fault tolerance. Experiments using 6PIMs with different winding configurations corroborate the significant advantages of the proposal.
In this study, an innovative mixed regulator based on integer and fractional order control is suggested for load frequency management. Tilt Integral Derivative with Filter (TIDF) and Proportional Integral Derivative Fractional Derivative with Filter (PIDμD) are the two components of the suggested hybrid, which is called TIDF-PIDμD. The advantages of the TIDF, the PIDD, and the fractional derivative regulators are combined in the proposed TIDF-PIDμD regulator. In order to enhance the suggested TIDF-PIDμD parameters in the investigated dual-area power grids, an innovative technique is used that is based on the newly reported Orca Predation Algorithm (OPA). The suggested TIDF-PIDμD regulator is part of a centralized control plan that takes into account the role of electric vehicles (EVs). Comparing the performance of the proposed TIDF-PIDμD regulator against that of previously published FOI-TD and PIDD2-PD associated with filters provides promising outcomes. In addition, the OPA optimizer's outcomes are contrasted to those of newly published optimization techniques such as the Gorilla Troops Optimizer (GTO), Gradient Based Optimizer (GBO), Battle Royale Optimizer (BRO), and Remora Optimization Algorithm (ROA), and the OPA optimizer has been shown to achieve better results. Taking into account non-linear limitations and the existence of renewable energy sources (RES) such as solar farms, wind farms, and EVs, this study examines the issue of frequency stability in a hybrid dual-area power system with thermal and hydraulic turbines. In ending, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out to prove the robustness and reliability of the proposed control structure. The results of this study are presented in the form of time-domain simulations that have been done with the assistance of MATLAB/SIMULINK (R2022a).
This research provides an adaptive control design in a photovoltaic system (PV) for maximum power point tracking (MPPT). In the PV system, MPPT strategies are used to deliver the maximum available power to the load under solar radiation and atmospheric temperature changes. This article presents a new adaptive control framework to enhance the performance of MPPT, which will minimize the complexity in system control and efficiently manage uncertainties and disruptions in the environment and PV system. Here, the MPPT algorithm is decoupled with model reference adaptive control (MRAC) techniques, and the system gains MPPT with overall system stability. The simulation and design of the new MRAC for MPPT based on a boost converter are addressed here. Moreover, a mathematical model is formulated and an efficient MRAC is designed for MPPT. To validate the robustness of the controller, MATLAB/Simulink is utilized to compare with the state-of-the-art approach, which is incremental conductance (INC) and perturb & observe (P&O) under various operating conditions based on the convergence time, tracking efficiency, PV current & voltage ripple, overall efficiency, and error rates. The proposed controller’s average tracking efficiency is 99.77% and 99.69% under diverse temperature and radiation conditions, respectively. In addition, it takes only 3.6 msec to capture MPP, which is around ten times faster than INC and twelve times faster than the P&O approach. When compared to INC and P&O, the MPP error rates in the MRAC-MPPT scheme are significantly lower. The simulation outcomes indicate that the presented controller exhibits excellent tracking under varying circumstances like solar radiation and temperature.
Background In-vitro data from a clinically well-known lithium disilicate ceramic reference was used to assess the expected performance of resin-based materials in implant dentistry. The purpose of the study was to compare the bond strength and marginal adaptation of nano-ceramic hybrid composite crowns cemented to stock cement-retained abutments to lithium disilicate crowns. Methods Twenty abutment analogs were embedded into auto-polymerizing acrylic resin blocks. The blocks were divided into 2 groups according to the restorative crown material. The 2 groups were divided as follows: Resin nano-ceramic group and lithium disilicate group. Abutment analogs in both groups were scanned using a laboratory scanner, and the restorations were designed, manufactured, and cemented with resin cement over the corresponding group. All samples were tested for marginal adaptation and bond strength after storage for 24 hours at 37 °C in 100% humidity. Data were collected, tabulated, and statistically analysed using the appropriate tests. Normality was checked using Shapiro Wilk test and Q-Q plots. Data were normally distributed. Variables were presented using mean, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) and standard deviation in addition to median and Inter Quartile Range (IQR). Differences between groups regarding debonding forces was assessed using independent t test. Two Way ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of material and bonding on marginal gap. All tests were two tailed and p value was set at < 0.05. Results Marginal gap and debonding force values were significantly different according to the type of material used (P < .05). Resin nano-ceramic crowns presented lower marginal gap values before (20.80 ± 8.87 μm) and after (52.11 ± 22.92 μm) bonding than lithium disilicate crowns. The debonding force value for resin nano-ceramic crowns (284.30 ± 26.44 N) was significantly higher than that for lithium disilicate crowns (253.30 ± 33.26 N). Adhesive failure mode was detected in all the specimens in both groups. Conclusions The type of material used for implant-supported cement-retained crowns had a statistically significant effect on marginal adaptation and bond strength. Resin nano-ceramic implant-supported cement-retained crowns had better marginal adaptation and higher bond strength than those manufactured using lithium disilicate.
Although pain and sepsis are comorbidities of intensive care units, reported data on whether pain control by opioid analgesics could alter inflammatory and end-organ damage caused by sepsis remain inconclusive. Here, we tested the hypothesis that morphine, the gold standard narcotic analgesic, modifies behavioral and hippocampal structural defects induced by sepsis in male rats. Sepsis was induced with cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and behavioral studies were undertaken 24 h later in septic and/or morphine-treated animals. The induction of sepsis or exposure to morphine (7 mg/kg) elicited similar: (i) falls in systolic blood pressure, (ii) alterations in spatial memory and learning tested by the Morris water maze, and (iii) depression of exploratory behavior measured by the new object recognition test. These hemodynamic and cognitive defects were significantly exaggerated in septic rats treated with morphine compared with individual interventions. Similar patterns of amplified inflammatory (IL-1β) and histopathological signs of hippocampal damage were noted in morphine-treated septic rats. Additionally, the presence of intact opioid receptors is mandatory for the induction of behavioral and hemodynamic effects of morphine because no such effects were observed when the receptors were blocked by naloxone. That said, our findings suggest that morphine provokes sepsis manifestations of inflammation and interrelated hemodynamic, behavioral, and hippocampal deficits.
This study investigated the dietary effects of coated l-ascorbic acid (LA) on growth, feed utilization, survival, serum biochemical indices, immunity, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal and hepatopancreatic histology of the pre-adult red swamp crayfish. Four isoproteinous and isolipidic diets were formulated to contain several LA levels as 0, 1300, 1600, and 1900 mg/kg and designated as control (LA0), LA13, LA16, and LA19, respectively. However, the analyzed LA concentrations in diets were 0.00, 199.57, 360.45, and 487.50 mg/kg in LA0, LA13, LA16, and LA19, respectively. Triplicate treatments of crayfish (21.60 ± 0.14 g) were fed the test diets and reared in fiberglass tanks with a density of 20 individuals per each for eight weeks. Results revealed that all LA treatments had significantly enhanced growth performance compared to the control. Of interest, the LA16 treatment recorded the highest final tank biomass, biomass gain, total feed intake, condition factor, and muscle yield among the other treatments. The tank feed conversion ratio was significantly decreased in LA treatments compared to the control. Moreover, dietary LA16 and LA19 had significantly higher survival rates (93.3%) compared to (85.0%) in the LA0 group. All dietary doses of LA significantly increased serum parameters (total protein, albumin, globulin, lysozyme activity) and respiratory burst activity compared to the LA0 treatment. Dietary LA16 significantly boosted the hepatopancreatic antioxidant capacity, manifested by decreased malondialdehyde concentrations, increased catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase enzyme activities, and reduced glutathione content compared to the LA-free diet. A normal histoarchitecture of the hepatopancreatic tubules was found in all LA treatments except with some minor degenerative changes in the tubular lumen, and hepatopancreatic cells associated with enlarged nuclei were found in the LA19. However, normal intestinal histoarchitecture was found in all treatments with no recorded intestinal lesions. Of interest, the polynomial regression performed on the analyzed LA concentrations suggested that 380 mg/kg would be suitable to provide maximal biomass gain for pre-adult crayfish. In conclusion, results revealed that coated LA could enhance the growth, immunity, and antioxidant capacity of pre-adult red swamp crayfish, suggesting its potential as a functional and necessary micronutrient for crayfish diets.
Background Perioperative missed nursing care is a serious issue that can compromise patient safety and quality of care. However, little is known about the factors that influence perioperative missed nursing care. Aim This study aimed to examine the effects of job embeddedness and polychronicity on perioperative missed nursing care as well as to test the mediating role of polychronicity on the relationship between job embeddeness and perioperative missed nursing care. Method This was a cross-sectional correlational study that used a convenience sample of 210 operating room nurses from nine hospitals in Egypt. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires that measured job embeddedness, polychronicity, and perioperative missed nursing care. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesized relationships among the variables. Results The findings demonstrated a significant negative and moderate association between missed perioperative care and both nurses’ job embeddedness and polychronicity. Moreover, there was a moderately positive and significant correlation between polychronicity and job embeddedness. Path analysis revealed a significant positive causal effect between job embeddedness and polychronicity. The results of mediation revealed that the indirect effect of job embeddedness on missed care through polychronicity was statistically significant; suggesting that polychronicity partially mediated this relationship. Conclusion This study sheds light on the intricate relationship between nurses’ job embeddedness, missed care, and polychronicity in the operating theater context. By enhancing job embeddedness and fostering polychronicity among nurses, healthcare organizations can reduce perioperative missed care and ultimately improve patient care outcomes in this critical healthcare setting.
Objective Sialendoscopy has remained the standard of treatment for sialolithiasis; however, large stones impacted in the submandibular gland hilum often require an intra‐oral combined approach. Methods Patients treated for submandibular hilar sialolithiasis from 2015 to 2021 at two tertiary centers were stratified into two groups based on the surgical technique: Intraoral Microscopic‐Assisted Sialolithotomy (IMAS) versus Robot‐Assisted Sialolithotomy and Sialendoscopy (RASS). We compared the characteristics of retrieved stones, surgical success rate, operative time, and post‐operative complications in both techniques. True surgical success was defined as successful stone extraction without reoccurrence within 12 months. Results The RASS technique was attempted in 60 patients and successful in 56 (93.3%) cases whereas the IMAS technique was performed in 52 patients and successful in 48 (92.3%) cases. The longest dimension of the predominant retrieved calculi was 9.6 ± 3.1 mm (range, 5–18 mm) for the robotic technique and 10 ± 4.8 mm (range, 5–30 mm) for the microscopic technique. The operative time for the robotic technique excluding robot setup time was 70.6 ± 24.8 min compared to 61.9 ± 42.4 min for microscopic technique (p = 0.018). No major adverse outcomes were reported; however, temporary lingual paresthesia was found in ten robotic (16.7%) and five microscopic (9.6%) cases. Conclusion The two techniques were comparable in terms of efficacy and safety for large stones. The robot has the advantage of intraoral high dynamic maneuverability and improved surgeon posture while the microscopic technique has the advantage of intraoral tactile feedback. The procedure was significantly shorter in duration with the microscope. Level of evidence III. Laryngoscope , 2023
Hepatic schistosomiasis is a prevalent form of chronic liver disease that drastically affects human health. Nevertheless, an antifibrotic drug that could suppress the development of hepatic fibrosis does not exist yet. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenol with multiple biological activities, on Schistosoma mansoni ( S. mansoni )-induced hepatic fibrosis and delineate the underlying molecular mechanism. Swiss male albino mice were randomly assigned into infected and non-infected groups. Hepatic schistosomiasis infection was induced via exposure to S. mansoni cercariae. 6 weeks later, resveratrol was administrated either as 20 mg/kg/day or 100 mg/kg/day for 4 weeks to two infected groups. Another group received vehicle and served as infected control group. At the end of the study, portal hemodynamic, biochemical, and histopathological evaluation of liver tissues were conducted. Remarkably, resveratrol significantly reduced portal pressure, portal and mesenteric flow in a dose-dependent manner. It improved several key features of hepatic injury as evidenced biochemically by a significant reduction of bilirubin and liver enzymes, and histologically by amelioration of the granulomatous and inflammatory reactions. In line, resveratrol reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory markers; TNF-α, IL-1β and MCP-1 mRNA, together with fibrotic markers; collagen-1, TGF-β1 and α-SMA. Moreover, resveratrol restored SIRT1/NF-κB balance in hepatic tissues which is the main switch-off control for all the fibrotic and inflammatory mechanisms. Taken together, it can be inferred that resveratrol possesses a possible anti-fibrotic effect that can halt the progression of hepatic schistosomiasis via targeting SIRT1/ NF-κB signaling.
This paper proposes a maiden intelligent controller design that consists of a Fuzzy Proportional–Integral–Derivative–Double Derivative (FPIDD²) controller whose parameters are fine-tuned using the Gradient-Based Optimization algorithm (GBO). The proposed FPIDD² regulator is employed as a secondary regulator for stabilizing the combined voltage and frequency loops in a two-area interconnected power system. It has been shown that the GBO optimization algorithm outperforms other optimization strategies such as the Chimp Optimization Algorithm (ChOA), the Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA), and the Gorilla Troops Optimization algorithm (GTO). The proposed FPIDD² controller is tested in a conventional two-area power system. Then, the investigation is expanded to a two-area hybrid system, with each area comprising a mix of traditional (thermal, gas, and hydraulic power plants) and renewable generation units (wind and solar power). Additionally, the proposed controller takes into account system nonlinearities (such as generation rate limitations, governor deadband, and communication time delays), system uncertainties, and load/renewables fluctuations. In the two tested systems, the dynamic responses of each system demonstrate that FPIDD² has a superior ability to attenuate the deviations in voltage and frequency in both areas of the system. In the studied conventional system, the proposed FPIDD² controller is compared with a PID controller tuned by the Multi-Objective Non-Linear Threshold Accepting Algorithm (MONLTA), which has been presented in the literature, and a Fuzzy PID (FPID) controller tuned by GBO. In the investigated hybrid system, the suggested FPIDD² regulator is compared to a GBO-tuned Integral Derivative-Tilted (ID-T) controller and FPID controller. As a fitness function (FF) for the GBO, the criteria of minimizing the integral time absolute error (ITAE) are applied. The results are presented in the form of MATLAB/SIMULINK time-domain simulations.
Multiphase machines have significant benefits over their three-phase counterparts. One of them is the possibility of further exploiting the dc-link voltage by injecting non-torque-related voltage harmonics in the x-y planes. This allows reaching higher modulation indices in the overmodulation (OVM) region of pulse width modulation (PWM) while avoiding torque ripple in motors with negligible space-harmonic effects. The most prominent OVM techniques are those based on the instantaneous minimization of the x-y voltage. These methods were devised just for five-phase drives and have the drawback that they lack generality. This paper overcomes this limitation by proposing an OVM strategy for symmetrical induction motor drives with any odd phase number n \unboldmath. The proposal achieves the minimum voltage distortion, and consequently, it greatly mitigates the \boldmath x-y current distortion. Indeed, it attains the lowest current distortion compared with existing techniques. It relies on carrier-based PWM in its design and implementation stages, and accordingly it is much simpler than previous methods. Furthermore, the inverter switching frequency (loss) is substantially reduced. Theoretical assessments are given for drives with odd n between 5 and 11. The experiments are performed with a symmetrical nine-phase induction motor with a single neutral point.
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) particularly in the field of Electric Vehicle charging applications has wide research opportunities because of its huge growth. The power transfer efficiency is of major concern and researchers are finding ways to improve it by reducing stages of the WPT and making it better than the wired EV charging method. The increasing penetration of charging stations in the grid brings many challenges and hence to find a suitable control scheme to enhance input power quality. For the most optimal operation and comprehensive support, the charging systems must incorporate a suitable converter topology, a well-defined control strategy, and comply with all relevant grid codes and standards. For smooth and efficient functioning these features must be included in the EV charging systems. This paper presents a review of single-stage topologies and the power factor correction methods employed for EV wireless charging. An overview of different charging methods is first presented then the AC input and DC input single-stage converter are discussed, and following that methodologies for improving power factor correction are reviewed with the comparative analysis from different literatures. Finally, the challenges in single-stage wireless power transfer (SSWPT) were addressed and the future scopes were discussed which provides the future research directions.
Background CLA (conjugated linoleic acid)-mediated activation of the schistosome tegument-associated sphingomyelinase and consequent disruption of the outer membrane might allow host antibodies to access the apical membrane antigens. Here, we investigated a novel approach to enhance specific antibody delivery to concealed surface membrane antigens of Schistosoma mansoni utilising antibody-conjugated-CLA nanomicelle technology. Methodology/Principal findings We invented and characterised an amphiphilic CLA-loaded whey protein co-polymer (CLA-W) as an IV injectable protein nanocarrier. Rabbit anti- Schistosoma mansoni infection (anti-SmI) and anti- Schistosoma mansoni alkaline phosphatase specific IgG antibodies were purified from rabbit sera and conjugated to the surface of CLA-W co-polymer to form antibody-conjugated-CLA-W nanomicelles (Ab-CLA-W). We investigated the schistosomicidal effects of CLA-W and Ab-CLA-W in a mouse model of Schistosoma mansoni against early and late stages of infection. Results showed that conjugation of nanomicelles with antibodies, namely anti-SmI, significantly enhanced the micelles’ schistosomicidal and anti-pathology activities at both the schistosomula and adult worm stages of the infection resulting in 64.6%-89.9% reductions in worm number; 72.5–94% and 66.4–85.2% reductions in hepatic eggs and granulomas, respectively. Treatment induced overall improvement in liver histopathology, reducing granuloma size and fibrosis and significantly affecting egg viability. Indirect immunofluorescence confirmed CLA-W-mediated antigen exposure on the worm surface. Electron microscopy revealed extensive ultrastructural damage in worm tegument induced by anti-SmI-CLA-W. Conclusion/Significance The novel antibody-targeted nano-sized CLA delivery system offers great promise for treatment of Schistosoma mansoni infection and control of its transmission. Our in vivo observations confirm an immune-mediated enhanced effect of the schistosomicidal action of CLA and hints at the prospect of nanotechnology-based immunotherapy, not only for schistosomiasis, but also for other parasitic infections in which chemotherapy has been shown to be immune-dependent. The results propose that the immunodominant reactivity of the anti-SmI serum, Schistosoma mansoni fructose biphosphate aldolase, SmFBPA, merits serious attention as a therapeutic and vaccine candidate.
In this paper, we investigate the impact of both static and dynamic effects of motion on Underwater visible light communication (UVLC) channels. While previous studies have focused on static channel modeling, we argue that dynamic channel modeling is crucial for accurate UVLC analysis. To model static and dynamic UVLC channels, we use the Monte Carlo ray tracing (MCRT) method in Zemax Optics Studio; a reliable and practical setup simulator that produces results similar to experimental data. We evaluate the effect of channel coding on system performance by comparing nine different combinations and using Goodness-of-Fit (GoF) tests to determine the best-fit distribution. Our results reveal that the static case outperforms the dynamic case in terms of raw performance without any coding. However, we also show that the bit error rate (BER) is severely impacted in various realistic scenarios for a dynamic environment. To improve the BER and achieve adequate received signal quality, we recommend using convolutional codes. This paper emphasizes the importance of dynamic channel modeling in UVLC and provides practical solutions to enhance the UVLC performance in dynamic environments. The findings of our study provide valuable insights into the performance of UVLC systems and emphasize the need for researchers and designers to account for the dynamic realistic behavior in the underwater channel to achieve optimal performance in UVLC systems for underwater communication applications.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is one of the most important commercial plastics but it is thermally unstable at processing temperatures. Therefore, heat stabilizers are widely used to safeguard by improving resistance of PVC products at high temperature. But most of them are a highly toxic that can cause severe health issues in humans and harmful to the environment. In the present study mixed of calcium/zinc stearate heat stabilizer and green Expandable graphite (EG) is prepared via hydrothermal treatment using additives of nontoxic, environmental protection. The characteristics of the thermal stability of poly vinyl chloride can be investigated by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) will be used to examine structure of the heat stabilizers, A universal testing equipment will be used to determine the mechanical properties and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). From TGA results the weight loss was 43.49% at 342°C for sample with Ca/Zn‐ stearate, while wt loss is 55.87% at 260°C for sample with EG which increase thermal stability. Differential scanning calorimetry affirmed the enhancement of PVC's thermal stability, showing a shift in the glass transition temperature an increase of 67°C. Mechanical tests indicated that samples with EG exhibited higher tensile strength and elongation at break, emphasizing the positive impact on PVC's mechanical properties. The burning test highlighted thermal stability of EG‐containing samples, retaining color and structure even after exposure to 180°C heat. This innovative approach not only enhances thermal stability but also aligns with eco‐friendly principles, making it a promising solution for improving PVC properties. Highlights Ca/Zn‐ stearate, expandable graphite developed by a safe hydrothermal process. Comprehensive analysis indicates improved thermal stability. Safe stabilization of eco‐friendly calcium/zinc, expandable graphite. Effective solution: Eco‐friendly, improved PVC properties. Expandable graphite improved mechanical properties of PVC.
Background Attachment material is one of the contributing factors to the degree of wear of the attachment components in mandibular implant-retained overdentures. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the wear behavior of 2 different attachment systems of dissimilar materials in mandibular implant-retained overdentures by qualitative and quantitative methods. Methods Two attachment systems of different materials were utilized (n = 16); Titach (Dental Evolutions Inc, Beverly Hills, CA, USA) with a titanium-to-titanium interface and Locator R-Tx (Zest Anchors Inc, Escondido, CA, USA) with a titanium-to-nylon interface. One thousand cycles of overdenture insertion and removal simulating 1-year clinical use were performed. All matrices were removed from the overdentures and all patrices were unscrewed from the implants for wear assessment quantitively using a stereomicroscope and qualitatively using a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed by using an independent sample t test. Results After cyclic loading, stereomicroscopic findings showed that the Titach group had statistically significant higher wear value than the Locator R-Tx group (p < 0.001). Moreover, scanning electron microscopy images showed noticeable abrasion in Titach patrix at the area of highest convexity. However, the Locator R-Tx matrix displayed an apparent tear of rubber inserts. Conclusions Titach attachment with the titanium-to-titanium interface revealed more wear than Locator R-Tx attachment with the titanium-to-nylon interface. Thus, the type of attachment material influences the degree of wear of the attachment components.
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