Salak is one of the fruits plants in Southeast Asia; there are at least 30 cultivars of salak. The size, shape, skin color, sweetness or even flesh color will be different depending on the cultivar. Thus, classification of salak based on their cultivar become a daily job for the fruit farmers. There are many techniques that can be used for fruit classification using computer vision technology. Deep learning is the most promising algorithm compared to another Machine Learning (ML) algorithm. This paper presents an image classification method on 4 types of salak (salak pondoh, salak gading, salak sideempuan and salak affinis) using a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), VGG16 and ResNet50. The dataset consists of 1000 images which having 250 of images for each type of salak. Pre-processing on the dataset is required to standardize the dataset by resizing the image into 224 * 224 pixels, convert into jpg format and augmentation. Based on the accuracy result from the model, the best model for the salak classification is ResNet50 which gave an accuracy of 84% followed by VGG16 that gave an accuracy of 77% and CNN which gave 31%. KeywordsSalak classificationDeep learningCNNResNet50VGG16
Vitamins (Vit) C and D are widely used as immunogenic supplements among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infected patients. The SAR-CoV-2 virus enters into the pulmonary endothelial cells through attachment to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 receptor (Ace2) and the proteolytic activity of Cathepsin L (Ctsl) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (Tmprss2) enzymes. This study aimed to determine the influence of Vit C and D on the mRNA expression of Ace2, Tmprss2, and Ctsl genes in the mouse lungs. Vitamins C and D were administrated to different groups of mice through intra-peritoneal route in doses equivalent to human for 30 days. Then, the mRNA expression of SARS-CoV-2 entry gene was analyzed using qRT-PCR. It is found that Vit D, but not C, upregulated significantly (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of Ace2 by more than six folds, while downregulated the expression of Ctsl and Tmprss2 genes by 2.8 and 2.2 folds, respectively. It can be concluded from this study that Vit D alters the mRNA expression of Ace2, Tmprss, and Ctsl genes in the mouse lungs. This finding can help us in understanding, at least in part, the molecular influence of Vit D on genes involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into the cells. © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.
Substance abuse is a worldwide problem with serious repercussions for patients and the communities where they live. Pregabalin (Lyrica), is a medication commonly used to treat neuropathic pain. Like other analgesic medications there has been concern about pregabalin abuse and misuse. Although it was initially suggested that pregabalin, like other gabapentinoids, has limited abuse liability, questions still remain concerning this inquiry. Changes in glutamate system homeostasis are a hallmark of adaptations underlying drug dependence, including down-regulation of the glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1; SLC1A2) and the cystine/glutamate antiporter (xCT; SLC7A11). In this study, it was found that pregabalin (90 mg/kg) produces a conditioned place preference (CPP), indicative of reinforcing effects that suggest a potential for abuse liability. Moreover, like other drugs of abuse, pregabalin also produced alterations in glutamate homeostasis, reducing the mRNA expression of Slc1a2 and Slc7a11 in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Amoxicillin clavulanic acid, a β-lactam antibiotic, blocked the reinforcing effects of pregabalin and normalized glutamate homeostasis. These results suggest that pregabalin has abuse potential that should be examined more critically, and that, moreover, the mechanisms underlying these effects are similar to those of other drugs of abuse, such as heroin and cocaine. Additionally, these results support previous findings showing normalization of glutamate homeostasis by β-lactam drugs that provides a novel potential therapeutic approach for the treatment of drug abuse and dependence.
In this research, the new auxiliary equation method (NAEM) for higher order nonlinear fractional Huxley equation is being employed to extricate the novel soliton solutions using Beta and M-Truncated fractional derivatives. For waves of finite amplitude, the Huxley equation demonstrates a substantial transfer of spectrum energy. A comparison of the solutions of the model with both fractional derivatives is also included in this research. various kinds of solitary traveling wave solutions, such as trigonometric, hyperbolic, exponential, rational functions, etc., are found. These types of solutions demonstrate the superiority of the novelty of the method. This method’s key advantage over others is that it provides more broad solutions with certain flexible parameters. 3D and 2D graphs are used graphically to demonstrate the dynamical structures of the solutions. The results are presented in a way that demonstrate the usefulness and competence of the approach used to handle various nonlinear fractional partial differential equations. Lastly, we investigate the comparison of the gain spectra for modulation instability and the depiction of certain noteworthy outcomes by illustratively depicting the 2D figures produced by carefully considering the parameters
Background: Glycation is implicated in the pathophysiology of many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and aging. Several natural and synthetic compounds were investigated for their antiglycation activity. We evaluated the antiglycation effect of vanillic acid (VA) using in vitro and in vivo experimental models. Methods: In vitro, bovine serum albumin (BSA) (50 mg/ml) was incubated with glucose (50 mM) with or without VA at 1.0-100 mM for 1 week at 37°C, and then, excitation/emission fluorescence was measured at 370/440 nm to determine glycation inhibition. The cytoprotective effect of VA was evaluated using RAW 264.7 cells incubated with or without VA at 7.8-500 μM along with 100-400 μM of methylglyoxal for 48 hours, and cell viability was determined using the MTT assay. Aminoguanidine (AMG) was used as a positive control in both in vitro and cell culture experiments. In vivo, 52 streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups and treated with 0, 1.5, 4.5, or 15 mg/kg VA for four weeks. Serum fructosamine and blood glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were then measured, and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) were detected in the kidneys and the skin of deboned tails using an immunohistochemistry assay. Results: VA caused a concentration-dependent effect against BSA glycation (IC50 of 45.53 mM vs. 5.09 mM for AMG). VA enhanced cell viability at all concentrations of VA and methylglyoxal. VA did not affect serum fructosamine or blood HbA1c levels, although it markedly decreased AGEs in the kidney in a dose-dependent manner and decreased AGEs in the skin of deboned tail tissues. Conclusion: VA had significant antiglycation activity at cellular and long-term glycation.
The p-toluene sulfonic acid (p-TSA) catalyzed cascade ring closing transformation has been executed for the preparation of novel spiroquinazolinone compounds 4 and 5 by the reaction between anthranilamide and cyclohexanone followed by subsequent acylation. These molecules were then examined against the inhibitory activity of Acetylcholinesterase (AchE). The tested compounds revealed moderate anti-AChE activity of IC50 values ranging from 46.675 to 14.256 µM). The described results lead toward the development of compounds 4b and 5c having promising anti-AChE activities with IC50 values at the micromolar level. The docking study suggests that these hybrid spiroquinazolinone scaffold might facilitate the further development of investigated compounds as anti-Alzheimer agents.
Purpose: This paper aims to estimate the use of solar water heaters in Jordanian households and their impact on improving quality of life as well as the Human Development Index (HDI) using data of Jordan. Also to estimate the impact of the rise in electricity prices and power consumption intensity on the installing capacity. Then to predict the solar water heaters characteristics using analytical equations for comparison with the statistical data. Methodology: The study was conducted through a survey covered an area of 10 km in diameter from Al Zaytoonah University of Jordan. The area sampling method was implemented. The number of flats studied by the survey was 1033, with a total of 5597 occupants. The survey included questions dealing with the number of households, number of occupants in a given household, area of each flat, and the type and number of solar water heaters installed. Findings: The results obtained showed that the overall number of households who enjoyed solar water heaters was 33%. The Jordanian average solar water heaters area reached 0.22 m ² /capita. The increase in the use of solar energy led to an increase in the per capita share of electrical energy, which pushup Jordan's classification from medium class (0.622) to high class (0.729) on the global human development index. Originality: For the first time, a study has been conducted to study the effect of installing solar water heaters on the human development index (HDI). Practical value: Jordan Energy Strategy “2020–2030” aims to equip 30% of the households with a SWH system by 2030. More use of renewable energy in solar water heaters means less dependence on conventional power and more reduction in CO 2 emissions, which means more developments in human quality of life and high HDI.
Targeting the intrinsic metabolism of immune or tumor cells is a therapeutic strategy in autoimmunity, chronic inflammation or cancer. Metabolite repair enzymes may represent an alternative target class for selective metabolic inhibition, but pharmacological tools to test this concept are needed. Here, we demonstrate that phosphoglycolate phosphatase (PGP), a prototypical metabolite repair enzyme in glycolysis, is a pharmacologically actionable target. Using a combination of small molecule screening, protein crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations and NMR metabolomics, we discover and analyze a compound (CP1) that inhibits PGP with high selectivity and submicromolar potency. CP1 locks the phosphatase in a catalytically inactive conformation, dampens glycolytic flux, and phenocopies effects of cellular PGP-deficiency. This study provides key insights into effective and precise PGP targeting, at the same time validating an allosteric approach to control glycolysis that could advance discoveries of innovative therapeutic candidates.
Introduction: Student in a maternity nursing program must be engaged in practical training and they must be well prepared and directed along the way to becoming qualified professionals. Objective: The study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation exercise on anxiety among male nursing students undergoing maternity clinical training. Methods: A quasi-experimental, pre-post study was conducted on nursing at Arab American University Palestine. The sample of the study consisted of 48 male nursing students enrolled in the maternity nursing course. They were selected through convenience sampling. This study was conducted on one group of male nursing students that received Jacobson’s progressive muscle relaxation exercise for five consecutive days per week. The S-anxiety scale (STAI Form Y-1) was applied to collect data before and after the intervention. Results: The magnitude of anxiety reduction after the progressive muscle relaxation exercise was greater than before (t (47) =21.2, p < .05). Conclusion: The current study’s findings indicated the influence of progressive muscle relaxation on maternity clinical setting anxiety reduction among male nursing students.
The learning environment usually raises various types of anxiety based on the student’s abilities to use technology and their abilities to overcome the negative feelings of an individual being watched all the time and criticized. Hence, learners still feel anxious while using computers and socializing in an e-learning environment. Learners who are faced with computer and AI tools are confused and frustrated. The uneasiness stems from anxiety or uneasiness, which is highly evident in daily interaction with computers and artificial intelligence tools or devices in e-learning contexts. The uneasiness stems from anxiety or uneasiness, which is highly evident in the daily interaction with computers and artificial intelligence tools or devices in e-learning contexts. To investigate this phenomenon empirically, a questionnaire was distributed among a group of undergraduate students who are studying different majors. This study aims to investigate the role of social anxiety and computer anxiety in an e-learning environment at the university level. Universities in the Gulf area are among those implementing e-learning systems. In spite of this, recent studies have shown that most students at Gulf universities are still resistant to using online systems; hence, it is necessary to determine the type of anxiety that creates such resistance and their relationship with other external variables such as motivation, satisfaction and self-efficacy. Students would be more likely to use e-learning tools and participate more effectively in their courses using the accessible electronic channels when the degree of anxiety is low. In this study, we have proposed a theoretical framework to investigate the role of social anxiety and computer anxiety in e-learning environments in the Gulf region. We examined how different variables such as satisfaction, motivation and self-efficacy can negatively or positively affect these two types of anxiety.
Introduction The COVID-19 situation is placing nurses under great stress which may negatively influence their health. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the association between occupational stress and general health of critical care nurses during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 150 Jordanian critical care nurses completed the study. Results Occupational stress was a significant predictor of nurses’ general health. Female gender, young, living with elderly or persons having chronic diseases, and little nursing experience were associated with worse general health, while living with elderly or persons having chronic diseases were associated with more occupational stress. Conclusion Providing psychological support services for critical care nurses is required to reduce the impact of occupational stress on nurses’ poor general health.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disorder whose etiology includes genetic and environmental factors. The non-classical Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) class I chain-related gene A (MICA) gene has been associated with increased susceptibility to T1D as the interaction of MICA to the Natural Killer Group 2D (NK2GD) receptors found on the cell surface of natural killer (NK) cells and T cells is responsible for inducing immune responses. MICA polymorphisms were reported in association with T1D among different ethnic groups. However, data from different populations revealed conflicting results, so the association of MICA polymorphisms with predisposition to T1D remains uncertain. The aim of this sequencing-based study was to identify, for the first time, the possible MICA alleles and/or genotypes that could be associated with T1D susceptibility in the Jordanian population. Polymorphisms in exons 2–4 and the short tandem repeats (STR) in exon 5 of the highly polymorphic MICA gene were analyzed. No evidence for association between T1D and MICA alleles/genotypes was found in this study, except for the MICA*011 allele which was found to be negatively associated with T1D (p = 0.023, OR = 0.125). In conclusion, MICA polymorphisms seem not to be associated with increasing T1D susceptibility in Jordanian patients.
Objective: Asthma is one of the most prevalent chronic diseases with a substantial impact on the health status of affected patients. Further research is necessary to identify factors contributing to poor asthma control. The current study aimed to investigate the factors associated with poor asthma control among adult asthmatic patients. Methods: In this case-control study, the Asthma Control Test (ACT) was translated into Arabic and distributed to adults with asthma attending two hospitals in Jordan to evaluate the degree of asthma control. The following variables were collected for each patient: sociodemographic information, comorbidities, appropriate use of inhaler technique, spirometric measurements, and medications use. Binary regression was used to evaluate factors associated with asthma control. Results: A total of 314 participants with a mean age of 51.47 years (±16.37) completed the study. ACT score had a mean of 16.68 (±4.86). The majority of asthmatic patients had insufficiently controlled asthma (64.6%). Binary regression results showed that previous respiratory infection history (p = 0.014, OR = 0.473 (95%CI 0.261–0.857)), higher exposure to irritants (p = 0.010, OR = 0.747 (95%CI 0.598–0.933)) decreased the odds of being in the controlled asthma group. Patients receiving inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) had higher odds of being in the controlled asthma group (p = 0.039, OR = 2.372 (95%CI 1.043–5.392)). Conclusions: The majority of asthma patients had insufficiently managed disease. The main factors that contributed to poor asthma control were respiratory infection history, increased exposure to asthma symptoms triggers, and ICS nonuse.
This article. in the introduction, gives a brief historic description on surfaces of finite Chen-type and of coordinate finite Chen-type according to the first, second and third fundamental form of a surface in the Euclidean E^3 space . Then, an important class of surfaces was introduced, namely, the ruled surfaces were classified according to its coordinate finite Chen type with respect to the second fundamental form.
This research aims to provide a predictive model of essential factors influencing the behavioral intention to use sustainable cloud-based quality management systems among academics in Jordan. A comprehensive research model was developed based on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT2) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), which was tested using cross-sectional data. The research sample covers Jordanian higher education institutions (23 governmental and private universities), and the unit of analysis includes 500 academics. The research adapts and modifies the UTAUT2 model and TPB to explain behavioral intention to use sustainable cloud-based quality management systems in developing countries. The proposed model explained 0.478 percent of behavioral intention variance and 0.127 percent of the user behavior variance. Three constructs are found to be significant predictors: perceived behavioral control, performance expectancy, and facilitating conditions. The attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm are not significant predictors. The research contributes to the literature in several ways. First, it extends previous studies by examining predictors of the behavioral intention to use SCQMS in higher education institutions. Second, it provides rigorous empirical evidence that incorporating the UTAUT2 model with the TPB produced a substantial improvement in the variance explained in behavioral intention compared to the prior research conducted in developing contexts. Third, this research provides useful insight into university management. The research provides a better understanding of the essential factors influencing the behavior intention to use sustainable cloud-based quality management systems in Jordanian Universities. Thus, the research model provides better explanatory power than previous studies in business literature and developing markets.
This study aims to recognize the sustainability independence of the Jordanian Association of Certified Public Accountants (JACPA/JCPA) and its impact on the credibility gap of the accounting information of companies operating in Jordan. This study demonstrates the effects of the apparent and intellectual sustainability independence on the credibility gap of accounting information. A total of 93 online questionnaires were analyzed using multiple regressions. The results revealed an impact of the apparent independence of the JCPA on the quality of the information credibility gap related to service fees, and no statistically significant impact for both consulting and accounting service fees was found. This study also concludes research regarding the impact of intellectual independence of the JCPA on the information credibility gap regarding the code of professional ethics and the commitment of auditing offices to their customers.
In this investigation, two different models for two coupled asymmetrical oscillators, known as, coupled forced damped Duffing oscillators (FDDOs) are reported. The first model of coupled FDDOs consists of a nonlinear forced damped Duffing oscillator (FDDO) with a linear oscillator, while the second model is composed of two nonlinear FDDOs. The Krylov–Bogoliubov–Mitropolsky (KBM) method, is carried out for analyzing the coupled FDDOs for any model. To do that, the coupled FDDOs are reduced to a decoupled system of two individual FDDOs using a suitable linear transformation. After that, the KBM method is implemented to find some approximations for both unforced and forced damped Duffing oscillators (DDOs). Furthermore, the KBM analytical approximations are compared with the fourth-order Runge–Kutta (RK4) numerical approximations to check the accuracy of all obtained approximations. Moreover, the RK4 numerical approximations to both coupling and decoupling systems of FDDOs are compared with each other.
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple and low-cost method of increasing water quality. However, it takes about 6 hours of exposure to solar radiation. The elimination of harmful pathogenic germs from drinking water can be accelerated using a combination of sun disinfection and nanotechnology. In this study, a hybrid water purification technique using solar water disinfection, Titanium Oxide (TiO2), and natural mineral clays was investigated. TiO2, natural kaolin clay nanoparticles, and a mixture of TiO2 and natural clay were added to contaminated wastewater containers at different concentrations. After that, the containers were exposed to sunlight for different time intervals. Samples were then collected from all tests to measure the total counts of Total Coliform and Escherichia coli (E.coli) using the IDEXX system. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 and natural kaolin clay to wastewater with solar water disinfection reduced the total count of the pathogenic microorganisms and decreased the time needed time for the disinfection process compared to using solar energy alone. The results also showed that the optimum concentration of the TiO2, which yielded the shortest purification time and lowest levels of pathogenic microorganisms, was 0.006 g/ml. In contrast, the most effective concentration of natural clay was 0.0015 g/ml. Moreover, the results showed that the optimum concentration of the mixture of TiO2 and natural clay, which speeds up the purification time and lowest the level of pathogenic microorganisms was 0.006 g/ml for TiO2 and 1.2 g/ml for the natural clay.
A relationship to predict the load-displacement curve for axially loaded piles in sandy soil is presented by using the tri-linear softening model to describe the shaft load-displacement relationships, as well as a bi-linear model is adopted to characterize the unit end resistance-displacement reaction in the region of the pile's tip soil. Subsequently, an analytical mathematical approach to a single pile-surrounding soil interaction relation is provided as a nonlinear analysis to obtain the load-displacement curves. The mechanical response of piles under compression loading was analysed, and thus, an analytical method is developed to establish a solution for the entire compression process of the piles. A combination of the prementioned models with the pile response under compression loading was employed to establish a fully analytical approach. Furthermore, additional analytical approaches and field-tested pile loading history cases were utilized to prove the degree of exactness of the suggested method by comparing the experimental load-displacement curves with the ones founded by the proposed theoretical method in this work. The results of this study illustrate that the proposed method could be considered as an analytical mathematical technique for utilizing both the tri-linear softening model and the bi-linear elastic-plastic model for the purpose of predicting the load-displacement curves of the axially loaded pile with a 98% degree of accuracy compared to field load tests results.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.