Modeling wind speed has a signiﬁcant impact on wind energy systems and has attracted attention from numerous researchers. The prediction of wind speed is considered a challenging task because of its natural nonlinear and random characteristics. Therefore, machine learning models have gained popularity in this field. In this paper, three machine learning approaches – Gaussian process regression (GPR), bagged regression trees (BTs) and support vector regression (SVR) – were applied for prediction of the weekly wind speed (maximum, mean, minimum) of the target station using other stations, which were specified as reference stations. Daily wind speed data, gathered via the Malaysian Meteorological Department at 14 measuring stations in Malaysia covering the period between 2000 and 2019, were used. The results showed that the average weekly wind speed had superior performance to the maximum and minimum wind speed prediction. In general, the GPR model could effectively predict the weekly wind speed of the target station using the measured data of other stations. Errors found in this model were within acceptable limits. The findings of this model were compared with the measured data, and only Kota Kinabalu station showed an unacceptable range of prediction. To investigate the prediction performance of the proposed model, two models were used as the comparison models: the BTs model and SVR model. Although the comparison of GPR with the BTs model at Kuching station showed slightly better performance for the BTs model in maximum and minimum wind speed prediction, the prediction outcomes of the other 13 stations showed better performance for the proposed GPR model. Moreover, the proposed model generated smaller prediction errors than the SVR model at all stations.
PurposeThe aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of maxillary cortical bone graft chips harvested by bone scraper, covered with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in alveolar clefts.Patients and methodsSeventy-two cleft patients were examined for their eligibility to be part in this comparative study; they were randomly divided into group A, thirty-six patients had received cancellous bone chips from iliac crest; group B, thirty-six had received cortical bone chips harvested from maxilla using a curved bone scraper, covered with PRF. The clinical success over the follow-up period was evaluated on the basis of elimination of the oronasal fistula, radiographic assessment of bone graft volume, achievement of the osseous continuity of the alveolar arch, and the extent of the vertical bone height.ResultsThe mean of volume gained in group A was 0.8053 ± 0.9682, while for group B was 0.7397 ± 0.7703. The amount of vertical bone loss between groups was registered, and the chi-square test revealed insignificant differences between study groups (p = 0.547). The result of the frequency of fistula development after grafting in both groups was insignificant (p = 0.074). Also, for the continuity of the maxilla as a one piece, the results were insignificant differences between study groups (p = 0.058).Conclusion In conclusion of our study, intraoral harvesting of maxillary cortical chips by bone scraper covered with PRF is able to achieve a valid functional and aesthetic support in alveolar cleft patients, meeting the reconstructive goals.
Asphalt cement, commonly known as asphalt or bituminous, is one of the basic materials used to produce hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road pavements. In the past, asphalt was mixed directly with other materials to produce a conventional HMA without any modification. However, the asphalt binder has failed in many places worldwide due to climate change and various issues such as cracking, bleeding, shoving, etc. Therefore, they modify asphalt cement by using many types of additives to overcome these problems. This work aims to review these studies that have been concerned with improving asphalt cement as a pre-action before mixing it with other materials to make modified hot mix asphalt (HMA) for road pavements. The present paper reviews published studies (1978–2019). It is evident from literature survey studies that modification of asphalt cement gives more efficient, economic, and eco-friendly results.
Correction for ‘Mechanism and principle of doping: realizing of silver incorporation in CdS thin film via doping concentration effect’ by A. S. Najm et al. , RSC Adv. , 2022, 12 , 29613–29626, https://doi.org/10.1039/D2RA04790J.
Radiation plays an important role in the field of life sciences and medicine as well as in the real life. Blood serum groups (A, B, AB, and O) samples were collected from 8 healthy men with age ranging from 20 to 35 years. The blood samples were irradiated with gamma rays that emitted from ⁶⁰Co for different times. The current and voltage were measured, and the electrical resistance was calculated for all samples. It was found that the maximum electrical resistance value, for the B, AB and O samples, is about 25000 Ω. However, the lowest value was obtained for the unirradiated samples for all groups. The current value for the irradiated samples (A, AB, and O) was the highest at the irradiation time of 15 min. The conductivities were increased with increasing the voltage, and its highest value was found for A type at irradiation time of 15 and 20 min. Also, the highest value for the irradiated O group occurred at 10 min.
A novel 2-[-2-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazolyl) azo]-5-dimethyl amino benzoic acid was synthesized from 2-amino-4,5-dimethyl thiazole. The azo ligand was obtained by the diazotization of 2-amino-4,5-dimethyl thiazole and coupling with 3-dimethyl aminobenzoic acid in an alkaline alcoholic solution. The compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods such as 1 H, 13 C NMR, UV-Vis, FT-IR, mass spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, standard characterization techniques including elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, molar conductivity, and FESEM were employed for characterization. These studies revealed octahedral geometries around the Co(III) and Cd(II) ions. The prepared compounds were screened for bioactivity against Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Penicillium. sp. MTT assay demonstrated that the synthesized compounds had excellent anticancer activity against the breast carcinoma cell lines (MCF-7), proposing them as a suitable candidate for future anticancer therapies. Docking was also employed to evaluate the cancer cells' physical properties and the inhibitory action of the synthesized compounds against the cancer cells.
In this work, novel channel plasmon polariton (CPPs) based on symmetric double trenched structures are proposed and analyzed numerically. The dispersion characteristics over a special spectral range (0.7–1.7 μm) are studied in detail. The selected band of wavelength is chosen to ensure the existence of the CPP fundamental mode. The real effective index and losses (LdB) are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed structure. Also, a comparative study of the metal type (including gold and silver) is also performed. The results show that the gold–based CPPs structures are overcome the silver-based structures in terms of losses. A 24.71 dB/um at 0.925 μm wavelength is obtained which provides a good candidate for a small size photonic logic gate allowing to increase the integration density in photonic integrated logic gates.
Magnetic Levitation System (MLS) is a private examination community model significant for arranging and looking at industrial control structures. The predominance of the alluring lift outlines is perilous because of the standard shortcoming in mass, the solid fluctuating powers between the magnets, and the clamor impacts draining from the sensor and data channels. From that point, control wisdom is a significant issue in arranging a control outline for an appealing stature as the models are not 100% exact and normal shortcomings should be considered. The world class is the objective; everything is equivalent, to turn out to be better, quicker or more profitable than others. This paper proposes an arrangement for an Adaptive Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) controller to get MLS in a static locale by keeping an appealing ball suspended noticeable all around inside sight of weaknesses and contrasting the outcome with uniform control by a family member, the PID and Primary Integrative Derivatives Controller (PID). The essential objective is to get the ideal conduct by getting the best inspiration for the coordinators.. Reenactments were made with the arrival of MATLAB 2019b, and the great outcomes acquired show that the arranged support meets the tip top shortcoming versus the shortcoming of the model and takes into consideration the positional article to be situated with uncommon exactness.
Nanotechnology is one of the important technologies in recent years, which leads to great improvements in many areas of application, whether in the fields of electronics, medicine, physics and chemistry. Thin films of zinc sulfide nanoparticles were deposited onto glass substrates by thermal evaporation from crystals of ZnS NPs. The change in the morphological and structural properties of the membranes deposited in different substrates (100-200 and 300 ° C) was investigated by XRD, SEM, and AFM. The results obtained from XRD showed that the membranes are structured in a cubic zinc mixture with (111) preferential orientation. The size of the nanoparticles ranges from (8-22) nm through the study of FESEM. Also, by examining EDX, the main elements of the compound and the atomic and weight ratios were identified. AFM showed that the surface roughness increases with increasing temperature. The strong cubic structure taken as thin layers allowed us to conclude that ZnS NPs can be used as solar cells.
In the current work, 1,2,3-triazole and 1,3,4-thiadiazole rings were combined in the same structure via a multi-steps synthetic pathway to present a series of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives. The newly synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and mass spectra. The final compounds and their precursors were in vitro tested as antibacterial agents by well diffusion method against the Gram-negative strains (Helicobacter Pylori, Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli O157) and the Gram-positive strain of Staphylococcus aureus. The bioassay indicated that all the tested compounds were not active or possessed a week to excellent antibacterial activity depending on the type of the tested bacteria and the structure of the target compounds.
Evaluation of bactericidal and bacteriostatic potentials of leaves and stem bark of Diospyros mespiliformis against clinical and foodborne bacterial pathogens Evaluation of Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic Potentials of Leaves and Stem Bark of Diospyros mespiliformis against Clinical and Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens
The importance of medicinal plants has remarkably increased in which some are distinguished by their natural products that help them resist the recalcitrant bacterial strains.This study aimed to determine antibacterial activity of Diospyros mespiliformis leaves and stem bark extracts against clinical (Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella spp.) and foodborne (Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) pathogens. Methanol and aqueous extracts of D. mespiliformis leaves and stem bark were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing using disc diffusion test. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations were determined by broth dilution test. All the clinical and foodborne pathogens were inhibited after treatment with extract in disk diffusion test with range 6.00-16.00 mm although there was total resistance (0.00 mm) by Klebsiella spp. to the 10.00 mg/mL concentration of the stem bark methanol and aqueous extracts. The range of MIC values was between 1.25 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL while that of minimum bactericidal concentrations was between 2.5 mg/mL and 5.0 mg/mL, also with resistance to the highest concentration of 5.0 mg/mL by Klebsiella spp. In conclusion, the D. mespiliformis extracts exhibited antimicrobial activitiesand thus could be developed as antibiotics and as natural sanitizersfor washing raw food materials.
The Brazilian Amazon is affected by large forest fires resulting from the combination between stronger droughts and human activities. The monitoring of forest fire distribution and its mapping on a large regional scale, especially with remote sensing remains a challenge because the impacts of forest fires are less visible than lands changing and because its spectral signature changes rapidly because of the new growth, until if damages to the forest has outcomes for the structure of forests. We propose a new approach based on the use of the fractional forest cover maps from CLASlite with Landsat data for detected forest fire impacts. The method applied in Paragominas, is a county in the agricultural frontier of the Amazon in Brazil, covering an area of 19,395 km², was impacted by a large fire during the 2015 dryness. The degradation forester by fire had detected by using 2016 Landsat images. A method has been validated with observation points and aerial photo interpretation. The results showed the Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation band increased clearly in the burned area. This variable is useful to map the extent of the burned area.
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that aids in the assimilation of phosphorus and calcium in the body. It’s well-known for keeping calcium levels in check. Several studies have recently exposed that vitamin D plays a wide variety of roles in mineral equilibrium. Vitamin D synthesis pathways and receptors have been discovered in a number of tissues, where they play a crucial role in immune system regulation. In addition to osteomalacia and rickets, vitamin D deficiency is related to a number of bacterial and metabolic disorders. Vitamin D deficiency has been attributed to the spread of tuberculosis in latest studies. Vitamin D deficiency is typical in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. As a outcome, sustaining vitamin D levels in pulmonary tuberculosis would be beneficial to tuberculosis treatment. Vitamin levels can be preserved at recommended levels by maintaining a balanced diet and taking multivitamin supplements. This analysis distinguishes the function of vitamin D in a variety of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, as well as the impacts of supplement of vitamin D on TB care. Because of the clinical improvements seen in tuberculosis patients after vitamin D supplement, more research is needed.
To ensure that people have access to safe drinking water, it is necessary to evaluate quality of the water produced in water treatment plants (WTPs) and to maintain high performance efficiency. This work aims at using a combined Comprehensive Pollution Index (CPI) and water quality index (WQI) to evaluate and characterize the water quality produced by eleven WTPs in Baghdad City and their efficiency during autumn 2019 to summer 2020. Nine water quality parameters (WQPs) including pH, turbidity (TUR.), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), chloride (Cl-), nitrate (NO3-), iron (Fe), Aluminum (Al) and total coliform (TC) were measured. A comparison of the WQPs levels of the treated water with the World Health Organization (WHO) and Iraqi Criteria and Standards of water’s chemical limits (ICS) showed that all WQPs exceeded these guidelines except pH and NO3-. Due to the comparison, the water produced by the eleven WTPs was unsuitable for drinking. Based on result of the CPI classification, the Al-Sader, Al-Baldiat, and Al-Kadhimiya WTPs were slightly polluted, CPI(0.41-1.00) while the other WTPs were medium polluted, CPI (1.01-2.00). The water produced by the eleven WTPs was classified in terms of WQI values as poor (51-75) to very poor (76-100) for all WTPs during the study period except Al-Wathba, Al-Qadisya, Al-Dora and Al-Rasheed which are classified as Unsuitable for Drinking(WQI>100). In the current study, a new tool was introduced to evaluate the performance efficiency in terms of CPI and/or WQI values. Based on this tool, the efficiency of the eleven WTPs during the study period ranged from low to very low for the older WTPs to medium for the newer WTPs. This assures the necessity to undertake serious actions in monitoring the water treatment plants and in managing it properly.
Asymmetric SOI waveguide is suggested and analyzed in this paper. The total height and the total width of the proposed waveguide are 1 µm and 1.5 µm, respectively. Asymmetric SOI platform consists of a layer of silicon with a thickness of 0.2 µm over an insulating material (silica) with a thickness of 0.35 µm and a rib with height of 0.35 µm . The rib is divided into two parts. First part contains a layer of silicon and extending from the silica layer substrate and the second part contained (SCHOTT N-BK7) material. The width and height of the rib of the waveguide has been changed many times. Some properties of SOI slab such as the effective refractive index, propagation length and losses have been studied and calculated using the finite element method (FEM) and the supposed waveguide is modeled by using COMSOL Multiphysics software.
This paper provided an introduction to the main concept and technique necessary for someone who wishes to carry out numerical experiments involving stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The basic theory of SDEs, convergences and accelerated genetic algorithm are presented in sections 2, 3 and 4, and in the one-dimensional case for simplicity of understanding. Strong and Weak approximations are discussed in section 5. Numerical results are dealt with in section 6. Stability appears in section 7.
This study is conducted with the aim of evaluating the spatial distribution of children with asthma in Al-Muthanna Governorate, identifying the health status of children under 15 years old for the year 2019, as well as presenting a method for analyzing the geographical distribution of the infected children through the spatial analysis tools available in geographic information systems. The analytical descriptive approach has been adopted which is based on quantitative methods and cartographic representation, starting with data collection and processing by applying the methodology of spatial analysis of the cases of asthma in Al-Muthanna Governorate. GIS (Arc 10.6) has been used for doing the cartographic analysis, and displaying the results through tables, charts and maps using the standard distance, Direction Distribution and Kernel Density analysis. The study has found a spatial variation in the distribution of the disease among the administrative units of the governorate in terms of the numerical and relative distribution of asthma cases among children in the districts and sub-districts of Al-Muthanna. The values ranged among the highest percentage recorded at Al-Samawah (37%) and the lowest one (1.2%) in Al-Salman. The governorate recorded a clear increase in the prevalence of asthma, amounting to (256,2) per 10,000 children. The year 2019 has witnessed an increase in the level of disease prevalence in comparison to the previous years, as it is significantly higher than 2015 by (38.4%).
The reaction of sodium silicate with 3-(chloropropyl)triethoxysilane (CPTES) and tin chloride (SnCl2) was carried out at room temperature and pressure. The template (CPTES) was removed by calcinations at 500 οC and give solid tin onto silica (labeled as RHASn). The tetragonal structure of SnO2 confirms by XRD patterns onto the silica surface. A reduced carbon percentage with the presence of Sn onto silica after calcinations was deducted by elemental analysis. FT-IR recorded a vibration of Si-O-Sn; while UV-VIS-DR spectrum reflects that the Sn species in tetrahedral environments or hexacoordinated polymeric Sn-O-Sn type species could be formed. RHASn had 87.34 m2 gm−1 as a specific surface area and the pore size ranged between 2-5 nm falls in the microporous range. The RHASn prepared was applied as an adsorbent to remove the brilliant blue (BB) and methylene blue (MB) dyes from aqueous solutions. Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used for investigating the significant variables that have a direct relationship with the BB and MB dyes removal i.e. RHASn dose, initial pH, temperature, and time. The obtained results showed a high removal percentage for BB and MB dyes, reached up 97.2 % and 98.1 %, respectively. This work indicates that the ability of RHASn to be an effective adsorbent in treating wastewater containing organic dyes.
The probiotic bacteria are characterized to produce compounds have an antibacterial potential and working as immunomodulators, the purpose of this study is evaluation the antibacterial activity and topical healing ability of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by probiotic bacteria whichis Enterococcus faecalis in skin wounds in laboratory animals, and investigate what mechanism EPSs will take to modify the immune response after apply to wounds. The experimental design of this study has several steps as following 100 urine specimen was collected from patients with UTI for isolation and identification E. faecalis followed by extraction and purification EPSs from the obtained bacteria by using ethanol precipitation method and dialysis bag, the concentration of carbohydrate in EPS was estimated according to Dubois method relying on the standard curve of glucose, the four concentration was prepared from purified EPSs (0.125, 0.250, 0,5 and 1 mg/ ml) to evaluate the antibacterial activity against S. aureus in vitro by using agar diffusion method, finally selected the concentration that recorded the highest antibacterial activity for ointment preparation to evaluate the healing ability of the EPSs in vivio, this experiment was included six groups, the animals were anesthetizing by injecting them into the abdominal cavity with Chloral Hydrate 10% (0.35 ml / 100 g) the circle wound (diameter 10 mm) was performed with punch biopsy .Group I : treated with normal Saline daily. Group II: treated with Vaseline only daily. Group III: treated by the ointment only daily. Group IV: the wound was contaminated with S.aureus ( by pour 150 ml of bacteria suspension over the wound surface) and after 2 hours the ointment was applied daily. The wound diameter was calculated after 13 day, the immunological parameters of this experiment were included white blood cell count and differential counting, Toll Like Receptor 2 level, interleukin 10, 17 level measured after 7 days of treatment. The result of this study reported 5 % E. faecalis was isolated from the urine specimens and EPS contained 88 % of carbohydrates, on the other hand the concentration (1 mg /ml) showed the highest antibacterial activity. for in vivo study group IV expressed the highest rate of wound healing and highest TLR-2, IL-10 and 17 level with a significant difference at p ≤ 0.05 comparison with other groups, while the total white blood cell account and absolute number was varied between the studied groups. Depending on the obtained results, the current study concluded the purified EPS showed an antibacterial activity potential against S. aureus in different concentrations in vitro study, also purified EPSs from E. faecalis showed a healing ability significantly when used as a topical ointment on the skin wound contaminated with S.aureus which played rule as an immunoregulation by induce 1L-10 production and reduce the inflammatory stage during healing process.
A huge amount of textile wastewater is discharged every year from several industries that must be treated. This work aims to assess the ability of an electrocoagulation removal of Reactive Blue dye (RBD) from synthetic textile wastewater using plane-perforated aluminum electrodes connected in a bipolar connection. The kinetics of reaction and thermodynamic parameters have been studied. The effect of power supplied mode was investigated and compared using two modes; Constant Current Mode (CCM) (at 3 A) and Constant Voltage Mode (CVM) (at 20 volt) along the period of experiments (the electrolysis time: 2-70 min), and the pH was 8. The results obtained show that the removal efficiency of RBD using CCM was higher compared to that obtained in the case of CVM. After 70 min, the former technique provided 98.82% of RBD removal while the latter mode provided 97.74% of removal efficiency at the same condition of initial RBD concentration (100 ppm) and pH 8. Despite the slight difference between the two results obtained, this finding proved that the CCM was relatively more efficient and cost-effective than the CVM. The order of the CCM was a first-order while it was a second-order for the other mode. Moreover, both of these processes are endothermic.
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