This work reports the fabrication and characterization of p-type organic metal–semiconductor–metal (MSM) Schottky barrier visible photodetector. The photodetector structure is interdigitated planar Al/pentacene/Al. Pentacene thin films were deposited by thermal vacuum deposition technique on an n-Si <111> substrate. The x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement showed that the pentacene thin film exhibited a polycrystalline triclinic (anorthic) nature. The film's morphology was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) which showed vertically aligned nanograins and distinct boundaries. Pentacene chemical analysis was performed using energy-dispersive x-rays (EDX). The optical properties of pentacene were studied by UV–visible (UV–VIS) absorbance spectra. The photodetector parameters were extracted from current–voltage (I–V) curves at room temperature under dark and illuminated conditions for applied voltages from − 4 V to 4 V and optical power ranging from 4 µw to 86.5 µw at 620 nm. The device's dark environment parameters have been analyzed by conventional thermionic theory and Cheung's functions. These parameters are compared with contrasts such as saturation current, barrier height, and ideality factor. The estimated photodetection parameters include responsivity (3.37 A/W), detectivity (5.59 × 108 mHz½W−1), and sensitivity (4.65), and the device exhibited an external quantum efficiency of more than 1 (675%). The capacitance–voltage (C–V) characteristics at different frequencies were also examined. The doping concentration, space charge width, the built-in voltage, barrier height, and maximum electric field were extracted from the C–V measurements. The results of the study reveal that the Al/pentacene/Al organic MSM contact fabricated by a simple vacuum thermal deposition technique can be used as a substitute for inorganic visible photodiode applications.
Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is a challenging disease in its presentation and management as it may cause life-threatening hemorrhaging in vital organs and may resist several lines of treatment. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in treating patients with ITP. We systematically searched four electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from inception until 10 October 2022. We included all clinical trials, either controlled or single arm, and prospective and retrospective observational studies that evaluate the efficacy and safety of MMF in patients with ITP. We assessed the risk of bias using three tools (ROBINS-I, Cochrane ROB-2, and NIH), each for eligible study design. Nine studies were included in this meta-analysis, with a total of 411 patients with ITP. We found that MMF demonstrated an overall response rate of (62.09%; 95% CI = [43.29 to 77.84]) and the complete response rate was (46.75%; 95% CI = [24.84 to 69.99]). The overall proportion of adverse events was (12%; 95% CI = [6 to 24]). After the sensitivity analysis, the overall response rate became 50%; 95% CI = [38 to 63]) and the complete response rate became (32%; 95% CI = [24 to 42]). However, MMF did not appear to affect white blood cell counts or hemoglobin levels significantly. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that MMF appears to be an effective and relatively safe treatment option for patients with ITP when combined with steroids and even in those who have not responded to standard therapies (steroid-resistant cases). Further research with well-designed studies is warranted to better understand the factors influencing treatment response and to refine the use of MMF in the management of ITP. An interactive version of our analysis can be accessed from here: https://databoard.shinyapps.io/mycophenolate_meta/
Responding to climate change and adapting to global warming requires creative solutions. In Iraq, the most reliable and popular tool to have buildings cooled is airconditioning units (AC). While an evaporative cooler is not enough to achieve thermal comfort in a very hot climate, AC units consume a lot of energy which causes a significant load on the grid in Iraq resulting in increasing the emissions of CO 2 . This paper investigates the potential energy-saving associated with adopting a new arrangement of heat recovery ventilation (HRV) unit and evaporative cooler to achieve thermal comfort with far less energy. Two sets of efficiencies of both HRV and the evaporative cooler have been considered, and two different envelope performances are also investigated. To properly size the proposed system, an iterative process has been used until the smallest size of the proposed system enough to cool the building is determined. The proposed system has achieved considerable energy savings comprising a reduction of up to 66% in the cooling load energy consumption and a reduction of up to 44% in the overall energy consumption.
The objective of this paper is to analyze the unsteady incompressible flow of the viscous nanofluid on a contracting surface with viscous dissipation effects. Presented and contrasted are analyses of both multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). As the common (or base) fluids, kerosene oil and water are utilized. In the existence of first-order thermal and velocity slip conditions, mathematical modeling and analysis are performed. Using the MATLAB software’s bvp4c solver tool, numerical solutions to the governing nonlinear modeled problems were obtained. This technique is particularly effective for developing many solutions to highly nonlinear differential equations. In addition, a comparison is done between this study and previously published works. The temperature, velocity, skin friction coefficient and heat-transfer rate have been explored for various significant factors included in the problem statements. In the unsteadiness parameter regime, dual solutions can be found. As the velocity slip parameter is increased, the flow slows down. In comparison to SWCNTs kerosene, MWCNTs kerosene oil has a greater velocity curve for the nanoparticles volume fraction. Increases in volume fraction decrease skin friction, whereas increases in the unsteadiness parameter speed up the drag force. Furthermore, as the Eckert number intensity increases, so do the temperature profiles in both solutions. Finally, the stability study revealed that the initial solution is robust, whereas the breakage in the second solution in the Nusselt number shows singularity, and thus the second solution is considered unstable.
Regarding the UN reports, Climate change adaptation and mitigation stands for the most difficult challenge for the current and subsequent years in the world, in addition to the particular case of Iraqi cities, especially with the dry, hot climate and Power generation problems. Al-Muthanna University, during the last five years, focused on using the essential tools depending on NBS for saving energy (using daylight, rainwater, and natural materials) and also using innovative solutions (led light, sensors, solar panels, remote sensing) for reducing energy consumption in the Campus, Greenhouse gas emission the University reduce it by reducing the energy consumption itself, encouraging staff to use Liquid Gas Fuel Automotive, increase the green area, cycling. Therefore, the approximate use of energy-efficient applicants (particularly LED lamps and laptops) is around 75%. It is also good to mention that there is a total area of smart buildings of 82150 m2 across all campuses of Al-Muthanna University. In addition, the total Carbon footprint in 2021 equals 90.83 metric tons.
Background Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a significant healthcare burden, with an average global incidence of 55 per 100,000 person-years among adults. OHCA patients require blood pressure support to maintain effective mean arterial pressure (MAP) for cerebral reperfusion, which is usually achieved by intravascular fluids and vasopressors in the intensive care unit (ICU). Targeting a specific MAP has been evaluated as a treatment strategy after OHCA; however, the current evidence lacks clear guidelines regarding the optimal MAP target after OHCA. Purpose We aim to evaluate the efficacy of targeting a high MAP (>70 mmHg) versus a low MAP target (< 65 mmHg) after OHCA resuscitation. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis synthesizing randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which were retrieved by systematically searching: PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, SCOPUS, and Cochrane through January 18th, 2023. Continuous and dichotomous outcomes were pooled using mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR) along with confidence interval (CI), using Revman V. 5.4 software. Our review protocol was prospectively published on PROSPERO with ID: CRD42023395333. Results Four RCTs with a total of 1070 patients (531 in the high MAP target group and 534 in the low MAP target group) were included in our analysis. High MAP target was significantly associated with decreased ICU length of stay (MD: -0.78 with a 95 CI [-1.54, -0.02], P= .04) and mechanical ventilation duration (MD: -0.91 with a 95 CI of [-1.51, -0.31], P= .003). However, There was no difference between targeting a high MAP versus low MAP regarding all-cause mortality (RR: 1.07 with a 95% CI [0.91, 1.27], P= 0.4), favorable neurological recovery (cerebral categories scale (CPC) ≤ 2) (RR: 1.02 with a 95% CI [0.93, 1.13], P= 0.68), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) at 48 hours (MD: 0.54 with 95% CI [-1.67, 2.75], P = 0.63), the incidence of adverse events, including any bleeding (RR: 0.89 with a 95% CI [0.69, 1.36], P= 0.39); arrhythmia (RR: 0.91 with a 95% CI [0.46, 1.82], P= 0.79), or acute kidney injury (RR: 0.80 with a 95% CI [0.36, 1.76] and P = 0.58). Conclusion In patients with OHCA who have been resuscitated, targeting a higher MAP significantly reduced the ICU length of stay and mechanical ventilation, implying potential clinical benefit with an acceptable safety margin. However, there was no difference between targeting a high MAP versus a low MAP regarding all-cause mortality, favorable neurological recovery, and NSE. Therefore, further RCTs are still warranted to elucidate the potential clinical benefit of targeting a high MAP after OHCA before endorsement in clinical practice.
An LC-MS/MS-guided analysis of the aerial parts of Glycyrrhiza foetida afforded new phenethyl (amorfrutin)- and alkyl (cannabis)-type phytocannabinoids (six and four compounds, respectively). The structural diversity of the new amorfrutins was complemented by the isolation of six known members and the synthesis of analogues modified on the aralkyl moiety. All of the compounds so obtained were assayed for agonist activity on PPARα and PPARγ nuclear receptors. Amorfrutin A (1) showed the highest agonist activity on PPARγ, amorfrutin H (7) selectively targeted PPARα, and amorfrutin E (4) behaved as a dual agonist, with the pentyl analogue of amorfrutin A (11) being inactive. Decarboxyamorfrutin A (2) was cytotoxic, and modifying its phenethyl moiety to a styryl or a phenylethynyl group retained this trait, suggesting an alternative biological scenario for these compounds. The putative binding modes of amorfrutins toward PPARα and PPARγ were obtained by a combined approach of molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations, which provided insights on the structure–activity relationships of this class of compounds.
Though concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials, there are some concerns and shortcomings associated with it. Cementitious materials' quasi-brittle behavior, which leads to cracking and a loss of durability, is a major concern in structural applications. In this review, the latest research on reinforcing cementitious concrete with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is reviewed, with an emphasis on the material's structural performance in building and a comparison of CNTs to other reinforcing fibers. The improvement of the macro mechanical properties of carbon nanotube-reinforced composite structures has been discussed in the form of functionally graded carbon nanotubes reinforced composites (FG-CNTRC). Several researches have, in the past, used other forms of reinforcements to enhance the properties of concrete till the implementation of nanotechnology in concrete production by incorporating CNTs into the concrete mixes. Concrete's crucial mechanical properties as a structural material and the durability of conventional cement-based building materials can both be improved by CNTs. They have drawn a lot of interest because they are an engineering material with a wide range of uses. The creation and characterization of cement-based materials reinforced with CNTs have been studied by researchers. Comparisons between the effects of CNT and other fibers on concrete have also been made. This concrete reinforcement type's environmental impact and sustainability have also been discussed. According to studies, CNT can greatly enhance the performance of cement-based materials.
The main aim of this study is to figure out how well cryptand-2.2.1 (C 2.2.1) and cryptand-2.1.1 (C 2.1.1) macrocyclic compounds (MCs) work as novel extractants for scandium (Sc) by using an artificial neural network (ANN) models in MATLAB software. Moreover, C2.2.1 and C2.1.1 have never been evaluated to recover Sc. The independent variables impacting the extraction process (concentration of MC, concentration of Sc, pH, and time), and a nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous input (NARX) and feed-forward neural network (FFNN) models were used to estimate their optimum values. The greatest obstacle in the selective recovery process of the REEs is the similarity in their physicochemical properties, specifically their ionic radius. The recovery of Sc from the aqueous solution was experimentally evaluated, then the non-linear relationship between those parameters was predictively modeled using (NARX) and (FFNN). To confirm the extraction and stripping efficiency, an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) was employed. The results of the extraction investigations show that, for the best conditions of 0.008 mol/L MC concentration, 10 min of contact time, pH 2 of the aqueous solution, and 75 mg/L Sc initial concentration, respectively, the C 2.1.1 and C 2.2.1 extractants may reach 99 % of Sc extraction efficiency. Sc was recovered from a multi-element solution of scandium (Sc), yttrium (Y), and lanthanum (La) under these circumstances. Whereas, at a concentration of 0.3 mol/L of hydrochloric acid, the extraction of Sc was 99 %, as opposed to Y 10 % and La 7 %. The Levenberg-Marquardt training algorithm had the best training performance with an mean-* Corresponding author. Heliyon 9 (2023) e21041 2 squared-error, MSE, of 5.232x10 − 6 and 6.1387x10 − 5 for C 2.2.1 and C 2.1.1 respectively. The optimized FFNN architecture of 4-10-1 was constructed for modeling recovery of Sc. The extraction process was well modeled by the FFNN with an R 2 of 0.999 for the two MC, indicating that the observed Sc recovery efficiency consistent with the predicted one.
For the past decade, there has been a significant increase in customer usage of public transport applications in smart cities. These applications rely on various services, such as communication and computation, provided by additional nodes within the smart city environment. However, these services are delivered by a diverse range of cloud computing-based servers that are widely spread and heterogeneous, leading to cybersecurity becoming a crucial challenge among these servers. Numerous machine-learning approaches have been proposed in the literature to address the cybersecurity challenges in heterogeneous transport applications within smart cities. However, the centralized security and scheduling strategies suggested so far have yet to produce optimal results for transport applications. This work aims to present a secure decentralized infrastructure for transporting data in fog cloud networks. This paper introduces Multi-Objectives Reinforcement Federated Learning Blockchain (MORFLB) for Transport Infrastructure. MORFLB aims to minimize processing and transfer delays while maximizing long-term rewards by identifying known and unknown attacks on remote sensing data in-vehicle applications. MORFLB incorporates multi-agent policies, proof-of-work hashing validation, and decentralized deep neural network training to achieve minimal processing and transfer delays. It comprises vehicle applications, decentralized fog, and cloud nodes based on blockchain reinforcement federated learning, which improves rewards through trial and error. The study formulates a combinatorial problem that minimizes and maximizes various factors for vehicle applications. The experimental results demonstrate that MORFLB effectively reduces processing and transfer delays while maximizing rewards compared to existing studies. It provides a promising solution to address the cybersecurity challenges in intelligent transport applications within smart cities. In conclusion, this paper presents MORFLB, a combination of different schemes that ensure the execution of transport data under their constraints and achieve optimal results with the suggested decentralized infrastructure based on blockchain technology.
The lateritic ore drying in the Cuban nickel producing industry is realized within flighted rotary dryers. In this investigation, performance indicators in regards to transfer of momentum, heat and mass were evaluated. The dryers operate in a concurrent configuration with combustion gas, at a productivity between 40 t h − 1 and 50 t h − 1. The distribution function of the residence time (RTD) was best fitted to a model of a multi-branch tanks-in-series system, theoretical residence time was 51 ± 2 min and experimental mean residence time 61 min, at a rate of 45 t h − 1 and hydraulic efficiency 1.23, due to the presence of dead-zoon. Mass and energy balance was made following a "black box" model, as results, the specific fuel consumption was 27.25 ± 0.25 kg fuel t − 1 of wet ore, specific energy consumption 79.66 ± 0.95 kg fuel t − 1 of H 2 O evaporated, energy efficiency 97.28 ± 0.01 %, thermal efficiency 66.88 ± 0.71 % and drying efficiency 98.77 ± 0.12 %. Mathematical modelling was made using a system of differential equations, the rate of drying in falling rate period was estimated by Arrhenius equation, then, temperature profile and ore moisture content along the dryer was simulated. The model provided a successful predictive performance; for an inlet gas temperature between 850 • C and 900 • C, the ore moisture was reduced form 33.0 % (wet basis) to a range depending on the dryer productivity, from 3.0 % to 7.1 %. Designing a computerized system that implements these algorithms can benefit on efficiency and productivity of the production plant.
The study was conducted in Al-Muthanna Province-Iraq from January to June 2022, aimed at diagnosing and treating cases of omphalitis in newborn calves. The study included 15 calves infected with umbilical inflammation for 3-30 days after parturition. The animals were divided into three groups according to the severity of the infection and the clinical signs. The study showed that omphalitis in calves occurs in the first days after parturition due to infection of the navel with microorganisms that lead to inflammation and the emergence of clinical signs that include swelling and abscess collection, in addition to high temperature of the animal and lack of appetite. Some cases necessitated surgical intervention to open the swelling and drain the abscess by placing bacteria-killing solutions inside the wound to ensure that the place is sterilized and that the abscess does not collect again. The cases were also treated with antibiotics, antipyretics, and vitamins with repeated treatment for several days until the animal fully recovered. Keywords:- surgical treatment, omphalitis, calves.
A field experiment was conducted in clay-textured soil during the agricultural season 2021-2022 at Al-Muthanna Governorate, Al-Suwayr District - Albugrad region, longitude "5. 16' 36°31, and a latitude '0'. 52' 27 ° 45, to study the effect of biochar and perlite on the growth and yield of barley in clay soil. The experiment used a Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with two factors and three replicates. The biochar factor treatments included four levels of biochar at the level (0% B0, 0.5% B1, 1% B2, 1.5% B3). In comparison, the treatments of the second factor perlite included four levels. They are the addition of agricultural perlite at the level (0% P0, 0.5% P1, 1% P2, 1.5% P3). Mixing biochar with agricultural perlite for all treatments with soil to a depth of 30 cm. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Iba 99 was planted on 1/11/2021. Crop service operations were carried out from adding chemical fertilizers, jungle control and irrigation until the end of the experiment and harvest on 9/9/2022. The results showed the superiority of the B3 biochar treatment (1.5% biochar) in improving most of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, plant height, number of branches and total yield, the superiority of the B2 biochar treatment (1% biochar) in recording the highest weight of 1000 grains, the treatment of perlite P1 (0.5% perlite) was superior in recording the highest weight of 1000 grains, the superiority of the B3P3 interaction treatment in recording the highest value of the number of branches in the plant. Keywords: Biochar, perlite, growth, yield, barley, clay soil.
The study was conducted during the spring season (2022) to determine the effect of early planting for four planting dates (18/1, 2/2, 17/2 and 4/3) and four levels of potassium fertilizer (30, 60, 90 and 120) kg ha-1 , on the yield and fullness of sunflower grains, cultivar Shamoos, was carried out by arranging the split panels according to a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. The results of the experiment showed significant effects of planting dates on yield and its components, as the planting date exceeds D1 on the grain filling period, the number of grains filled, the weight of 1000 grains, the yield of the individual plant, the biological yield and the percentage of fertilization, the results of the experiment also showed a significant effect of potassium levels on yield traits, the K4 fertilization treatment gave the highest average of the duration of grain filling and the number of filled grains, whereas, the K2 fertilization treatment gave the highest mean for the 1000 grain weight, regarding the interaction between the two factors of the study, the results showed significant differences between the experimental treatments on the yield, the D1K4 interference treatment gave the highest mean of the grain filling time. Keywords: planting dates, potassium levels, sunflower grains (Helianthus annuus L.), Shamoos cultivar.
A field experiment was conducted in clay-textured soil during the agricultural season 2021-2022 at Al-Muthanna Governorate, Al-Suwayr District - Albugrad region, longitude "5. 16' 36°31, and a latitude '0'. 52' 27 ° 45, to study the effect of biochar and perlite on soil's physical properties and barley's growth and yield. The experiment used a Randomized Block Design (RCBD) with two factors and three replicates. The biochar factor treatments included four levels of biochar at the level (0% B0, 0.5% B1, 1% B2, 1.5% B3). In comparison, the treatments of the second factor perlite included four levels. They are the addition of agricultural perlite at the level (0% P0, 0.5% P1, 1% P2, 1.5% P3). Mixing biochar with agricultural perlite for all treatments with soil to a depth of 30 cm. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Iba 99 was planted on 1/11/2021. Crop service operations were carried out from adding chemical fertilizers, jungle control and irrigation until the end of the experiment and harvest on 9/9/2022. The results showed the superiority of the B3 biochar treatment (1.5% biochar) in improving most of the physical and chemical properties of the soil, the average weighted diameter of the wet and dry sifters (0.92 and 4.74 mm), while the treatment P3 (1.5% perlite) recorded the highest total porosity of the soil (49.03%). Keywords: Biochar, perlite, physical properties, soil, moisture
The experiment was carried out in the Abu Al-Fadl Forest Nursery, the Plant Production Department, Al-Diwaniyah Agriculture Directorate (3 km north-east of Al-Diwaniyah city) during the winter season 2021-2022 to determine the effect of four levels of phosphate fertilizer (0, 30, 60 and 90 kg P ha-1 ) and two concentrations of aspartic acid spray (0 and 200 mg aspartic L -1 ), on the growth and yield of oats Avena sativa L. Shifa cultivar. The experiment was applied according to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) by a split plot with three replicates. The levels of phosphate fertilizer were distributed in the main plots, while the concentrations of amino acids occupied the sub-plots. The results showed the following: the superiority of plants fertilized at the fertilizer level of 90 kg P ha-1 significantly on the number of tillers, the number of dahlias, the weight of a thousand grains g, the biological yield and grain yield were given 532 tillers m-2 , 468.58 dalia m-2 , 46.76 g, 56.39 mcg ha-1 , and 8.92 mcg ha-1 , respectively, the results also showed that the plants treated with aspartic acid (concentration 200 mg L -1 ) were significantly superior to the number of tillers and the number of dahlias, it gave 527.75 tillers m-2 and 483.58 Dalia m-2 . The interaction between the two experimental factors (fertilization at a level of 90 kg P ha-1 and spraying with aspartic acid at a concentration of 200 mg L-1 ) significantly affected the biological yield and grain yield. Keywords: phosphate fertilization, aspartic acid, growth, yield, oats Avena sativa L.
The study was conducted in special cages in a mud pond, Agricultural Research and Experiment Station, Animal Production Department, Agriculture College, Al-Muthanna University, from 1/10/2020 to 10/12/2021to study the effect of different levels of nutmeg on some growth parameters of common carp. A total of 100 common carp fish, Cyprinus carpio, were brought from a private fish breeding lake in Al-Qadisiyah Governorate, Al-Mihnawiya District, with an average weight of ±.94 gm. 80 fish were selected and distributed randomly and evenly to the experimental cages, put in each aquarium 5 fish for acclimatization, the fish persisted during the acclimatization period, which amounted to 10 days, were starved for one day and then fed with 1% of the weight of the live mass in each tank at the rate of two meals per day. The four treatments were T1 control, T2 0.005%, T3 0.01% and T4 0.015% nutmeg. The results indicated a significant decrease in the final body weight, weight gain, daily growth rate, relative growth rate and specific growth rate in all nutmeg treatments compared to the control treatment. Keywords: Nutmeg, growth parameters, common carp Cyprinus carpio L
This study was conducted in the Al Majd area in Al Muthanna Governorate (Away from the city center, about 5 km to the north) to study the effect of perlite and nitrogen levels on potassium availability and absorption in soil, growth and yield of the wheat plant, during the agricultural season 2022-2021—a factorial field experiment, according to a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The experiment included two factors. The first factor is the addition of perlite with three levels (0, 1.5 and 3)% symbolized by B0, B1 and B2, respectively, while the second factor is nitrogen at five levels (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200) kg N ha-1 has the symbol N0, N1, N2, N3 and N4 respectively. The land was divided into plots, including 45 experimental units in three blocks, the area of the experimental unit (2 × 2) m2. The experimental unit included 8 lines with a length of 2 m. The distance between one line and another was 20 cm, leaving a distance of 75 cm between one replicate and another. The seeds of wheat (Bohooth 22 cultivar) were sown on 11/11/2021. The results indicated the significant effect of adding perlite at a level of 3% by volume to the soil in increasing the ready potassium in the soil when adding the first and second batches of nitrogen and harvesting, the addition of perlite at a level of 3% by volume of the soil affected the growth characteristics of the plant, including the biological yield, grain yield, potassium concentration in the plant, and the absorbed amount of potassium in the plant, nitrogen fertilizer to the soil at a level of (150 and 200) kg N ha-1 had a significant effect on the increase of ready potassium in the soil in the first and second batch of adding fertilizer. Keywords: Perlite, nitrogen, potassium availability and absorption, soil, growth, yield, wheat plant.
This study aimed to describe some morphological and histological aspects of the binni fish's gills. Fifteen adult male binni were pulled alive from the Al-Forat River at about (24 - 28) months, immediately after death. The gills of binni were situated on each side of the head beneath a gill cover; the operculum and the gills were made of finger-like long filaments joined to the cartilaginous gill bar. From each filament, numerous fragile lamellae that resemble leaves protrude. These lamellae comprised tiny capillaries covered in plain squamous epithelial cells. The epithelium acts as a barrier between the fish's blood and the surrounding water. The first, second, third, and fourth pairs of gill arches make up the gills supported by the bone skeleton. Each arch carries a row of gill filaments on its convex side and two rows of gill rakers on its concave side. On the rostral concave border, the filaments in the two extremes of the gill were short, but the length of all the filaments was the same. The first-gill arch's lateral rakers were longer than the medial rakers, while the fourth gill arch's medial rakers were longer than the lateral rakers. The rakers, bony comb-like projections, filled the rostral region of the gill arches at the rostral concave interior side. There was interdigitation between the gill rakers of the neighboring gill arches. Each gill arch included the lateral gill rakers pointing dorsolaterally and medial gill rakers pointing dorsomedially. Filaments originate from the gill arches and are maintained by the cartilage on the caudal convex border of the primary lamellae, from which the secondary lamellae emerge. The simple squamous epithelium lined the secondary lamellae. Keywords: Binni, Gill, Morphology, Histology
This work presents a simple co-precipitation method for making Zn-doped copper oxide (C 1−x (Zn) x O) that is nanostructured, porous, active in visible light, and highly conductive. The combined impacts of doping, structural modifications , and nanoscaled synthesis contribute to the development of a novel catalyst that has inherent characteristics. Physicochemical studies confirm the coexistence of all desired features in the C 1−x (Zn) x O photocatalyst. The formed photocatalyst's dye-destroying and antimicrobial properties were carefully examined and compared to those of pristine copper oxide (PCO) that had not been doped. When tested against Escherichia coli (a "negative strain") and Staphylococcus aureus (a "positive strain"), the antimicrobial properties of the C 1−x (Zn) x O photocatalyst were better than those of PCO and on par with those of commercially available drugs. Also, C 1−x (Zn) x O photocatalyst gets rid of reactive orange 4 (RO-4) dye more effectively and faster (0.023 min −1) than PCO photocatalyst (0.11 min −1) by using simple Rusul Alabada and Muhammad Aadil equal contribution authorship. Z. Phys. Chem. 2023; aop sorption and photocatalytic annihilation. The C 1−x (Zn) x O photocatalyst eliminated 90.25 % of RO-4 dye under visible light irradiation. Under identical circumstances, the PCO photocatalyst removed 65.12 % of the RO-4 dye. The boosted bactericidal and photocatalytic activity of the C 1−x (Zn) x O photocatalyst may be attributed to its larger surface area (56.5 m 2 g −1), good electrical conductivity (2.33 × 10 −3 S m −1), low bandgap (1.98 eV), and doping-induced structural defects. The developed features increase the light-capturing sites on the catalyst surface, improve the charge transport kinetics, enable the catalysts to harvest visible light, and limit the charge recombination process, allowing our photocatalyst to show exceptional bacteri-cidal and dye annihilation activities. This study opens new avenues for developing metal-substituted metal oxides with porous nanostructures for environmental and ecological protection.
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