Most of the treatment strategies for tumors and other disorders is photodynamic therapy (PDT). For several years, increasing the efficiency of nanostructured treatment devices, including light therapy, has been considered in different treatment methods. Light Dynamics The use of nanomaterial in this method's production and progress. The use of nanoparticles as carriers is a promising accomplishment, since all the criteria for an ideal photodynamic therapy agent can be given with these nanomaterials. The kinds of nanoparticles that have recently been used in photodynamic therapy are mentioned in this article. Latest advancements are being explored in the use of inorganic nanoparticles and biodegradable polymer-based nanomaterial as carriers of photosynthetic agents. Photosynthetic nanoparticles, self-propagating nanoparticles, and conversion nanoparticles are among the successful photodynamic therapy nanoparticles addressed in this report.
Any solid, unprotected, and undefended surface in the aquatic environment will be fouled. Fouling, on the other hand, can affect a wide range of species that can tolerate some epibiosis. Several others, on the other hand, aggressively keep the epibionts off their body surface (antifouling). Antifouling defenses are built into marine plants like seaweed and seagrass. They do have a distinctive surface structure with tightly packed needle-like peaks and antifouling coverings, which may hinder settling bacteria's ability to cling. Chemical antifouling resistance is most probably a biological reaction to epibiosis' ecological drawbacks, especially for organisms capable of performing photosynthesis. The goal of this study was to see how effective natural compounds derived from littoral seaweeds were in preventing fouling. The brown mussel, an important fouling organism, was evaluated in laboratory bioassays against fifty-one populations' crude organic extracts including fort-two macroalgae species. Antifouling activity, exhibited a distinct phylogenetic pattern, with red macroalgae having the largest share of active species, subsequently brown macroalgae. Antifouling action in green seaweeds has never been significant. Seven species showed some level of induced antifouling defense. Our findings appear to back up previous findings about secondary metabolite synthesis in seaweeds, indicating that in the hunt for novel antifoulants, researchers should concentrate their efforts on tropical red macroalgae.
Adrenal insufficiency (AI) is a serious disorder characterized by the adrenal glucocorticoid deficiency. Regardless of the etiology, AI patients need long-term replacement therapy for glucocorticoids and, in some cases, for mineralocorticoids. The replacement therapy cannot completely mirror the physiological secretion patterns, and therefore, glucocorticoid excess is a common sequela in AI patients. Moreover, due to the absence of the reliable clinical markers to monitor the adequacy of the replacement therapy, clinicians often over-treat the AI patients to avoid adrenal crisis. Long-term glucocorticoid use is associated with the loss of bone density and osteoporosis, increasing the risk of fractures. Moreover, glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus further aggravates the bone disorders. In the recent years, ameliorating effects of metformin on glucocorticoid-induced bone disorders, as well as hyperglycemia, have been reported by a multitude of studies; and here, we reviewed and discussed the most recent findings regarding the positive effects of metformin on alleviating the bone disorders, and their implications in the AI patients.
The green synthesis of inorganic nanoparticles has become an area of great interest due to its eco-friendly and cost-effective nature. The use of green-synthesized nanoparticles in biomedical applications, particularly in the detection and treatment of bacterial infections, has gained significant attention in recent years. Among the various types of inorganic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been extensively studied for their potential applications in the detection and treatment of Escherichia coli as known E. coli infections. This review provides an overview of the green synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanoparticles, with a focus on AuNPs, and their applications in E. coli detection and treatment. The review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of green synthesis methods. The characterization techniques used to evaluate the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles, such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, DLS & Zeta potential analysis are also discussed. The review further highlights the potential of AuNPs in E. coli detection and treatment, including their use as labels in lateral flow immunoassays and as antimicrobial agents. Finally, the challenges and future prospects of green-synthesized AuNPs in E. coli detection and treatment are discussed. In the end, this review emphasizes the significance of green synthesis techniques in the creation of inorganic nanoparticles with prospective uses in biology.
Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is an eco-friendly, sustainable, cementless and green concrete. It could be an alternative to the conventional concrete. In alkaline circumstances, the alumina and silica concentration in geopolymer concrete creates the geopolymer bond, while regular concrete creates C-S-H (calcium silicate hydrate bond). The final result of the geopolymer bond does not include any water. At elevated temperatures, geopolymer concrete would thus be more stable. Due to its greater strength and durability quality, geopolymer concrete may be the ideal replacement for ordinary portland cement (OPC) concrete. This research intends to examine how specimens of geopolymer concrete and regular concrete respond to exposure to increased temperatures between 100°C and 800°C. Mass loss, ultrasonic pulse velocity , compressive strength, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and derivative thermogravimetric analysis were all examined throughout the experimental examination. Both concrete specimens lose mass or weight as the exposure temperature rises; OPC concrete samples spalls at 600°C, while GPC sample fail at 800°C. GPC specimens lose around 12% of their original mass after being exposed to temperatures of 800°C, while OPC specimens lose about 7%. The GPC specimens maintained 60% of their initial compressive strength after being exposed to a temperature of 700°C, but the OPC concrete specimens only kept 52%. With each increase in exposure to extreme temperatures, the peaks of quartz and cristobalite are lowered. Only the form or structure of the mineral oxide would change; the chemical linkages would remain. The GPC samples subjected to temperatures of 100°C exhibit effective thermal stability than all other specimens exposed to extreme temperatures. As the exposure temperature rises, the GPC specimens become more thermally stable. According to the experimental findings, the GPC specimens' bonding structure makes them more resistant to high temperatures than regular concrete specimens. Micropores are present in the voids of the geopolymer matrix, while mesopores and micropores are present in the voids of the OPC matrix. While OPC bonding is C-S-H formed by the hydration of lime and silica contained in the cement, the geopolymer bonding did not include the water content in the final or end result of geopolymerisation for strengthening.
This study aims to enhance the CZTS device's overall efficiency, the key research area has been identified in this study is to explore the effects of a novel, low-cost, and simplified, deposition method to improve the optoelectronic properties of the buffer layer in the fabrication of CZTS thin film solar cells. Herein, an effective way of addressing this challenge is through adjusting the absorbers' structure by the concept of doping, sensitized CdS thin film by the bi-functional linker, and an environmentally friendly catalytic green agent. The Linker Assisted and Chemical Bath Deposition (LA-CBD) method was introduced as an innovative and effective hybrid sensitization approach. In the one-step synthesis process, Salvia dye, Ag, and 3-Mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) were used. Generally, the results for all samples displayed varying bandgap as achieved between (2.21–2.46) eV, hexagonal structure with considerably decreased strain level, broader grain size, and dramatically enhanced crystalline property. Hence, the rudimentary CdS/CZTS solar cell devices were fabricated for the application of these novel CdS films. Preliminary CZTS thin film solar cell fabrication results in the highest conversion efficiency of 0.266% obtained CdS + Salvia dye, indicating the potential use of the CdS films as a buffer layer for CZTS photovoltaic devices.
Media transmission quality is surveyed in a first approximation by coordinating between a control arranged inside the section circuit and a control arranged section packet-switched in units (kbit/sec). Kilometers are found. By contrasting the two, it is clear what percentage of the total should be provided upfront to ensure the arrangement's continued success, and how that growth compares to the duty plans that demonstrate the quality of competing services. The ratio of canal kilometers served to canal kilometers built and opened for business has been a common measure of network expansion until recently. Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) analog subscriber volume increased, which was reflected in this network growth indicator (PSTN).
Through the use of sol–gel method, a composite material was created based on zinc oxide (ZnO) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT). As evidenced by the color of the solution and SEM images, colloidal nanoparticles were produced. For the construction of the devices, thin layers were deposited utilizing the spray pyrolysis on glass substrates and interdigitated electrodes. Samples were heated at different annealing temperatures ranging from 200 to 400 °C. The samples heated at 400 °C, have shown better interaction between zinc oxide and carbon nanotubes and achieved the sensitivity goal. Utilizing Tauc calculations and UV–visible absorption spectroscopy in the range of 300–1000 nm wavelength, the optical energy gap has been studied to address the effect of the existence of carbon nanotubes in the prepared samples. Using a homemade sensor system, the interaction of gases, including ammonia, nitrogen dioxide, and other organic odorants with the samples was investigated. Samples containing carbon nanotubes have exhibited better sensitivity and reversibility toward vapors, while zinc oxide only does not show reasonable performance at room temperature. The sensitivity toward nitrogen dioxide was found to be 96.6% for samples containing carbon nanotubes, while the sensitivity was 10.09% for samples of zinc oxide only. Graphical Abstract
Methane (CH 4) is a greenhouse gas resulting from human activities, especially landfills, and it has many potential environmental issues, such as its major role in global warming. On the other hand, methane can be converted to liquid fuel or electricity using chemical conversion or gas turbine generators. Therefore, reusing such gases could be of great environmental and economic benefit. In this context, this study aims to estimate the emissions of methane gas from the landfills in Al-Hillah City, Iraq, from 2023 to 2070 and the producible electric energy from this amount. The estimating process was carried out using the Land GEM model and compared with traditional models. The obtained results demonstrated that the total estimated landfill methane emissions for 48 years are 875,217 tons, and the average annual methane emission is 18,234 tons based on a yearly waste accumulation rate of 1,046,413 tons and a total waste amount of 50,227,808 tons. The anticipated loads of methane gas can be utilized to generate about 287,442 MW/year of electricity from 2023 to 2070. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study could be evidence of the potential environmental and economic benefits of harvesting and reusing methane gas from landfills.
The accumulation of waste materials in landfills without treatment threatens public health and the environment. The quantity of solid waste continually increases, causing environmental pollution. One of these wastes that should receive scientific treatment is concrete waste. The use of concrete waste as fine or coarse aggregate in self-compacting concrete (SCC) is one of the useful solutions to this problem. This study aims to reuse concrete waste as coarse aggregate in the production of SCC and find out the influence of different steel fiber contents on the strength of SCC. The steel fibers (SF) were used to reinforce SCC in three different volumes (0, 0.5, and 1 % of concrete volume), and the recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) was used to replace natural coarse aggregate (NCA) in five replacement levels of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%. The compressive and tensile strengths of the SCC specimens in the hardened state were determined. The results of the experimental study refer to the steel fiber having a positive effect on the enhancement of mechanical properties, particularly the tensile strength of SCC. The addition of 50% recycled aggregates in the concrete mix contributed to increasing the compressive strength by about 20%. Therefore, it can be said that the dual use of recycled aggregates with steel fibers produced concrete with high specifications compared to ordinary concrete. Another positive effect lies in the disposal of concrete waste, which contributes to an economic return in addition to reducing the effect on the environment.
Globally, the amount of solid waste is constantly increasing, and its disposal is one of the critical issues in recent research studies. Concrete waste includes the rubble of demolished buildings, whether old buildings or those that have been subjected to earthquakes, etc. This research project aims to improve sustainability in the construction industry by recycling and reusing coarse aggregate that was previously used in concrete buildings. The objective is to utilize this recycled material to produce self-compacting concrete (SCC) and assess its performance in its fresh state. By finding new ways to repurpose materials that would otherwise go to waste, this research contributes to developing environmentally friendly practices and reducing the industry's carbon footprint. Furthermore, evaluating the performance of the recycled coarse aggregate in SCC will provide insights into its potential for future use in construction projects, which could ultimately lead to cost savings and improved efficiency in the industry. Recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) was used as a substitute for the natural coarse aggregate (NCA) with volume ratios of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, and steel fibers (SF) were added to the concrete with different volumes ratios (0, 0.5, and 1 %). Workability tests such as slump flow, V-funnel, and L-box tests were carried out for the mixtures in their fresh state. In general, the results of the experimental work showed that the fresh properties indicated that almost all SCC mixtures were within the specified range, as stated in EFNARC requirements.
Purpose Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) have quickly become popular machine learning techniques in recent years, particularly in the classification and segmentation of medical images. One of the most prevalent types of brain cancers is glioma, and early, accurate diagnosis is essential for both treatment and survival. In this study, MRI scans were examined utilizing deep learning techniques to examine glioma diagnosis studies. Methods In this systematic review, keywords were used to obtain English-language studies from the Arxiv, IEEE, Springer, ScienceDirect, and PubMed databases for the years 2010–2022. The material needed for review was then collected from the articles once they had been chosen based on the entry and exit criteria and in accordance with the research's goal. Results Finally, 77 different academic articles were chosen. According to a study of published articles, glioma brain tumors were discovered, categorized, and segmented utilizing a coordinated approach that included image collecting, pre-processing, model design and execution, and model output evaluation. The majority of investigations have used publicly accessible photo databases and already-trained algorithms. The bulk of studies have employed Dice's classification accuracy and similarity coefficient metrics to assess model performance. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that glioma segmentation has received more attention from researchers than glioma detection and classification. It is advised that more research be done in the areas of glioma detection and, particularly, grading in order to be included in systems that support medical diagnosis.
A combined electric vehicles (EVs) and controllable loads scheduling framework is presented in this paper for a microgrid aimed at minimizing the operating cost and emissions. The microgrid is equipped with renewable power generation by using wind turbines and solar photovoltaic panels. In this respect, EVs would be used for load profile flattening and controllable loads would be used to address the reserve requirements of the system mainly due to intermittent renewable power generation. The problem is formulated as a two-stage scheduling program to specify the expected operating cost and reserve. The first stage aims to minimize the total costs including the generation and reserve costs. The second stage seeks to minimize the redispatch costs due to volatile renewable power generation. The resulting optimization problem is then solved by using the modified manta ray foraging optimization algorithm known as "MMRFO". This algorithm is an efficacious one being capable of handling various types of optimization problems. The findings obtained from a 24-h analysis of an MG model demonstrate the superior performance of the MMRFO algorithm when compared to other established methodologies. The obtained results by applying the MMRFO method indicate high efficiency of this algorithm in comparison with some other well-known algorithms when tackling the combined EV and controllable loads scheduling problem in the presence of wind and solar power generation.
Ceramic waste (CW) has a significant negative environmental influence on the society. However, CW may benefit the environment if it is handled carefully and recycled in concrete production. Recycling CW may lessen the demand for raw materials and waste disposal, thereby preserving natural resources and lowering greenhouse gas emissions. Numerous studies discuss the possibility of CW utilization as concrete ingredients. However, data are spread, making it difficult for the reader or user to assess the benefits and drawbacks of using CW in concrete, which limits its applications. To study the benefits and drawbacks of using CW in concrete and provide the guidelines to the consumer with relevant information, a detailed review is required. Therefore, this study is carried out to collect all relevant updated information from published articles. The major topics of this article include the general history of CW, physical and chemical features, and the influence on concrete parameters including fresh, strength, elevated temperature, and cost benefits. Results indicate that CW decreased concrete flowability and strength. However, with up to 10% substitution, the results are satisfactory, and concrete can be used for a normal-strength structure. Furthermore, the review also identifies the research gaps that need to be investigated.
Refractive errors are frequently found among school children due to various factors such as genetics and lack of parental attention towards regular eye check-ups by an ophthalmologist. It is crucial to conduct visual examinations in schools to identify and address any eye-related issues promptly. Aim: The objective is to evaluate the level of refractive error and strabismus among students in two primary schools located in Babylon City, Iraq. Method: From October 20, 2021, to February 1, 2022, cross-sectional, retrospective research was conducted at two primary schools, Al-Nidal and Al, in Babylon, Iraq, for children aged 7 to 12 years. Result: One thousand twenty pupils. We excluded eight students from this study. They participated (2028 eyes) at two primary schools in the Iraqi city of Babylon. There were 422 male students (41.3 %) and 592 female students (57.9%), mean age was 9.7 ± 1.6 (range, 5-12) years. Congenital, acquired, and normal eyes were found in 78 (7.6%), 62 (6.1%), and 874 (85.5%) students, respectively(P<.001). We found emmetropia most common in two primary schools; myopia was more than hypermetropia, astigmatism, and amblyopia was 80.0%, 9.0%, 7.2%, 2.9%, and 4.1%students, respectively. Conclusion: A study conducted in Babylon, Iraq revealed a high occurrence of uncorrected refractive errors in elementary school students. This finding highlights a significant health issue for young individuals, which calls for immediate action to address and rectify. Regular visual acuity tests should be conducted annually to identify and correct any refractive errors.
Environmentally friendly and intelligent transportation options have been developed to tackle pollution and fuel shortages during the past several years. Numerous standards organizations and transportation authorities have provided a range of alternative energy sources intending to create a more environmentally friendly and sustainable atmosphere. However, some obstacles remain to clear before the goal may be fulfilled in green transportation. The research examines and identifies transportation pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. An electric vehicle-centric approach to green mobility is taken, emphasizing electric vehicle architecture and current solutions initiatives, and essential for effectively done. Regarding an Electric Vehicle Charging Station (EVCS), location is key; according to the study, EVSC location selection may be improved using an Internet of Things (IoT) with a cloud computing (IoT-CC) approach. Carbon-producing vehicles such as trains and buses are being phased out globally for more eco-friendly transportation. Electrified vehicles are a significant step toward a more environmentally friendly mode of transportation. However, electric vehicles are becoming more common, and the infrastructure for charging must be expanded and seamless. Solar panels may be used to electric power vehicles and generate their energy by certain entities. There are plans to develop EVSC-IoT service architecture to minimize carbon dioxide emissions and fuel consumption in a smart transportation system. It gathers data from telematics, digital systems, and roadside camera to assist fuel consumption. Electric vehicle drivers may use electronic wallets to pay for their charging costs. The suggested EVSC-IoT model enhances the charging demand, charging time, time distribution, and traveling velocity compared to other existing methods.
Background This study was aimed to optimize the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-administered dose and scan time based on patient specifications using a highly sensitive five-ring bismuth germanium oxide (BGO)-based positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanner (Discovery IQ). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 101 whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT images. Patient data were reconstructed using ordered subset expectation maximization with resolution recovery algorithms (OSEM + SharpIR). Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated for each patient, standardized to SNRnorm, and plotted against three body index parameters (weight, body mass index, and lean body mass). Two professional physicians blindly examined image quality at different patient time per bed positions to determine the minimum acceptable quality. To select images of acceptable quality, the noise index parameter was also measured. A new dose-time product (DTP) was established for each patient, and a predicted injected dose was assumed. Results We found an almost linear association between patient weight and normalized SNR, and patient weight had the highest R2 in the fitting. The redesigned DTP can reduce results by approximately 74 and 38% compared with ordinary DTP for 80- and 160-s scan durations. The new dose regimen formula was found to be DTP = c/t × m 1.24, where m is the patient weight, t is the scan time per bed position, and c is 1.8 and 4.3 for acceptable and higher confidence states, respectively, in Discovery IQ PET/CT. Conclusion Patient weight is the best clinical parameter for the implementation of 18F-FDG PET/CT image quality assessment. A new dose-time regimen based on body weight was proposed for use in highly sensitive five-ring BGO PET-CT scanners to significantly reduce the injection dose and scan times while maintaining sufficient image quality for diagnosis.
MCM-41, a mesoporous silica with a high surface area and hexagonal structure, was synthesized, and commercial nano-silicon dioxide (SiO2) was used as a solid adsorbed in post-combustion CO2 capture. The CO2 adsorption experiment was conducted in a fixed-bed adsorption system using 5–15 vol.% CO2/N2 at a flow rate of 100 mL/min at varying temperatures (20–80 °C) and atmospheric pressure. Analyses (X-ray diffraction, nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)) revealed that the synthesized MCM-41 has mesoporous characteristics: a high surface area and large pore volumes. The CO2 adsorption capacity of MCM-41 and commercial nano-SiO2 increased considerably with increasing CO2 concentration and temperature, peaking at 60 °C. Below 60 °C, dynamics rather than thermodynamics governed the adsorption. Increasing the temperature from 60 to 80 °C decreased the adsorption capacity, and the reaction became thermodynamically dominant. Additionally, compared with commercial nano-SiO2, the MCM-41 sorbent demonstrated superior regenerability and thermal stability.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.