This study investigated the toxicity effect of Sio2NPs on body weight and thyroid gland in female rats; the experiment was included. The experimental animals were randomly divided into three groups, including two treatment groups ( treated with a low dose (25mg/Kg ) and high dose (100mg/Kg of body weight) of sio2 NPs and one group as a control. Each group of them was divided into three subgroups according to the injection periods of exposure (10, 20, and 30) days daily, then measure the body weight and Thyroid function hormones (T3, T4, TSH), the results showed that there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the body weight of animals that exposed to SiO2 NPs at two doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) during (10 days) while increased during (20, 30 days) but the highest value recorded in the animals that were treated for (30 days) at both doses. On the other side, the T3 findings recorded a significant decrease (p< 0.05) for the animals that exposed to SiO2 NPs at low and high doses (25 and 100 mg/kg) (during (10 days) when compared with the control group As well as, there was a significant decrease (p< 0.05) in the level of T3 for all animals that treated with these doses during (20 and 3 days) in serum of animals that were treated with both doses of SiO2 NPs when compared with the control group (p< 0.05), while T4 showed s decreasing in the treated group during (10 and 20, 30 days) compared to a control group with highly significant ((p< 0.05), finally while TSH showed a highly increasing in treated group during (10 and 20, 30 days) compared to control group (p< 0.05). The study revealed that Exposure to Sio2NPs at different concentrations caused structural and functional and in the thyroid gland, characterized decrease in T3 and T4 hormone levels and an increase in the TSH hormone level and caused hypothyroidism This led to a decrease in the metabolism process and thus the body weight of animals gained a significant increase. Keywords: nanoparticles, Sio2NPs, Thyroid gland, T3, T4, TSH, Body weight, female rats.
The automatic modulation classification of signals is of great importance in modern communications, especially on cognitive radio. Several methods have been used in this field, the most important of which is the classification of modulation automatically using Deep Learning, where the methods depend on the convolution neural network, which is one of the Deep Learning networks, achieved high accuracy in classifying the modulation, so the proposed network depends on the type of deep learning CNN consisting of four blocks, each block contains a set of symmetric and asymmetric filters. The network also contains Max Pool. In this paper, the features extracted in phase-squaring and polar have been combined for the input, which helps in extending the input, that is, an increase in the features inside the network. It also contributes to improving the accuracy of classifying the higher-order modulation through the Polar plane. The dataset RadioML 2018.01A was adopted, which is used in the most recent research, where 11 types of modulation normal-class: (FM, GMSK, QPSK, BPSK, 0QPSK, AM-SSB-SC, 4ASK, AM-DSB-SC, 16QAM, 8PSK,00K) were taken. A simulation of which can be found in Matlab 2021. The proposed network achieved 100% classification accuracy when the signal-tonoise ratio is greater or equal to 2 dB for 11 types of modulation. The results of the paper were compared with modern networks Baseline network, Visual Geometry Group network, and Residual Neural network. The comparison showed the superiority of the proposed network over these networks, as the proposed network achieved an accuracy equal to 100% at SNR 2 dB while BL achieved an accuracy equal to 72% at SNR 2 dB, RN, and VGG almost reach 93% at SNR 2 dB.
Chronic helminth infections (CHIs) can induce immunological tolerance through the upregulation of regulatory T cells. In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), abnormal adaptive immune response and exaggerated immune response may cause immune-mediated tissue damage. Severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and CHIs establish complicated immune interactions due to SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological stimulation and CHIs-induced immunological tolerance. However, COVID-19 severity in patients with CHIs is mild, as immune-suppressive anti-inflammatory cytokines counterbalance the risk of cytokine storm. Since CHIs have immunomodulatory effects, therefore, this narrative review aimed to clarify how CHIs modulate the immunoinflammatory response in SARS-CoV-2 infection. CHIs, through helminth-derived molecules, may suppress SARS-CoV-2 entry and associated hyperinflammation through attenuation of the inflammatory signaling pathway. In addition, CHIs may reduce the COVID-19 severity by reducing the SARS-CoV-2 entry points in the initial phase and immunomodulation in the late phase of the disease by suppressing the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, CHIs may reduce the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection by reducing hyperinflammation and exaggerated immune response. Thus, retrospective and prospective studies are recommended in this regard.
Incorporating waste byproducts into concrete is an innovative and promising way to minimize the environmental impact of waste material while maintaining and/or improving concrete’s mechanical characteristics and strength. The proper application of sawdust as a pozzolan in the building industry remains a significant challenge. Consequently, this study conducted an experimental evaluation of sawdust as a fill material. In particular, sawdust as a fine aggregate in concrete offers a realistic structural and economical possibility for the construction of lightweight structural systems. Failure under four-point loads was investigated for six concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) specimens. The results indicated that recycled lightweight concrete performed similarly to conventional concrete when used as a filler material in composite steel tube beams. The structural effects of sawdust substitution on ultimate load and initial stiffness were less substantial than the relative changes in the material properties, and the ultimate capacity of the tested samples decreased moderately as the substitution percentage of sawdust increased. Moreover, the maximum load capacity was observed to decrease by 6.43–30.71% for sawdust replacement levels between 5% and 45.1% across all tested samples. Additionally, when using lightweight concrete with 5% sawdust, the moment value of the CFST sample was reduced by 6.4%. Notably, the sawdust CFST samples exhibited a flexural behavior that was relatively comparable to that of the standard CFST samples.
The current research aims to: (know the effectiveness of the harvesting strategy in the achievement of the students of the Institute of Fine Arts in environmental art. - In order to know this effectiveness, the researcher put a main zero hypothesis and derived six sub-hypotheses from it. the usual way; As the research community reached (120) male and female students of the Fine Arts Institutes for the morning study in Baghdad. As for the research sample, it was chosen by the simple random method, and the number was (75) male and female students for the year 2021-2022 AD. The researcher applied a pre-knowledge test for the four groups of research to find out the level of previous experiences of students in the subject of environmental art. Teaching material vocabulary and objectives. After obtaining the validity and reliability of the test, the test was applied post-test on the four groups to see the effectiveness of the study plans according to the harvesting strategy. Among the statistical methods used by the researcher: Kruskal-Wiles test for equivalence in precognitive achievement. Holsty equation to ensure the validity of the cognitive achievement test. Kauder Richardson (20) test for reliability of cognitive test. The discriminatory power equation to find the percentage of the number of respondents who answered correctly in the paragraph. Mann Whitney test to find differences between the two groups according to the sub-hypotheses. - The results of the research showed that the students of the two experimental groups who studied environmental art according to the harvesting strategy excelled over the students of the two control groups who studied in the traditional way. - The results also showed that there were statistically significant differences between the ranks of the students of both groups, the experimental males and the experimental females, and that the direction of this difference was in favor of the females of the experimental group who studied according to the harvest strategy. Based on the results, the researcher concluded: 1. The harvesting strategy worked on transferring students from a state of direct reception of information to searching for it, and this is the opposite of the usual method. 2. The steps of the harvest strategy enabled the students to make qualitative changes in their thinking pattern, which helped them to distinguish the correct solutions and choose them from among many solutions. The researcher recommends: presenting the educational material to the students in the form of problems that affect the life of the learner, and this encourages thinking and finding appropriate solutions to them.
Introduction: Covid-19 is linked with the development of cardio-metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia, dysregulation of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Furthermore, SARS-Co-2 infection is associated with noteworthy changes in lipid profile, which is suggested as a possible biomarker to support the diagnosis and management of Covid-19. Methods: This paper adopts the literature review method to obtain information about how Covid-19 affects high-risk group patients and may cause severe and critical effects due to the development of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome. A narrative and comprehensive review is presented. Results: Reducing HDL in Covid-19 is connected to the disease severity and poor clinical outcomes, suggesting that high HDL serum levels could benefit Covid-19. SARS-CoV-2 binds HDL, and this complex is attached to the co-localized receptors, facilitating viral entry. Therefore, SARS-CoV-2 infection may induce the development of dysfunctional HDL through different mechanisms, including induction of inflammatory and oxidative stress with activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. In turn, the induction of dysfunctional HDL induces the activation of inflammatory signaling pathways and oxidative stress, increasing Covid-19 severity. Conclusions: Covid-19 is linked with the development of cardio-metabolic disorders, including dyslipidemia in general and dysregulation of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein. Therefore, the present study aimed to overview the causal relationship between dysfunctional high-density lipoprotein and Covid-19.
Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid‐19) is caused by a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus virus type 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) leading to the global pandemic worldwide. Systemic complications in Covid‐19 are mainly related to the direct SARS‐CoV‐2 cytopathic effects, associated hyperinflammation, hypercytokinemia, and the development of cytokine storm (CS). As well, Covid‐19 complications are developed due to the propagation of oxidative and thrombotic events which may progress to a severe state called oxidative storm and thrombotic storm (TS), respectively. In addition, inflammatory and lipid storms are also developed in Covid‐19 due to the activation of inflammatory cells and the release of bioactive lipids correspondingly. Therefore, the present narrative review aimed to elucidate the interrelated relationship between different storm types in Covid‐19 and the development of the mixed storm (MS). In conclusion, SARS‐CoV‐2 infection induces various storm types including CS, inflammatory storm, lipid storm, TS and oxidative storm. These storms are not developing alone since there is a close relationship between them. Therefore, the MS seems to be more appropriate to be related to severe Covid‐19 than CS, since it develops in Covid‐19 due to the intricate interface between reactive oxygen species, proinflammatory cytokines, complement activation, coagulation disorders, and activated inflammatory signaling pathway.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common degenerative brain disorders caused by the loss of dopaminergic neu-rons in the substantia nigra (SN). Lewy bodies and-synuclein accumulation in the SN are hallmarks of the neuropathology of PD. Due to lifestyle changes and prolonged L-dopa administration, patients with PD frequently have vitamin deficiencies , especially folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. These disorders augment circulating levels of Homocysteine with the development of hyperhomocysteinemia, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Therefore, this review aimed to ascertain if hyperhomocysteinemia may play a part in oxidative and inflammatory signaling pathways that contribute to PD development. Hyperhomocysteinemia is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, including PD. Hyperhomocysteinemia triggers the development and progression of PD by different mechanisms, including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and endothelial dysfunction. Particularly, the progression of PD is linked with high inflammatory changes and systemic inflammatory disorders. Hyperhomocysteinemia induces immune activation and oxidative stress. In turn, activated immune response promotes the development and progression of hyperhomocysteinemia. Therefore, hyperhomocysteinemia-induced immunoinflammatory disorders and abnormal immune response may aggravate abnormal immunoinflammatory in PD, leading to more progression of PD severity. Also, inflammatory signaling pathways like nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and nod-like receptor pyrin 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and other signaling pathways are intricate in the pathogenesis of PD. In conclusion, hyperhomocysteinemia is involved in the development and progression of PD neuropathology either directly via induction degeneration of dopaminergic neurons or indirectly via activation of inflammatory signaling pathways.
Helminths are metazoan parasites affecting about one third of the worldwide population. Chronic helminth infections (CHIs) confer immunological tolerance to harmless and self-antigens mediated by regulatory T cells (Treg) that are up-regulated. In coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), abnormal adaptive immune response and unrestrained innate immune response could result in local and systemic immune-mediated tissue damage. COVID-19 and CHIs establish complicated immune interactions due to SARS-CoV-2-induced immunological stimulation and CHIs-induced immunological tolerance. However, COVID-19 severity in patients with CHIs is mild, as immuno-suppressive anti-inflammatory cytokines counterbalance the risk of cytokine storm. Here, an overview of the interplay between helminths and COVID-19 severity is given. CHIs through helminth-derived molecules may suppress SARS-CoV-2 entry and associated hyperinflammation through attenuation of the TLR4/NF-kB signalling pathway. In addition, CHIs may reduce the COVID-19 severity by reducing the SARS-CoV-2 entry points at ACE2/DPP4/CD147 axis in the initial phase and immunomodulation in the late phase of the disease by suppressing TLR4/NF-kB signalling pathway.
This study aimed to investigate the cardiovascular changes associated with hypothyroidism, a topic that has received significant research attention. Although only a limited number of studies have been conducted in Iraq to evaluate cardiac parameters in patients with hypothyroidism, it is widely recognized that hypothyroidism can lead to reversible cardiac dysfunction in humans. The study enrolled 100 subjects, of which 50 were diagnosed with hypothyroidism and 50 without hypothyroidism. Medical history and body mass index (BMI) were recorded for each patient, and lipid profile, thyroid function tests, ECG, and echocardiogram results were obtained. The results revealed significant differences in the thyroid functions of hypothyroid patients compared to healthy controls, except for HDL-C, which did not show any significant difference. Hypothyroid patients had higher triglyceride and total cholesterol levels and lower HDL-C, while LDL, LDL-C, VLDL, and VLDL-C were within normal range. Patients with hypothyroidism showed a higher prevalence of ECG and echocardiogram abnormalities, including diastolic dysfunction and pericardial effusion, compared to the control subjects. Our findings suggest that hypothyroidism can affect the cardiovascular system, with the degree of impact depending on TSH elevation.
Objectives. This study was carried out to quantitatively evaluate and compare the sealing ability of Endoflas by using different obturation techniques. Materials and Methods. After 42 extracted primary maxillary incisors and canines were decoronated, their canals were instrumented with K files of size ranging from #15 to #50. In accordance with the obturation technique, the samples were divided into three experimental groups, namely, group I: endodontic pressure syringe, group II: modified disposable syringe, and group III: reamer technique, and two control groups. Dye extraction method was used for leakage evaluation. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at p<0:05. Results. Endodontic pressure syringe had significantly less leakage than the modified disposable syringe and reamer techniques (p<0:05). Meanwhile, no significant difference was found in the mean leakage between the modified disposable syringe and the reamer techniques. Conclusion. Amongst all the techniques used in this study, endodontic pressure syringe could be preferred as an obturation technique in primary teeth when used with Endoflas obturation material because of its potential to provide good apical seal.
Let S be a monoid and AS be an S-act. An S-act AS is called extending act if every subact of AS is ∩-large in a summand of AS. In this work, we present and study a generalization of extending acts over a monoid,. We call an S-act AS is ∩-uniform-extending, if every ∩-uniform subact is ∩-large in a summand of AS. Several characterizations, results and properties of these classes of acts are given. For example, we show that a direct sum in the ∩-uniform-extending S-act is not necessary to be ∩-uniform-extending. Additionally, we generalize some of the well-known results of extending S-acts for ∩-uniform-extending acts.
Food reformulation, the process of redesigning processed food products to make them healthier, is considered a crucial step in the fight against noncommunicable diseases. The reasons for reformulating food vary, with a common focus on reducing the levels of harmful substances, such as fats, sugars, and salts. Although this topic is broad, this review aims to shed light on the current challenges faced in the reformulation of food and to explore different approaches that can be taken to overcome these challenges. The review highlights the perception of consumer risk, the reasons for reformulating food, and the challenges involved. The review also emphasizes the importance of fortifying artisanal food processing and modifying microbial fermentation in order to meet the nutrient requirements of people in developing countries. The literature suggests that while the traditional reductionist approach remains relevant and yields quicker results, the food matrix approach, which involves engineering food microstructure, is a more complex process that may take longer to implement in developing economies. The findings of the review indicate that food reformulation policies are more likely to succeed if the private sector collaborates with or responds to the government regulatory process, and further research is conducted to establish newly developed reformulation concepts from different countries. In conclusion, food reformulation holds great promise in reducing the burden of noncommunicable diseases and improving the health of people around the world. Redeveloping an existing processed food product to make it healthier is the focus of food reformulation. However, the approaches for food reformulation are diverse, and there is a consensus that the main concerns are fats, sugars, and salts. Food reformulation policy would certainly succeed if the private sector works in tandem with and/or responds to government pressure.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most frequent type of dementia characterized by the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) plaque and tau-neurofibrillary tangles (TNTs) in the brain. AD is associated with the disturbances of various neurotransmitters including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Of note, GABA is reduced in AD, and restoration of GABA effect by benzodiazepines (BDZs) may improve AD outcomes. However, BDZs may adversely affect cognitive functions chiefly in elderly AD patients with sleep disorders. Besides, there is a controversy regarding the use of BDZs in AD. Consequently, the objective of the present review was to disclose the possible role of BDZs on the pathogenesis of AD that might be beneficial, neutral, or detrimental effects on AD. Prolonged use of intermediate-acting BDZ lorazepam exerts amnesic effects due to attenuation of synaptic plasticity and impairment of recognition memory. However, BDZs may have a protective effect against the development of AD by reducing tau phosphorylation, neuroinflammation, and progression of AD neuropathology. On the other side, other findings highlighted that extended use of BDZs was not associated with the development of AD. In conclusion, there are controversial points concerning the use of BDZs and the risk for the progression of AD. Thus, preclinical, and clinical studies are essential in this regard.
The solvability and uniqueness of the semi linear bounded perturbed operator equation in some real Hilbert spaces are developed. The linear unperturbed part generates a strongly continuous semigroup with the uniformly monotone property. The nonlinear part satisfies the D-Lipschitz property in suitable real Hilbert space. The perturbation is assumed a bounded linear operator in suitable real Hilbert space. The obtained results are based on semigroup theory and the functional analysis approach.
Dantrolene (DTN) is a ryanodine receptor (RyR) antagonist that inhibits Ca2+ release from stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. DTN is mainly used in the management of malignant hyperthermia. RyRs are highly expressed in immune cells and are involved in different viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2, since Ca2+ is necessary for viral replication, maturation, and release. DTN can inhibit the proliferation of SARS-CoV-2, indicating its potential role in reducing entry and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. DTN may increase clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and promote COVID-19 recovery by shortening the period of infection. DTN inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) mediated platelets aggregations and thrombosis. Therefore, DTN may inhibit thrombosis and coagulopathy in COVID-19 through suppression of platelet NMDA receptors. Moreover, DTN has a neuroprotective effect against SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced brain injury through modulation of NMDA receptors which involved in excitotoxicity, neuronal injury, and the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. In conclusion, DTN by inhibiting RyRs may attenuate inflammatory disorders in SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated cardio-pulmonary complications. Thus, DNT could be a promising drug therapy against COVID-19. Preclinical and clinical studies are warranted in this regards.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disease that manifests itself in the bone marrow as a hyper proliferative immature myeloid cells with a defective differentiation program. In adults, Acute leukemia is the most frequent type of cancer. The most common causes of death among patients include severe infections, resistance, and relapses. Recent research has suggested that the disease is caused by a collection of hematopoietic stem cell mutations accumulated over time. the study was carried out to detect how high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) affected newly diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients with other co morbidity and diabetes insipidus.in Conclusion; Increased high sensitive (c-reactive protein) (hs-CRP) could be act as predictive factor in individuals with diabetes and other hematological changes who have acute myeloid leukemia. Aim of study: the study was carried out to detect how high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) affected newly diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia patients with other co morbidity and diabetes insipidus. Conclusion: Increased high sensitive (c-reactive protein) (hs-CRP) could be act as predictive factor in individuals with diabetes and other problem who have acute myeloid leukemia. Furthermore the causes between association with diabetes insipidus are not understood.
Background: Retention after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is essential to prevent relapse. This study examined the effects of a fixed orthodontic device and Nano Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) nanoparticles with or without recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein (rhBMP) on rat body weight. Materials and methods: OTM was administered for 21 days to 80 Wistar Albino rats. First molar mesialization was active then forming two 40-rat groups which were subdivided into four subgroups of 10 rats each. These subgroups received 5 µg/kg rhBMP, 75 µg/kg CaCO3, 80 µg/kg rhBMP-loaded CaCO3 and one control. The relapse rate was examined weekly over the second 21 days when the second group exhibited mechanical retention and the first did not. Group 1 rats were murdered after 21 days (day 42), whereas group 2 rats entered a third 21-day post-retention period and then murdered (day 63). BW and OTM were measured on days 1, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 63. Results: Within each group, the animal body weight was reduced significantly after the intervention and continued over time with a higher average reduction in the 9-week group than the 6-week group. However, there were no significant (P-value ˃0.05) differences in the BW between the groups of the two (6-week and 9-week) sets and the subgroups of the 6-week set across each time point. In contrast, there was a significant (P-value ˂0.05) difference between the BW of the conjugate subgroup and the other three subgroups in the 9-week set, particularly on 63rd day. Conclusion: CaCO3 nanoparticles and/or BMP with orthodontic treatment collectively or individually cause a reduction of body weight in rats.
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