Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University
  • Kufa, Najaf Governarate, Iraq
Recent publications
OBJECTIVE: Beta-lactams resistance is a major clinical problem in treating pneumonia. This study aimed to detect the extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) genes in Klebsiella pneumoniae among patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Al-Najaf City, Iraq. METHODS: A total of 511 sputum samples were obtained from all suspected patients with CAP in Al-Najaf City, Iraq, from March 2020 to September 2020. Sputum samples were subjected to microbiological tests. The disk diffusion method was used to test antibiotic sensitivity. Production of ESBLs was identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods. RESULTS: The total prevalence of K. pneumoniae was 31.9% (163/511). Using CHROM agar, 41 (25.2%) isolates were ESBL producers. The imipenem 0.0% (n=0/41) and norfloxacin 0.0% (n=0/41) were the most effective antibiotics. The multiplex polymerase chain reaction showed that 46.3% (n=19/41) of isolates harbored ESBL genes. Out of 19 ESBL producers, 47.4% and 15.8% harbored blaCTX-M and blaSHV, respectively. While blaCTX-M and blaSHV genes were detected in 7 (36.8%) isolates, simultaneously. CONCLUSIONS: The imipenem and norfloxacin can be used in empirical treatment of K. pneumoniae isolates in Iraq. The emergence of K. pneumoniae strains harboring ESBL resistance genes necessitates the development of a regular surveillance program to prevent the spreading of these isolates more in Iraqi health care systems.
In this paper, a system for monitoring and controlling the operation of communication devices with low cost using a Telegram message based on the internet of things (IoT) is proposed and implemented. The ESP8266 Wi-fi module is working to connect the webserver gateway with the temperature sensor and remote-control system to turn on and off the devices. Then the temperature data is stored in the database of the server with information about the environmental conditions of the devices in the format real-time on the Android screen. The system alert will be sent to the responsible person if the temperature exceeds the permissible limit, which is the time required for transmission System alerts using the Telegram messenger, which takes about 6 to 7 seconds. The system also can self-start the cooling devices according to pre-programming or remote control using the application (Telegram or WhatsApp). The prototype is carried out using two high voltage relays, Arduino NodeMcu, and a temperature sensor. The outcomes obtained through the experiment process via the telegram messages have shown effective results.
The steady increase in the energy demand and the growing carbon footprint has forced electricity‐based utilities to shift from their use of non‐renewable energy sources to renewable energy sources. Furthermore, there has been an increase in the integration of renewable energy sources in the electric grid. Hence, one needs to manage the energy consumption needs of the consumers, more effectively. Consumers can connect all the devices and houses to the internet by using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. In this study, the researchers have developed and proposed a novel 2‐stage hybrid method that schedules the power consumption of the houses possessing a distributed energy generation and storage system. Stage 1 modeled the non‐identical Home Energy Management Systems (HEMSs) that can contain the DGS like WT and PV. The HEMS organise the controllable appliances after taking into consideration the user preferences, electricity prices and the amount of energy produced /stored. The set of optimal consumption schedules for every HEMS was estimated using a BPSO and BSA. On the other hand, Stage 2 includes a Multi‐Agent‐System (MAS) based on the IoT. The system comprises two portions: software and hardware. The hardware comprises the Base Station Unit (BSU) and many Terminal Units (TUs).
This article is an experimental study of the efficiency after fire exposure of slurry infiltrated fiber concrete (SIFCON) columns. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive study of the fire effect on the stiffness, ductility, and energy absorption capacity of axially loaded SIFCON columns and to inspect the effect of hollow ratio and cross section shape on the energy dissipation ability, ductility, and stiffness features of the post‐fire behavior of these columns. Hybrid fibers were used to cast SIFCON columns with 6% fiber ratio (3% hooked end fiber + 3% straight micro fiber). The results showed that the cube compressive strength decreased by 25.1% and 53% when exposed to fire at a temperatures of 600 and 900°C, respectively. The results obtained revealed that after exposure to fire, the indices values of displacement ductility are not strongly impaired and it has been shown that the assessment of the energy dissipation ability is more relevant in this situation. Whereafter fire exposure at 600°C, the SIFCON columns lost about 11%–31% of the energy absorption capacity and about 39%–57% after fire exposure at 900°C. In comparison, after fire exposure, the secant and initial stiffness greatly degraded and the reduction percentages became higher with a rise in fire temperature from 600 to 900°C.
Originating from deoxygenation (DO) technology, green diesel was innovated in order to act as a substitute for biodiesel, which contains unstable fatty acid alkyl ester owing to the existence of oxygenated species. Green diesel was manufactured following a process of catalytic DO of sludge palm oil (SPO). An engineered Mn(0.5%)-Mo(0.5%)/AC catalyst was employed in a hydrogen-free atmosphere. The influence of Manganese (Mn) species (0.1–1 wt.%) on DO reactivity and the dissemination of the product were examined. The Mn(0.5%)-Mo(0.5%)/AC formulation gave rise to a superior harvest of approximately 89% liquid hydrocarbons; a higher proportion of diesel fraction selectivity n-(C15+C17) was obtained in the region of 93%. Where acid and basic active sites were present on the Mn(0.5%)-Mo(0.5%)/AC catalyst, decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction mechanisms of SPO to DO were enhanced. Evidence of the high degree of stability of the Mn(0.5%)-Mo(0.5%)/AC catalyst during five continuous runs was presented, which, in mild reaction conditions, gave rise to a consistent hydrocarbon harvest of >72% and >94% selectivity for n-(C15+C17).
Sex hormones and chronic respiratory diseases play a role in the pathogenesis and the management of Covid-19 infection. Present research tries to shed light on the role of sex hormones, bronchial asthma and lung cancer on the severity of Covid-19 infection and the resulting mortality rate. This study included a follow-up of the health status of 85 patients infected with Covid-19, and all the patients previously diagnosed had hereditary respiratory diseases (bronchial asthma (64) and lung cancer (21)). The serum level of progesterone and testosterone and the stages of lung cancer development were measured in the laboratories of Diwaniyah Teaching Hospital. After conducting medical examinations, computed tomography and x-rays, the severity of Covid-19 infection was classified according to the WHO to moderate, severe and critical infection. The current results showed that most of the hospitalized cases were males (65%) with a death rate (18%), so bronchial asthma was associated with the death rate in males (70% of dead males), followed by postmenopausal (POM) women (66.7% of the dead woman), while pre-menopausal (PRM) women had the highest cure rate (100%). The results of the study showed that the rise in the mean of progesterone in PRM (13.55 ng/ml) was associated with moderate symptoms of Covid-19, while the increased testosterone in males and POM (1018 ng/dL and 67.3 ng/dL, respectively) was associated with an increase in the severity of the infection. In conclusion, asthma and high testosterone directly affected the increase in the severity of Covid-19 and the high mortality rate among the Corona sufferers. While advanced lung cancer had a clear role in that, at the same time, progesterone appeared as a protective factor in young women.
This study aims to assess the quality of drinking water in Karbala. Furthermore, the quality of tap and bottled water are compared in this study. Materials and method: Physical, chemical, and bacteriological parameters were all measured in the study. The bacteriological test includes a total count of coliform and fecal coliform, which may be detected using standard microbiology procedures. Results: In bottled water, total dissolved salts (TDS), Ca, Cl, and Mg were within acceptable ranges, like that in tap water, the mentioned parameters were within normal ranges except for regions Aborwayah, Al-wend, Al-khayrat and Al-husainia which were beyond the expected value. In terms of bacteriological tests, coliform bacteria were found in bottled water (Al-katara water and Al kafeel) samples with no E. coli bacteria. In the case of tap water samples, the findings revealed that most of the regions (9 out of 12 = 75%) had coliform bacteria growth, so (4 out of 9 = 44. 4%) had E. coli bacterium growth does not comply with the approved standards for drinking water, which must be free of the microbial content of E. .coli and coliform. Conclusion: According to the study, drinking water treatment operations are not up to par, particularly in locations outside of the city center, and bottled water is preferable to tap water for drinking. Keywords. drink water, coliform, TDS, Chloride, turbidity.
Group IV light sources with vertical emission and non-zero orbital-angular momentum (OAM) promise to unlock many novel applications. In this report, we demonstrate cylindrically symmetrical germanium micro-gear cavities, fabricated by etching a grating around the circumference of standard micro-disks, with periods ranging from 14 to 22. Photoluminescence (PL) measurements were done to identify the confined whispering-gallery modes (WGM). Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations were conducted to map the resonant modes to their modal profiles and characteristics. Vertical emission of WGMs with non-zero OAM was demonstrated, with a clear dependence of the OAM order (ℓ) on the WGM azimuthal order and the number of micro-gear grating periods. As the chirality, or the direction of rotation, is not controlled in a symmetrical cavity, we propose introducing staircase or triangular-shaped gear periods resulting in an asymmetry. By choosing the diameter, number of periods, and the asymmetrical direction of the gear-teeth, it is possible to generate OAM signals with certain wavelength, OAM order and chirality.
Despite the considerable advantages of the Steel Plate Shear Wall (SPSW), this system suffers from two shortcomings; the imposed large stresses from the infill plate to the boundary columns and the low elastic bucking capacity of the infill plate. Although several techniques have been proposed to solve this problem, they have their own limitations. In this study, a new type of semi-supported SPSW was proposed and discussed numerically and parametrically. The proposed SPSW consists of the main frame and wall (including corrugated and flat plates and secondary columns). Since the wall is not directly attached to the main frame, no stress is transferred from the plates to the columns. Due to combining the corrugated and flat plates, the elastic buckling of the wall is increased up to a nearby fully yielding wall. As a result, a more economical system is achieved. The effects of loading patterns as well as the number of stories (low to mid-rise structures) were investigated. The numerical simulations and analyses were performed using the finite element software package ABAQUS. The results indicated that the structures under the uniform loading pattern show a 27% stiffer response than that under the triangular loading pattern. Also, by increasing the height of structures, the effect of the loading pattern is increased, which reaches 37%. In addition, a simple model for analysis of the proposed system was proposed in which the steel infill plate is replaced by a truss member. This method speeds up the analysis and design of structures. Comparison of the finite element results and the proposed model indicates the high accuracy of the proposed method.
Background Genome-wide association studies have shown that polymorphism of the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) gene is associated with obesity. The aim of the study is the association of MC4R polymorphism with obesity. Methods In order to detect the correlation between rs 17,782,313 polymorphism of the MC4R gene and risk of obesity, literature research has been carried out in PubMed, MEDLINE, Springer, and google scholars. The heterogeneity was examined, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used for five models: co-dominant CC vs TT and CT vs TT, dominant (CC + CT vs. TT), recessive CC vs CT + TT and allele C vs T, where it was calculated using the fixed and random-effects model. Results The article deals this meta-analysis included 11 eligible studies (comprising involving cases 4055 and 3738 controls) were selected from 86 articles. The results indicated that the significantly associated with obesity risk, But it was differentiated between subgroups with genotypes models among five models, the most prominent correlations were with genetic models: genotyping methods (OR = 1.45, 95% CI:1.21–1.75, P < 0.0001), children and adolescents of populations (OR = 1.60, 95% CI:1.17–2.18, P = 0.003) of dominant, (OR = 1.70, 95% CI:1.31–2.21, P < 0.0001) of co-dominant model - homozygous, and sample size under allele model (OR = 1.39, 95% CI:1.23–1.57, P < 0.0001). In addition, other subgroups were to reveal some between MC4R rs17782313 polymorphism and obesity risk under each model. Conclusions It may be concluded from the studies that confirmed the current meta-analysis indicated that the risk of obesity was associated significantly with rs17782313 polymorphisms of the MC4R gene. In addition, the associations provide significant data on methods of genotyping in Asian populations and some other subgroups.
Mobile connections and applications are growing unprecedentedly with the advent and increasing popularity of wireless services worldwide, which greatly increases the demands on data traffic. This led to considering millimeter-wave bands and ultra-dense deployment as part of the key enabler solutions in 5G networks. However, these solutions radically increase the number of handovers (HOs), thus increasing the rate of unnecessary HO and dropping call probabilities. In this regard, optimizing HO control parameters appropriately is the main factor that can efficiently address HO issues during user mobility. This paper proposes a fuzzy-coordinated self-optimizing HO scheme to achieve a seamless HO while users move in multi-radio access networks. The proposed scheme resolves the conflict between mobility robustness and load balancing functions by utilizing a fuzzy system considering three input parameters: signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio, cell load and UE speed. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme manages to control the mobility optimization in terms of ping-pong HO, radio link failure and HO latency over different mobile speed scenarios. Moreover, the proposed scheme reduces the outage probability compared to other schemes from literature.
This experimental study concerns the elimination of fluoride from water using an electrocoagulation reactor having a variable flow direction in favour of increasing the electrolysing time, saving the reactor area, and water mixing. The detention time of the space-saver EC reactor (S-SECR) was measured and compared to the traditional reactors using an inert dye (red drain dye). Then, the influence of electrical current (1.5 ≤ δ ≤ 3.5 mA cm−2), pH of water (4 ≤ pH ≤ 10), and distance between electrodes (5 ≤ ϕ ≤ 15) on the defluoridation of water was analysed. The effect of the electrolysing activity on the electrodes' morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additionally, the operational cost was calculated. The results confirmed the removal of fluoride using S-SECR met the guideline of the World Health Organization (WHO) for fluoride levels in drinking water of ≤1.5 mg/L. S-SECR abated fluoride concentration from 20 mg/L to the WHO's guideline at δ, ϕ, pH, operational cost, and power consumption of 2.5 mA cm−2, 5 mm, 7, 0.346 USD m−3, and 5.03 kWh m−3, respectively. It was also found the S-SECR enhanced the detention time by 190% compared to the traditional reactors. The appearance of dents and irregularities on the surface of anodes in the SEM images proves the electrolysing process. HIGHLIGHTS An engineered EC reactor (S-SECR) was used to remove fluoride from water.; S-SERC achieved the WHO's guideline for fluoride in water in 30 min.; S-SECR increased the detention time by about 190%.; The operating cost was 0.346 USD m−3.; SEM images showed severe changes in the surface of anodes.;
For the design or assessment of concrete structures that incorporate steel fiber in their elements, the accurate prediction of the shear strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete (SFRC) beams is critical. Unfortunately, traditional empirical methods are based on a small and limited dataset, and their abilities to accurately estimate the shear strength of SFRC beams are arguable. This drawback can be reduced by developing an accurate machine learning based model. The problem with using a high accuracy machine learning (ML) model is its interpretation since it works as a black-box model that is highly sophisticated for humans to comprehend directly. For this reason, Shapley additive explanations (SHAP), one of the methods used to open a black-box machine learning model, is combined with highly accurate machine learning techniques to build an explainable ML model to predict the shear strength of SFRC slender beams. For this, a database of 330 beams with varying design attributes and geometries was developed. The new gradient boosting regression tree (GBRT) machine learning model was compared statistically to experimental data and current shear design models to evaluate its performance. The proposed GBRT model gives predictions that are very similar to the experimentally observed shear strength and has a better and unbiased predictive performance in comparison to other existing developed models. The SHAP approach shows that the beam width and effective depth are the most important factors, followed by the concrete strength and the longitudinal reinforcement ratio. In addition, the outputs are also affected by the steel fiber factor and the shear-span to effective depth ratio. The fiber tensile strength and the aggregate size have the lowest effect, with only about 1% on average to change the predicted value of the shear strength. By building an accurate ML model and by opening its black-box, future researchers can focus on some attributes rather than others.
There is no doubt that chaotic systems are still attractive issues in various radar applications and communication systems. In this paper, we present a new 0.3 GHz mono-static microwave chaotic radar. It includes a chaotic system based on a time-delay to generate and process frequency mod-ulated (FM) waveforms. Such a radar is designed to extract high-resolution information from the targets. To generate a continuous FM signal, the chaotic signal is first modulated using the voltage control oscillator (VCO). Next, the correct value for the loop gain (G) is carefully set when utilizing the phase-locked loop (PLL) at the receiver, so that the instantaneous frequency that reflects a chaotic state variable can be reliably recovered. In this system, the PLL synchronization and radar correlation are enough to recover the echo signal and detect the target. The finding indicates that the system can be implemented with no need to use the complete self-synchronization or complex projective synchronization schemes as compared to the existing chaotic radar systems. The simu-lation results show that the short-time cross-correlation of the transmitted and reconstructed waveforms is good and satisfactory to detect the target under various signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels and with less complexity in the design.
In this study, a microwave active antenna sensor (MAAS) was designed and manufactured from PCB boards operating at a frequency of approximately 3 GHz to sense the characteristics of mineral oils (high voltage transformer oils) and chemical liquids such as methanol, chloroform, and ethanol. The proposed sensor has been designed using the automation software system named ADS (advanced design system). The antenna was linked with a radio amplifier; therefore, the antenna is called active antenna. As a result, the reflection coefficient changed from -39.98 dB to -66.26 dB, and also the quality factor changed from 350 to 27000. The measuring and simulation results were quite identical in both active and passive antenna cases. An M-shaped channel with a capacity of 150 μL was built on a microscope glass slide, where the glass slide was placed in contact with the above face of the designed antenna (near field). That a slit channel was placed on the areas in which the electric field is concentrated. Then, the sensor was tested by injecting the channel with new and damaged transformer oil. Despite the small sample size, the amount of resonant frequency change was 2.23 MHz and 1.48 MHz for the active and passive antennas, respectively. A mathematical model was built to calculate the breakdown voltage of high voltage transformer oil, and the error value in the breakdown voltage value did not exceed ±0.1606%. The other application of the antenna is to sense chemical liquids and to calculate the electrical permittivity of those samples by finding a mathematical model based on the resonant properties of the antenna. The measured permittivity of the liquids have been compared with the theoretical values, which gives a good qualitative agreement for our results.
The design and sustainability of reinforced concrete deep beam are still the main issues in the sector of structural engineering despite the existence of modern advancements in this area. Proper understanding of shear stress characteristics can assist in providing safer design and prevent failure in deep beams which consequently lead to saving lives and properties. In this investigation, a new intelligent model depending on the hybridization of support vector regression with bio-inspired optimization approach called genetic algorithm (SVR-GA) is employed to predict the shear strength of reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams based on dimensional, mechanical and material parameters properties. The adopted SVR-GA modelling approach is validated against three different well established artificial intelligent (AI) models, including classical SVR, artificial neural network (ANN) and gradient boosted decision trees (GBDTs). The comparison assessments provide a clear impression of the superior capability of the proposed SVR-GA model in the prediction of shear strength capability of simply supported deep beams. The simulated results gained by SVR-GA model are very close to the experimental ones. In quantitative results, the coefficient of determination (R2) during the testing phase (R2 = 0.95), whereas the other comparable models generated relatively lower values of R2 ranging from 0.884 to 0.941. All in all, the proposed SVR-GA model showed an applicable and robust computer aid technology for modelling RC deep beam shear strength that contributes to the base knowledge of material and structural engineering perspective.
Fabric reinforced cementitious mortar (FRCM), an emerging sustainable retrofit technique, has seen very limited research and applications on two-way reinforced concrete (RC) slabs. In this study, a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model is developed for FRCM-strengthened slabs, incorporating concrete nonlinearity, cracking, debonding and rupture. After validation with experimental results from literature, an extensive parametric study was performed, examining the effects of FRCM coverage area as a ratio of the width of FRCM reinforcement (wFRCM)-to-span (S); the use of discontinuous FRCM strips; internal steel reinforcement ratio (ρs); compressive strength of concrete (f ′c); and aspect ratio of slab (α). The study showed that ultimate strength (Pu) increases sharply by 84% as (wFRCM/S) increased from zero to 0.25, then only by 19% from (wFRCM/S) of 0.25 to 1.0. In general, Pu increased with f′c and ρs but was not affected by α. Two existing models were evaluated and found to be unconservative or insensitive to key parameters. A regression analysis was performed on data from the parametric study, resulting in two expressions for the FRCM effective strain (εfe) and much better predictions for Pu.
Alkali-activated cement systems (Geopolymers) are essential alternatives to OPC in the sustainable concrete production industry. In general, the alkali-activated mortar and concrete have good fire resistance due to their ceramic-like properties. Due to the limited resources investigating POFA-GGBS based geopolymer exposed to elevated temperatures, this study will help researchers for the first time understand the geopolymeric binder characteristics after exposure to elevated temperature on strength, thermo-physical stability, and microstructure properties. The main objective is to investigate the role of calcium coupled with aluminum and their effect on geopolymeric gel stability. The alkali-activated mortar was synthesized with liquid sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide. Cubic specimens were heated to a range of temperatures between 100 °C and 800 °C to evaluate strength loss and gel thermal microstructure damage. Scanning electron Microscopy test confirmed the finding of the ability of POFA with GGBS to be used as a novel environmentally-friendly material to produce sustainable mortar and concrete with advanced performance under high temperatures. Thermal-physical stability of POFA-GGBS mortar due to the spherical pore system allows the vaporized water to be released outside the samples. FTIR spectra results revealed two mechanisms explaining the effect of GGBS by lowering the wavelength through shifting Si-O peaks with the aluminium substitution producing C-A-S-H and changing the FTIR spectra by generating new peaks. TGA/DTG and DSC tests confirmed the formation of a robust gel with a higher degree of crystallinity and very high thermal stability due to the Ca and crosslink effect of Al in the geopolymeric system. The excellent thermal performance of POFA-GGBS mortar under elevated temperature would increase the applications for this novel environmentally-friendly material.
This research paper presents a detailed review about the recent advances concerned with the heat pipe-evacuated tube solar collectors. The reviewed papers covered various subjects related with this type of the collectors such as enhancement techniques, its structure designing and the methods used to modify it. Moreover, the effects of integration of (CPCs), types of working fluids and using of storage systems on the performance of this collector were reviewed and summarized in different tables. Depending on the reviewed papers, various conclusions and recommendations were outlined to be very useful to the readers and give them a clear road map to produce more future papers about the heat pipe- solar collector systems.
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824 members
Emad Kamil Hussein
  • Technical College of Al-Mussaib
Hyder H. Balla
  • Technical Institute of Najaf
Ali Najah Al-Shamani
  • Technical Collage of Al-Mussaib
Mohammed Alfahham
  • Aeronutical Engineering Technical
Information
Address
54003, Kufa, Najaf Governarate, Iraq
Head of institution
Professor Mudhaffar S. Al zuhairy
Website
http://en.atu.edu.iq/