The conventional electrical grid faces significant issues, which this paper aims to address one of most of them using a proposed prototype of a smart microgrid energy management system. In addition to relying too heavily on fossil fuels, electricity theft is another great issue. The proposed energy management system can simultaneously detect electricity theft and implement demand response tactics by employing time-of-use pricing principles and comparing real electricity consumption with grid data. The system uses the Al-Biruni earth radius (BER) optimization algorithm to make smart choices about how to distribute the load, intending to reduce energy consumption and costs without sacrificing comfort. As a bonus, it considers limitations imposed by battery charging/discharging and decentralized power generation. Incorporating sensors and SCADA-based monitoring, the system provides accurate measurement and management of energy usage through load monitoring and control. An intuitive mobile app also helps consumers connect, allowing for more active participation and better control over energy use. Extensive field testing of the prototype shows that by moving loads from peak period to another off-peak period, electricity expenditures can be reduced by up to 48.45%. The energy theft value was calculated to be 1199 W, proving that the system's theft detection model was effective.
The purpose of this article is to create a simple general function to find the maximum base pressure of biaxial eccentric loads under a trapezoidal and triangular footing. Base pressure is the load per unit area below the foundation. The first step is to derive a function linking variables to the specific status by determining what variables can be observed in it and which variables are expected to be extracted from it. This research will focus on a specific status in foundation science and, thereafter, will produce a factor named k that is multiplied by the load divided by the area to find the maximum base pressure.
MEMS-IMUs are widely used in research, industry, and commerce. A proper calibration technique must reduce their innate errors. In this study, a turntable-based IMU calibration approach was presented. Parameters such as the bias, lever arm, and scale factor, in addition to misalignment, are included in the general nonlinear model of the IMU output. Accelerometer error parameters were estimated using the transformed unscented Kalman filter (TUKF) with triangulation algorithm is suggested for calibrating inertial measurement unit (MPU6050) three-axes accelerometer. In contrast to the present methods, the suggested method uses the gravitational signal as a constant reference and necessitates no external equipment. The technique requires that the sensor be positioned in a rough orientation and that basic rotations be adopted. This technology also offers a quicker and easier calibration. Comparing the experimental findings with other works, Allan deviation shows significant improvements for the bias instability, where a bias instability of (0.116 μg) is achieved at temperatures between (−15°C) and (80°C).
Because of its modest properties, the slot antenna has become an unsuitable contender in many applications. To achieve high gain, small size, and a wide frequency range in the proposed antenna, two layers of flower-shaped cells are positioned at various heights according to Al-Fabry–Perot theory. The improvements in antenna performance extended to the feed line and the slot drilled by the ground plate, allowing the amount of current flowing to be controlled. The number of cells in each of the metasurface layers above the typical antenna is 4 × 4. The antenna has a peak gain of 9.8 dB and a bandwidth of 2.6 GHz between 4.33 and 6.93 GHz. The CST software was used to carry out the simulation procedure. The antenna’s characteristics have made it an excellent contender for wireless applications.
The development of a supersonic flow in the air intake is critical to the operation of a scramjet engine since it determines how well the engine performs. The configuration of the air intake plays a key role in determining whether or not the required pressure recovery of the intake is attained, which in turn affects the efficiency of the combustion chamber. This work presents the prediction of aerodynamics performance of scramjet’s intake at high Mach number flight using computational fluid dynamics. A scramjet intake with mixed compression is being used, and it has two external ramps. The work focused on the aerodynamics characteristics of the intake and the effects of the cowl lip length on the compression ratio inside isolator. CFD simulation was modelled for 2-dimensional, steady, compressible flow using rhoCentralFoam of OpenFOAM. The Mach numbers were ranged from 5 to 6.5, angle of attacks (3°, 0°, and −3°) and flight altitude of 26 km. The results show an improvement in compression ratio (static pressure, and static temperature) up to 20% in addition to increment in mass flow captured by 16.7%.
The generated lift and drag forces for any airfoil represent the crucial parameters that measure the airfoil’s performance. The high lifting force to drag force at different angles of attack is the target of design to gain wide application at high performance. In term of the generating lifting force, the speed, and density of air is dominant and the curvature of the airfoil plays a role too. In terms of drag force, the development of the boundary layer can consider the main source of the drag. The boundary layer development depends on many parameters such as air velocity, density, viscosity, and surface roughness. Skin friction is related to surface roughness and the point where the separation can provoke. In this work, a regular roughness has been added to the surface of NACA 0012 to investigate the drag force performance. A wire mesh with different holes per inch is used (120, 200). The velocity gradient, velocity profile, lift, drag, and pressure distribution are measured at different angles of attack. The results show a slight improvement in velocity gradient for the mesh 200 holes per inch compared to a smooth surface and 120 holes per inch. As a consequence of the velocity gradient, a small reduction in drag force is obtained.
In order to lessen its negative effects on the environment and to maintain its future operations in a clear, renewable, and sustainable manner, the aviation industry has begun developing designs that are dependent on alternative energy sources but also friendly to the environment and conventional energy. Solar energy has been suggested as a potential remedy. Aerial vehicles driven by solar energy are viewed as essential to limiting the consequences of global warming. In this study, a MATLAB/Simulink environment is used to simulate a mathematical model of a solar-powered BLDC motor of a UAV. under photovoltaic (PV) array systems, the phrase "maximum power point tracking" (MPPT) is crucial to ensuring that, under specific circumstances, the connected systems receive the greatest power output. This study simulates "fuzzy logic control," one of the preferred MPPT methods, using a solar-powered BLDC motor for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design. The PV cell, MPPT, buck-boost converter, and BLDC motor models in the cascade structure are simulated, tested, and the results are compared to the DC motor technical data. As a result, despite changes in irradiance, the results of mathematical model simulation overlap with motor technical reference values. A mathematical model of a solar-powered BLDC motor for a UAV is created and simulated using the MATLAB/Simulink environment, in contrast to prior solar-powered BLDC motor literature efforts. The fuzzy logic control MPPT technique is preferred for adjusting the maximum power output at the solar cell, and a buck-boost converter structure is connected between the MPPT and the BLDC motor mathematical model. It is recommended for usage in solar-powered UAV designs in the future.
Cupronickel alloys have found widespread use in various applications such as heat exchangers, refrigeration systems, equipment, pumps, and pipes. However, the inherent structure of cupronickel alone may not be able to withstand certain aggressive environments effectively. To address this issue, the mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of cupronickel alloys can be enhanced by carefully selecting the appropriate alloying compositions. The addition of nano chromium (20 nm) has been proposed as a means of designing cupronickel alloys with improved performance. In the present study, corrosion and erosion–corrosion behaviors of cupronickel 70/30 alloys produced by the casting method without and with three different additions of nano Cr (1, 1.2, and 1.5 wt%) were investigated. The prepared specimens were subjected to electrochemical tests in 3.5 wt% sodium chloride solutions to evaluate their corrosion behavior. Additionally, an erosion–corrosion test was conducted at an impact angle of 90°, using a slurry solution containing 1 wt% SiO 2 sand in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution as the erodent. The specimens were comprehensively characterized using scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction techniques. The surfaces of the alloy specimens exhibited superficial attacks, but no pits were observed. Moreover, the surfaces developed a greenish coloration. The electrochemical tests conducted using saline solution revealed that the corrosivity of the cupronickel alloy with nano chromium addition varied from moderate to low, depending on the selected concentration. Despite undergoing corrosion in the saline environment, the modified cupronickel alloys demonstrated good resistance to this corrosive process. Therefore, they can be considered suitable for use in highly aggressive environments, such as in seawater capture systems. The erosion–corrosion test results indicated that the addition of nano chromium significantly enhanced the resistance of the specimens to erosion–corrosion. At 1.5 wt% Cr, the erosion–corrosion rate was reduced by 99.27%.
The study aimed to identify some causes of eggplant root rot disease after isolation and diagnosis in some areas of Babylon Governorate and to evaluate the efficiency of the biological fungus Trichoderma harzianum and extract of some plants in control the pathogens of eggplant seedling death disease. The results of the field survey conducted in the fields of eggplant plants in the province of Babylon showed the presence of root rot in the eggplant in all areas covered by the field survey. Several types of fungi were isolated and identified from the roots of eggplant plants infected with root rot disease. The most frequent pathogenic fungi were Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Macrophomina phaseolina. The results showed that all tested fungi isolates were pathogenic and caused a significant reduction in the percentage of germination of cabbage and eggplant seeds. The results of the pot experiment showed that all the treatments that included the biological factor and aqueous Acacia extract had a significant effect in reducing the growth of pathogenic fungi, especially when the treatments were combined, as measured by the percentage of infection and the severity of infection in the treatment of pathogenic fungi F. solani, R. solani and M. phaseolina, Alone, the infection rate was 100.00%, and the severity of the infection was 76.67, 70.00 and 66.67%, respectively. The treatment of integration between the biological factor T. harzianum and the aqueous extract of Acacia achieved high superiority in reducing the infection rate, as it ranged between 11.11-24.33% and the severity of infection 4.44-15.00%. Keywords: Plant extracts, Eggplant, fungi, root rot, Trichoderma harzianum.
This study was conducted to identify the genetic polymorphisms of one wild grass sample species and assess the phylogenetic distribution these isolates occupy based on their internal transcribed (ITS) ribosomal sequences. This study amplified one genetic locus covering a portion of the ITS rRNA sequences. A direct sequencing strategy was performed for the observed PCR amplicons in the amplified genetic locus. Subsequently, a comprehensive phylogenetic tree was constructed in the observed variants for these sequences to reveal the accurate phylogenetic distances alongside other relative sequences. Our results indicated the identity of the investigated wild grass samples (assigned S1 and S2). Sequencing reactions indicated that our investigated samples belonged to Echinochloa crusgalli var. crus-galli (panicum grass), a common wild grass dominated in tropical Asia. Two ribosomal variations were identified in the investigated wild grass samples, 61C>T, observed in the S2 sample and 408C>A, observed in both the S1 and S2 samples. According to the identified results, the investigated samples were positioned within one distinct phylogenetic clade of these identified wild grass sequences in the currently generated comprehensive tree. These positionings were observed within the main clade of Echinochloa crus-galli. Based on the identified ribosomal sequences, it was found that the currently investigated samples may exhibit variable extents of diversities originating from several Asian and South American ancestors. Also, the currently constructed tree revealed that the investigated wild grass sequences belonged to one distinct clade of Echinochloa crus-galli, having many sequences of close phylogenetic connections. This clade occupied far away phylogenetic positions from the other comparable grasses within the same tree. Keywords: rRNA amplicons, Echinochloa crus-galli, Rice
A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of the filtrate of the fungus Beauveria bassiana and the alcoholic extract of the wormwood plant Artemisia herba-alba on the destruction of the larval stages of the waxworm major; the results of the study showed that the filter of the fungus B. bassiana affected the destruction of the larval stages of the waxworm. The highest mortality rate was 76.7% for the second larval stage after 24 hours of treatment with a 30% concentration, while it reached 86.7% after 168 hours of treatment with the same concentration. The lowest mortality rate was 13.3% for the last larval stage after 24 hours of treatment, with a concentration of 10%. In comparison, the death rate was 30.0% after 168 hours of treatment, with a concentration of 10%. The results also showed that the alcoholic extract of the wormwood plant affected the destruction of the larval stages of the insect. Keywords: Fungal; Alcoholic Extract; Wormwood.
A factorial experiment with three replications was conducted according to a randomized complete block design (RCBD) to study the effect of bio fertilization at three levels (0, Azotobacter, Mycorrhizae) and spraying with nano fertilizer (Nano Iron) (0, 1500, 3000) mg L-1 and gibberellin GA3 (0, 150) (300) mg L-1 in the chemical traits of Aloe vera L.) in lath house of the Department of Plant Production Techniques / Al-Musayyib Technical College / Middle Euphrates University during the 2021-2022 agricultural season. After the experiment ended, the results were: The treatments of adding azotobacter and spraying with nano iron concentration of 3000 mg L and gibberellin concentration of 300 mg L-1 were significantly superior in all studied traits. It was also caused by the bi-interaction (Mycorrhizal + Nano iron 3000 mg L-1), (Mycorrhizal + gibberellin 300 mg L-1) and (Mycorrhizal iron 3000 mg L-1 + Gibberellin 300 mg L-1) and the triple interaction between the study factors (Mycorrhizalgia). + Nano iron 3000 mg L-1 + gibberellin 300 mg L-1) a significant increase in most of the studied traits Keywords: Rheumatoid arthritis, Tripartite motif-containing protein 72, Disease activity score 28.
Aspergillosis is a fungal disease caused by Aspergillus, a saprophytic filamentous fungus that can be found in the air. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is known to affect immunocompromised patients. 80 sputum samples were collected from cancer patients infected with pneumonia. This sample was cultured on SDA for isolation and identification of Aspergillus spp. and diagnosis by macroscopic and microscopic examination. The result shows that Aspergillus represents 26 (86.7 %) and the most mold causes pneumonia; A.fumigatus represents 12 (40 %), followed by A.niger 8 (26.7%), A.terrus 4(13.3%) and A.flavus 2 (6.7%). Alternaria sp. 2(6.7%) and Penicillium sp. 2 (6.7%) were also isolated. The most common type of cancer in Aspergillus prevalent it is lung cancer (42.85 %), followed by ovary cancer (21.4 %), and colon, breast, osteosarcoma, urethra, larynx (7.14 %). the most age stage isolate Aspergillus is (>50 years) as (50 %), and the less isolate is (21-30) as (7.14 %). the positive isolation increased in the long duration of cancer (64.3 %) in more than 12 months, and harmful isolation increased in the short duration (1m-6m) (61.5%). Keywords: Aspergillus sp., pneumonia, cancer
This study targeted to investigate a type of excavation slurry by local available material in Najaf region. On the other hand, chief practises is supported the deep sides of foundation in particular pile foundation and, drilling oil wells. The results of slurries are checking, for seven properties, which includes the viscosity (apparent plastic and funnel Marsh), yield stress, density, acidity, and gel power (10–0 min). Which are 11.7367, 8.8733, 38.1667, 11.5467 mPa·s, 1.1045 kg m−3, 10.9067, and 11.2683 mPa·s, respectively. On the basis of the results tests for the above properties, that is possible to produce a product that conforms to the specifications of American Petroleum Institute specifications, and according to the requirements of the standard ACI 336.3R-93:2006 without additives. The rheological behavior improvement is achieved through the breakdown of the bundles of palygorskite fibers that normally make up the texture of these mudstones by increasing the time and speed of the shear force as soon as increasing the concentration of clay powder.
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