Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego im. Jergo Kukuczki w Katowicach
Recent publications
Background: With the increased interest in inter-recti distance measurement using ultrasound imaging in physiotherapy, there is a question of measurement reliability, and the importance of the examiner's experience. Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the reliability of inter-recti distance measurement in a DICOM viewer software by an experienced radiologist. For the measurement, the radiologist used linea alba images captured by two physiotherapists who were novice examiners. Methods: Ultrasound images were acquired by two novice examiners on repeated occasions 7 days apart (sessions A and B) in 28 nulliparous women at supraumbilical, umbilical, and infraumbilical locations along linea alba. Results: Excellent intra-examiner reliability of inter-recti distance measurements was shown at the supraumbilical and umbilical levels (ICC2,k = 0.941-0.983) with minimal detectable change (MDC95) ranging from 1.31 mm to 2.29 mm. Infraumbilical measurements had good to excellent reliability (ICC2,k = 0.894-0.972) with MDC95 ranging from 0.33 mm to 0.72 mm. Session A inter-examiner reliability was excellent for the mean measurements of two, three, four, and five images taken at each location (ICC2,k = 0.913-0.954) with MDC95 ranging from 0.47 mm to 2.96 mm. Session B inter-examiner reliability was excellent for the mean measurements of two, three, four, and five images taken at the supraumbilical and umbilical (ICC2,k = 0.94-0.98), MDC95 ranging from 1.38 mm to 2.58 mm and good (ICC2,k ≥ 0.81) with MDC95 ranging from 0.72 mm to 0.80 mm at the infraumbilical locations. Conclusion: Novice examiners were able to capture good-quality ultrasound images of the linea alba that allowed for good to excellent intra- and inter-examiner reliability.
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with hyperglycaemia-induced hypoxia and inflammation. This study assessed the effects of a single bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on glycaemia (BG) and serum level of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and an essential mediator of adaptive response to hypoxia in T1D patients. The macronutrient intake was also evaluated. Nine patients suffering from T1D for about 12 years and nine healthy individuals (CG) were enrolled and completed one session of HIIE at the intensity of 120% lactate threshold with a duration of 4 × 5 min intermittent with 5 min rests after each bout of exercise. Capillary and venous blood were withdrawn at rest, immediately after and at 24 h post-HIIE for analysis of BG, hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF-1α), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and vascular-endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Pre-exercise BG was significantly higher in the T1D patients compared to the CG (p = 0.043). HIIE led to a significant decline in T1D patients’ BG (p = 0.027) and a tendency for a lower BG at 24 h post-HIIE vs. pre-HIIE. HIF-1α was significantly elevated in the T1D patients compared to CG and there was a trend for HIF-1α to decline, and for VEGF and TNF-α to increase in response to HIIE in the T1D group. Both groups consumed more and less than the recommended amounts of protein and fat, respectively. In the T1D group, a tendency for a higher digestible carbohydrate intake and more frequent hyperglycaemic episodes on the day after HIIE were observed. HIIE was effective in reducing T1D patients’ glycaemia and improving short-term glycaemic control. HIIE has the potential to improve adaptive response to hypoxia by elevating the serum level of VEGF. Patients’ diet and level of physical activity should be screened on a regular basis, and they should be educated on the glycaemic effects of digestible carbohydrates.
Krzysztof, K, Aleksander, M, Adam, Z, and Krzysztofik, M. Sprint resisted and assisted priming for peak performance. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2023-This study aimed to investigate resisted and assisted sprint, or a combination of both, as a conditioning activity (CA) on creatine kinase activity, biceps femoris stiffness, postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE), and priming in a sprint. Ten female sprinters (age: 20.1 ± 2.3 years, body mass: 56.4 ± 4.2 kg, body height: 171 ± 5 cm, training experience: 5.6 ± 2 years) participated. Before the warm-up, blood samples were drawn to determine creatine kinase at baseline. After the warm-up, biceps femoris stiffness was determined, and consequently, 50-m sprint time (with 0- to 20-m and 20- to50-m split time evaluation) was assessed 5 minutes before (pre-CA) and in the seventh minute after the completion of each CA (4 sets of 40 m either: 10% body mass resisted [RST]; 105% maximum velocity assisted [AST] sprint; or 2 sets of each sprint as the CA [COMB]), as well as after 48 hours of recovery. Furthermore, another blood sample was taken 48 hours later, before the warm-up, to assess changes in creatine kinase activity. A significantly higher 20-m sprint time at post-CA (p = 0.006; ES = 0.4) and post-48 (p = 0.011; ES = 0.59) compared with pre-CA in the RST condition was found, whereas a significantly lower sprint time was reported in post-48 compared with post-CA (p = 0.019; ES = 0.44) in the COMB condition. However, a significantly lower 30-m flying sprint time at post-CA (p < 0.001; ES = 0.28) and at post-48 (p = 0.014; ES = 0.22) compared with pre-CA in the RST condition was revealed. Moreover, a significantly lower 30-m flying sprint time at post-48 compared with the pre-CA (p = 0.007; ES = 0.7 and p = 0.003; ES = 0.77) and with the post-CA (p = 0.019; ES = 0.61 and p = 0.009; ES = 0.68) in the AST condition and COMB was reported. Furthermore, a significantly lower 50-m sprint time at post-48 compared with pre-CA (p = 0.015; ES = 0.51 and p = 0.011; ES = 0.64) and with post-CA (p = 0.005; ES = 0.46 and p = 0.001; ES = 0.55) in the AST and COMB condition were found. The creatine kinase activity at post-48 during AST was significantly lower than during RST (p = 0.028; ES = 0.73) and COMB (p = 0.028; ES = 1.48). No significant changes were found for biceps femoris stiffness (p = 0.085; η2 = 0.199). The COMB and AST contributed to the improvement of the 50-m sprint time 48 hours after activation, which may be a good precompetition approach. However, during training sessions aiming to induce an acute PAPE effect and improve the 30-m flying sprint time, the best solution might be to use low-volume-resisted sprints.
Introduction: This study examined the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) and reperfusion on the mechanical properties of the rectus femoris muscle at rest (frequency and stiffness). Methods: Fourteen trained men (body weight = 81.0 ± 10.3 kg; BMI = 25 ± 3.0 m/kg ² ; height = 181 ± 4 cm; training experience = 6.0 ± 2.2 years) participated in an experimental session involving their dominant (BFR) and non-dominant leg (control). Muscle mechanical properties were measured using Myoton’s accelerometer at the midpoint of the rectus femoris muscle at five time points. In the BFR leg, an 80% arterial occlusion pressure was applied by a cuff for 5 min. No cuff was applied in the control leg. Femoral Myoton measurements were taken from both legs 2 and 4 min after the start of BRF as well as 30 s and 2 min after the end of the occlusion period. Results: The two-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant interaction effect for stiffness and frequency ( p < 0.001; η ² > 0.67). The post hoc analysis showed that both stiffness and frequency increased during BFR compared with rest and then dropped to the resting levels post BFR period. Also, stiffness and frequency were higher than control only during the BFR period, and similar during rest and post BFR. Conclusion: These results indicate that the application of BFR at rest leads to significant changes in mechanical properties of the rectus femoris muscle.
Abstract Background Given a lack of studies precisely indicating how many steps elderly people should take daily for their antioxidant defence, bone metabolism, and cognitive abilities to improve, our study set out to compare the selected antioxidant, prooxidant, bone turnover, and BDNF indicators between elderly women differing in physical activity (PA) measured by the daily number of steps. Methods The PA levels of 62 women aged 72.1 ± 5.4 years were assessed based on their daily number of steps and then were used to allocate the participants to three groups: group I (n = 18;
Knowledge about the acute effects of supramaximal-loaded resistance exercises on muscle mechanical properties is scarce. Therefore, this study aimed to examine changes in dominant limb biceps femoris and vastus lateralis oscillation frequency and stiffness before and after high-and supramaximal-loaded front squats. Nineteen male handball players participated in the experimental session with a barbell front squat 1RM. The first set was performed at 70% of the 1RM for four repetitions, and the second and third sets were performed at 90%1RM in an eccentric-concentric or an eccentric-only manner at 120% of the 1RM for three repetitions. The handheld myometer was used for the measurement of the biceps femoris and vastus lateralis stiffness and the oscillation frequency of the dominant limb 5 min before and at the 5th and 10th min after front squats. A two-way ANOVA neither indicated a statistically significant interaction (p = 0.335; η 2 = 0.059 and p = 0.103; η 2 = 0.118), the main effect of a condition (p = 0.124; η 2 = 0.126 and p = 0.197; η 2 = 0.091), nor the main effect of the time point (p = 0.314; η 2 = 0.06 and p = 0.196; η 2 = 0.089) for vastus lateralis and biceps femoris stiffness. However, there was a statistically significant interaction (F = 3.516; p = 0.04; η 2 = 0.163) for vastus lateralis oscillation frequency. The post hoc analysis showed a significantly higher vastus lateralis oscillation frequency at POST (p = 0.037; d = 0.29) and POST_10 (p = 0.02; d = 0.29) compared to PRE during the SUPRA condition. Moreover, Friedman's test indicated statistically significant differences in biceps femoris oscillation frequency (test = 15.482; p = 0.008; Kendall's W = 0.163). Pairwise comparison showed a significantly lower biceps femoris oscillation frequency in POST (p = 0.042; d = 0.31) and POST_10 (p = 0.015; d = 0.2) during the HIGH condition compared to that in the corresponding time points during the SUPRA condition. The results of this study indicate that the SUPRA front squats, compared to the high-loaded ones, cause a significant increase in biceps femoris and vastus lateralis oscillation frequency.
Abstract Background Balance disorders in patients diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are associated with a change in balance-keeping strategy and reflex disorders which regulate the maintenance of vertical body posture. Center of foot pressure (COP) displacement signals were analyzed during quiet standing experiments to define such changes. The research aimed to apply stock exchange indices based on the trend change analyses to the assessment of a level of the Parkinson disease progression on the grounds of the analysis of the COP signals. Methods 30 patients in two stages of PD, 40 elderly participants, and 20 individuals at a young age were studied. Each person was subjected to 3 measurements with open and closed eyes. A technical analysis of the COP displacement signal was performed, and the following quantities were determined: indices related to the number of trend changes (TCI), indices defining a mean time (TCI_dT), and mean displacement (TCI_dS) and mean velocity (TCI_dV) between such changes. Results The results indicate a higher TCI value for PD than for aged-matched control group (p
The purpose of the study was to determine the level of physical fitness assessed based on the physiological parameters and intensity of daily physical activity (PA) of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Additionally, we aimed to determine the intensity and duration of exercise that would bring beneficial modifications in the cardio-respiratory system of the patients with IPF. Eighteen patients with IPF (61.7 ± 4.3 years) and fifteen healthy volunteers performed a graded exercise test to exhaustion on a treadmill (Bruce protocol). Spirometry, dyspnea (mMRC, Borg scale) and fatigue (FAS) were measured. Total daily PA (kcal/day, MET) was monitored for seven days. The linear regression of PA (kcal/day) vs. peak oxygen uptake (%pred. peakVO2) was used to determine the intensity of daily PA that should be used in the rehabilitation of the patients with IPF. The average energy expenditure of daily PA of patients with IPF was 147.9 ± 86.4kcal/day and it was significantly lower compared to healthy individuals. The linear regression indicated that the predicted energy expenditure of daily PA (PAEE) is 280.0kcal/day, estimated based on VO2peak 100%pred. Therefore, the patients should add about 30minutes of exercise of the intensity of 4.5 ±0.2kcal (calculated at the anaerobic threshold) or about 3700 steps/day to their daily PA. Diffusion for carbon monoxide and physiological variables of aerobic capacity seem to be the most important determinants of PA limitation in patients with IPF. The method of estimating PAEE should be used to plan training loads in IPF rehabilitation.
Judo, an organized physical activity for children and adolescents, has gained popularity worldwide. Physical activity is vital during times of rising obesity and a sedentary lifestyle in this age group. The article aims to review the current knowledge of the health benefits of judo-specific exercises for children and youth. Six international scientific databases (PubMed, Scopus, UpToDate, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar) were searched from 1 January 2007 to 30 September 2022. The search focused on health-related factors regarding healthy preschool and school-aged judo practitioners. Sixteen original studies met the inclusion criteria. School-aged children aged 7–15 years were included in the analysis. The average training time was between two and six hours a week, with the judo intervention mainly ranging from nine months to three years. Most studies registered positive changes caused by judo training. The outcomes focused on maintaining or reducing body fat, increasing bone mineralization, and improving the function of the cardiorespiratory system compared to the non-practicing control group. However, there were no differences between judo and other sports groups. The main conclusions presented health benefits from judo-specific training in school-aged children and may support the World Health Organization recommendations concerning daily physical activity.
This study aimed to compare subjective and objective measures of physical activity (PA) in healthcare professionals and assess their adherence to recommended guidelines. A convenience sample of 153 female healthcare professionals (51 nurses, 50 medical caregivers, and 52 physiotherapists) from 24 h healthcare facilities in Poland participated in the study. Subjective assessment was done using an expanded version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, while objective assessment involved wearing an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for seven consecutive days. The results showed no significant correlation between subjective and objective measures of moderate-to-vigorous PA in both occupational and non-occupational activities. Objectively measured PA was significantly lower than self-reported PA, with a large effect size observed for both occupational and total PA. Only 44% of participants met the recommended guidelines for aerobic activity based on accelerometer data, while subjective assessment showed a higher percentage (76%) of healthcare professionals meeting the guidelines. These findings highlight the discrepancy between self-reported and objectively measured PA in healthcare professionals. It emphasizes the need for more accurate assessment methods to understand the actual PA levels of this population. Further research should explore factors influencing PA reporting accuracy and develop interventions to promote regular physical activity among healthcare professionals.
Study aim : The functional assessment of patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is one of the key points in deciding whether one can safely return to physical activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the usefulness of the NEURAC® tests and single leg balance test (SLBT) in the functional evaluation of adolescent patients after ACLR to detect differences between the operated and non-operated extremity. Material and methods : A total of 31 physically active, adolescent patients (mean age: 15.7 ± 1.4 years) who underwent primary single-bundle ACLR using the autogenous semitendinosus-gracilis tendon graft were evaluated using the NEURAC® and SLBT tests (mean time from surgery to examination was 6.6 ± 1.0 months). All patients were operated on by the same surgeon, and postoperative physiotherapy was carried out using a standardized protocol. Results : Only one of the NEURAC® tests showed significant differences between the operated and non-operated extremities: prone bridging (3.58º vs. 3.97º, P = 0.01). Several weak and moderate, significant correlations between NEURAC® and SLBT tests were observed in the operated (r from –0.42 to 0.37) and non-operated (r from –0.37 to –0.43) extremities Conclusions : The NEURAC® tests in comparison to SLBT seems to be more effective for detecting functional differences between the operated and non-operated extremity in adolescent patients about 6 months post-ACLR. Correlations between the outcomes of the NEURAC® tests and SLBT are not clear.
The process of aging and escalating the failure of all body organs has become the center of interest in contemporary science and medicine. The leading role of phosphate-calcium tandem deficiency as a pacemaker of metabolic senescence has emerged recently. Most of the phosphates in the human body are stored in the bones, which seem to play a pivotal role in all metabolic and energetic processes. Bone metabolism combines physical activity with adaptive changes in the internal environment of the body, which is necessary for its survival. Phosphate-calcium signaling is the primary mechanism for controlling homeostasis and its recovery after exercise-induced disorders. Phosphates play an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism both by regulating postprandial glucose storage in the muscles and in the liver, as well as the distribution and adaptation of energy metabolites to the needs of the brain and skeletal muscles. The bone-driven energy metabolism is of decisive importance for maintaining all vital functions of the body organs, including their proper functioning and integrated interplay. The phosphate-calcium tandem contributes to the development and proper functioning of the organism, whereas energy dysmetabolism is the main cause of aging and the final termination of life.
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between ego-resiliency and the intensity of health behaviors among Polish health sciences students. Methods: The study involved 483 students fromhealth-related faculties insouthern Poland, consisting of 314 women (63.7%) and 179 men (36.3%). The average age of the participants was 21.7±2.5 years. To assess resiliency, theEgo-Resiliency Scale (ER89-R12) by Block and Kremen was used in its Polish adaptation. The intensity of health behaviors was examined using the Health Behavior Inventory (HBI) developed by Z. Juczyński. Results: The results revealed a positive correlation between the intensity of health behaviors and ER (r=0.43, p<0.001), both for the general factor and its specific categories. Students with a high level of health behaviors exhibited significantly higher ER (M=38.95, SD=5.15) compared to those with average (M=35.93, SD=5.03) and low (M=32.97, SD=5.12) HBI levels. Among the HBI categories, Positive Mental Attitude showed the strongest correlation with ER. Furthermore, the correlation was found to be stronger with the optimal regulation factor and weaker with openness to life experiences. Conclusion: Higher ER in students is correlatedwith a greater likelihood of engaging in health behaviors consistently. Nurturing the development of ERmay contribute to the maintenance of prohealth practices despite life difficulties and temporary loss of motivation. This, in turn, promotes the regularity of health behaviors, which is crucial for their positive impact on overall health.
While the butterfly stroke has received considerable attention in sports science, the origin of the fastest master butterfly swimmers remains unknown. The present study investigated which geographical locations produce the top-performing master butterfly swimmers within their age groups and gender. A total of 26,512 master butterfly swimmers (11,288 women and 15,224 men) competed in 50 m, 100 m and 200 m races in World Masters Championships held between 1986 and 2019. From each swimmer, the year of competition, first name, last name, age group and distance were recorded. Descriptive data were presented using mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values, and/or confidence intervals. The top 10 race times for master butterfly swimming and gender were identified for descriptive purposes. Nationalities were then grouped into six categories: the top five nationalities with the most appearances in the top 10 fastest times in butterfly swimming by distance each year and one group consisting of all other nationalities. In the event of a tie, the nationality with the most participants overall was selected. Generalized linear models (GLMs) with a gamma probability distribution and log link function were used to assess the effect of age groups and gender on swimming time. In summary, Germany had the fastest women butterfly master swimmers across all distances, while the USA had the fastest men butterfly master swimmers for all distances. Men covered all distances faster than women and younger swimmers were quicker than older swimmers. The results of this study can be utilized to determine the countries that produce the most successful master butterfly swimmers, providing a foundation for further research to explore the factors that lead to their success.
The study aimed to identify the prevalence and location of injuries, traumas, and musculoskeletal complaints in Paralympic and Olympic volleyball players with different impairments and initial playing positions (sitting/standing); and to identify the predictors of the abovementioned variables using a multivariate CRT model. Seventy-five elite volleyball players from seven countries took part in the study. They were divided into three study groups: (SG1)—lateral amputee Paralympic volleyball players, (SG2)—able-bodied Paralympic volleyball players, (SG3)—able-bodied Olympic volleyball players. The prevalence and location of the analyzed variables were assessed with surveys quessionaires, while game-related statistics was interpreted based on the CRT analysis. Regardless of the impairment or initial playing position, both the humeral and knee joints were found to be the most frequent locations of musculoskeletal pain and/or injuries in all studied groups, followed by LBP. Players from SG1 and SG3 were characterized by an almost identical prevalence of reported musculoskeletal pain and injuries, what was not noted in SG2. Extrinsic compensatory mechanism (playing position) may be a crucial variable for prediction of musculoskeletal pain and injuries in volleyball players. Lower limb amputation seems to impact the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints. Training volume may predict the prevalence of LBP.
The aim of the study was to examine whether a single bout of exercise to volitional exhaustion, performed under moderate normobaric hypoxia (H), would affect psychomotor performance (PP) in differently trained athletes. For this purpose, ten strength-trained (S) athletes, ten endurance-trained (E) athletes and ten healthy men leading a sedentary lifestyle as a control (C) group performed voluntarily two graded exercise tests until volitional exhaustion (EVE) under normoxia (N) and H (FiO2 = 14.7%). We measured the peripheral level of the brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), choice reaction time (CRT) and the number of correct reactions (NCR) as indices of PP. Psychomotor tests were performed at rest, immediately after the EVE and 3 minutes after the EVE. Venous blood samples were collected at rest, immediately after cessation of each EVE, and 1 h after each EVE. The results showed that the EVE significantly (p < 0.05) impaired CRT under N and H, and NCR under H only in the E group. The higher WRmax in the E compared to the S and C groups was associated with a significant (p < 0.005) increase in adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA). There were no significant differences between conditions (N vs. H) in the BDNF at rest and after exercise. The EVE impaired cognitive function only in the E group; higher involvement of the sympathetic nervous system, A and NA may also play a role in this phenomenon. Therefore, it can be concluded that exposure to H did not have a negative impact on CRT or NCR. Moreover, BDNF did not improve cognitive function.
The effectiveness of high-load and plyometric exercises as conditioning activity (CA) is not well described in the level of performance enhancement and muscle-tendon properties. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effectiveness of high-loaded back squats and body mass tuck jumps among amateur soccer players on the height of countermovement jump performed without (CMJ) and with arm swing (CMJa) and to verify the usefulness of the myotonometry in assessing the level of CA-induced fatigue. Therefore, 16 male amateur soccer players (resistance training experience: 2 6 1 year, relative 1 repetition maximum back squat strength: 1.41 6 0.12 kg·body mass 21) performed 3 experimental sessions to compare the acute effects of 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% one repetition maximum of half back squats (HL), 3 sets of 5 repetitions of tuck jump exercises (PLY), and no CA (CTRL) on CMJ and CMJa height. Moreover, the gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon tone and stiffness were examined. Measurements were performed 5 minutes before CA and in the third, sixth, and ninth minutes after CA. The CMJ height significantly increased from pre-CA to post-CA in the CTRL (p 5 0.005; effect size [ES] 5 0.36; D 5 +3.4%) and PLY (p 5 0.001; ES 5 0.83; D 5 +8.8%) conditions. Moreover, post-CA jump height was significantly higher in PLY than in the HL condition (p 5 0.024; ES 5 0.6; D 5 +5.9%). No significant differences were found for CMJa height, tone, and stiffness of gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon AU2. The low-volume plyometric CA (i.e., 3 sets of 5 repetitions) is recommended instead of high-loaded CA ($85% one repetition maximum) for amateur athletes. In addition, it has been established that the performance improvement was independent of changes in the mechanical properties of the gastrocnemius medialis and Achilles tendon. Furthermore, it seems that the complexity of the post-CA task may affect the magnitude of the postactivation performance enhancement.
The effects of conditioning activity (CA) on muscle stiffness are currently unknown, suggesting that maximum CA effort can increase or decrease the stiffness of involved muscle groups. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of maximal isometric half-squats on the viscoelastic properties of muscles and postactivation performance enhancement (PAPE) in sprints and jumps. Twelve handball players underwent a standard warm-up and baseline assessment of muscle stiffness and tone of vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius medialis muscle, followed by 20-m sprint with intermediate measures at 5 and 10 m and countermovement jump. The PAPE was assessed by repeating the tests (at 4th, 8th, and 12th minute post-CA) after a CA protocol consisting of 3 sets of 3-second maximal isometric half-squats (EXP) or a control condition (CTRL) without any CA. The vastus lateralis stiffness in the 4th and 12th minute and muscle tone in the 4th minute post-CA significantly decreased compared with baseline (p 5 0.041, ES 5 0.57; p 5 0.013, ES 5 0.52; p 5 0.004, ES 5 0.81, respectively) in the EXP condition. The 20-m sprint time significantly decreased at all post-CA time points compared with the baseline for the EXP condition (p , 0.033) and the after values in the CTRL condition (p , 0.036). In comparison to baseline, the 10-m sprint time decreased in the eighth minute post-CA (p 5 0.021; ES 5 0.82) in the EXP condition. Moreover, it was significantly lower at the 8th and 12th minute post-CA (p 5 0.038; ES 5 0.71 and p 5 0.005; ES 5 1.26) compared with that time points in the CTRL condition. The maximal isometric half-squats effectively improved sprint performance and significantly decreased vastus lateralis tone and stiffness. These findings offer new insights into the assessment of viscoelastic properties for evaluating the fatigue or potentiation state, which requires further investigation.
Intensity, movement velocity, and volume are the principal factors to successfully use postactivation performance enhancement. Therefore, 15 resistance-trained volleyball players completed 3 different back squat configurations as a conditioning activity (CA) in randomized order: (a) 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 85% 1RM (HL); (b) a single set of back squats at 60% 1RM until 10% mean velocity loss (VB); (c) and 2 sets of back squats at 60% 1RM until 10% mean velocity loss (2VB) on subsequent countermovement jump performance, Achilles tendon, and vastus lateralis stiffness with concomitant front thigh skin surface temperature assessment. The measurements were performed 5 minutes before the CA and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 minutes. The jump height was significantly increased in the second minute and at peak, post-CA compared with baseline for all conditions (p = 0.049; ES = 0.23 and p < 0.001; ES = 0.37). Skin surface temperature was significantly increased for all post-CA time points compared with baseline in the 2VB condition (p from <0.001–0.023; ES = 0.39–1.04) and in the fourth minute and at peak post-CA in HL condition (p = 0.023; ES = 0.69 and p = 0.04; ES = 0.46), whereas for the VB condition, a significant decrease in peak post-CA was found (p = 0.004; ES = 20.54). Achilles tendon stiffness was significantly decreased for second, fourth, eighth, 10th, and peak post-CA in comparison to baseline for all conditions (p from p = 0.004–0.038; ES = 20.47 to 20.69). Vastus lateralis stiffness was significantly decreased for peak post-CA compared with baseline for all conditions (p = 0.017; ES = 20.42). We recommend using a single set of barbell squats with a 10% velocity loss as a mechanism of fatigue control to acutely improve jump height performance and avoid unnecessary increases in training volume.
Introduction: Wound management is a challenge in terms of the way, duration and cost of treatment both for the patient and health providers. The healing of skin wounds is a highly multi-step coordinated process. Objective monitoring of treatment at every stage is necessary to assess the applied therapy. Aim: To show the possibility of using the AutoCad software (ACS) as a tool with a slight measurement error for accurate measurement of the venous leg ulcers on the lower limbs. Material and methods: To determine the error of the measurement method Circle Templates For Drafting for four different sizes were used as ulcer models. Seventy-six wounds of various sizes from patients with venous leg ulcers (VLUs) were photographed and outlined with a marker on a transparent foil. The wounds were measured both using ACS and digital planimetry with C-Geo software (CGS). Data were analysed using Wilcoxon test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The mean relative error of the surface wound model area measured by the ACS was 0.30 ±0.31% (range: 0.004-1.25) and a median of 0.18%. Areas and perimeters measured with ACS were higher than areas and perimeters measured with CGS, and the difference was statistically significant. Conclusions: The analysis of the wound images obtained in the ACS showed a very high potential of the software in terms of the accuracy of the analysed areas, which significantly increases the possibility of the analysis and reduces the measurement error in relation to planimetry using a digital digitizer.
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221 members
Ilona Pokora
  • Department of Physiology
Agnieszka Nawrocka
  • Department of Physical Activity and Health Prevention
Grzegorz Sobota
  • Human Motor Behaviour
Krol Piotr
  • Department of Physiotherapy Basics
Mikołowska 72A, 40-065, Katowice, śląskie, Poland
Head of institution
Professor Grzegorz Juras
+48 32 2075152
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