Akademia Sztuki Wojennej
  • Warsaw, mazowieckie, Poland
Recent publications
W artykule określono czynniki wypychające w największych państwach Sahelu: Sudanie, Nigrze, Nigerii, Mali, Czadzie oraz Burkina Faso. Obywatele tych państw są ujawniani na wszystkich szlakach migracyjnych biegnących do UE, a także na nowym szlaku z Białorusi do Polski. Na podstawie analizy przypadków wskazano, że głównymi czynnikami wpływającymi na migrację w regionie Sahelu są słabości ekonomiczno-społeczne poszczególnych państw, skutkujące ich podatnością na kryzysy, brak bezpieczeństwa oraz niestabilność polityczna. Czynniki te nakładają się na siebie i są współzależne, co oznacza, że poprawa sytuacji wymagałaby działań kompleksowych. Z badań oraz analizy czynników przyciągających w innych regionach (np. w UE) wynika, że migracje ludności z państw Sahelu będą się zwiększały.
The use of hydrogen exists in various sectors in Poland and Germany. Hydrogen can be used in industry, transport, decarbonisation of the Polish steel industry and as one of the low-emission alternatives to the existing coal applications in this sector. Limiting climate change requires efforts on a global scale from all countries of the world. Significant economic benefits will be realized by stimulating the development of new technologies to deal with climate change. The scenarios show an increasing demand for industrial hydrogen in the future. The key is to replace gray hydrogen with green, and to convert industrial processes, which will create additional hydrogen demand. The condition for the development of a green hydrogen economy is access to adequate installed capacity in renewable energy. Germany will become the leading market in the era of energy transformation in the coming years. The implementation of the hydrogen assumptions in Poland is possible, to a greater extent, by the efforts of entrepreneurs.
Żołnierze Wojsk Obrony Terytorialnej od ponad 2 lat wspierają służby medyczne i jednostki samorządu terytorialnego w walce z koronawirusem Covid-19. W okresie pandemii wraz ze wzrostem zachorowań rosła również liczba przedsięwzięć realizowanych przez żołnierzy WOT. Przedstawione w artykule rozważania dotyczą wojsk obrony terytorialnej, a celem badań jest sprawdzenie, weryfikacja, i ocena stanu zaangażowania wojsk OT we wsparciu administracji publicznej, służb sanitarnych i ratowniczych w walce z pandemią koronawirusa Sars-CoV-2. Przyjęto hipotezę badawczą, która zakłada, że wdrożona w WOT aplikacja informatyczna wspierająca działalność WOT, umożliwi powszechny dostęp podmiotów układu pozamilitarnego ubiegających się pomoc WOT oraz skróci czas udzielenia pomocy. Zostały zastosowane następujące empiryczne metody badawcze: metoda analizy i krytyki piśmiennictwa przedmiotu badań oraz metody statystyczne dotyczące podmiotów układu pozamilitarnego, którym żołnierze WOT udzielili wsparcia w ramach w walki z COVID-19. Z metod teoretycznych wykorzystano: analizę, syntezę i metody wnioskowania. Wyniki badań naukowych. Do realizacji zadań z walce z pandemią każdego dnia zaangażowanych jest ponad 1000 żołnierzy wojsk obrony terytorialnej (WOT), udzielając wsparcia w kilkudziesięciu szpitalach i stacjach sanitarnych, punktach szczepień, a także w centrach krwiodawstwa i krwiolecznictwa. Wdrożona w dowództwie WOT aplikacja „Pomoc WOT” powstała w celu ułatwienia i bezkontaktowego składania zapotrzebowań na wsparcie żołnierzy WOT. Poprzez jej wykorzystanie każdy z podmiotów układu pozamilitarnego państwa, uprawnionych do otrzymania wsparcia wojskowego, ma możliwość zalogowania się w aplikacji i złożenia zapotrzebowania na wsparcie. Wyeliminowało to konieczność wieloszczeblowego zatwierdzania wniosków poprzez wojewodę do Ministra Obrony Narodowej. Z chwilą powstania aplikacji wszystkie czynności związane ze składaniem wniosku realizowane są automatycznie, bez konieczności wykonywania dodatkowych czynności, a informacja o zatwierdzeniu wniosku trafia bezpośrednio do właściwego dowódcy brygady Obrony Terytorialnej.
Od wielu lata trwają nieustanne prace na płaszczyźnie teorii i praktyki zmierzające do uporządkowania chaosu terminologicznego oraz określenia przejrzystego, powszechnie akceptowalnego zakresu badań logistyki wojskowej. Pomimo wielu prób podejmowanych przez liczne środowiska, prowadzące badania naukowe nad problemami współczesnej logistyki wojskowej, dotychczas nie udało się wypracować niezbędnego konsensusu. Na taki stan rzeczy największy wpływ ma interdyscyplinarny charakter problematyki logistycznej w sektorze militarnym oraz duża dynamika zmian zachodzących w wojskowych systemach logistycznych, a także ich otoczeniu. Obecnie wiele argumentów wskazuje jednak na to, że dla dalszego rozwoju logistyki wojskowej niezbędnym jest podjęcie szeroko zakrojonych badań ukierunkowanych na identyfikację zakresu jej pól oraz perspektyw badawczych. Celem artykułu jest identyfikacja i ocena naukowej ewolucji logistyki wojskowej oraz wskazanie jej dalszych perspektyw badawczych w formule interdyscyplinarnej. Podjęty do rozwiązania problem badawczy został sprecyzowany w następującej postaci: jakie priorytetowe kierunki badań należy przyjąć w rozwoju logistyki wojskowej oraz co i w jakim zakresie wpływa w największym stopniu na doskonalenie jej wymiaru wobec oczekiwań podmiotów tworzących wojskowy system logistyczny? W materiale wykorzystano szereg metod, wśród których wiodące były: analiza i synteza, kwerenda literatury przedmiotu, abstrahowanie oraz wnioskowanie. Jako metodę empiryczną wykorzystano metodę sondażu diagnostycznego z użyciem techniki wywiadu eksperckiego. Przyjęte podejście umożliwiło uzyskanie przekrojowego charakteru rozważań, dając jednocześnie podstawy do dalszych, poszerzonych badań tego niezwykle istotnego oraz aktualnego problemu.
Military units are the fundamental elements of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland (Polish abbrev. SZ RP). As part of the state defense system, they implement tasks resulting from the National Security Strategy of the Republic of Poland and the Defense Strategy of the Republic of Poland. The units carrying out tasks for the defense of the state must be adequately equipped, and the infrastructure they have is efficient. To ensure its proper functioning, investments carried out on the premises of military units are necessary. Tasks in this regard are possible thanks to the Regional Infrastructure Boards (Polish abbrev. RZI) supervised by the Ministry of National Defense. They deal with the management of military real estate, investment, renovation, and equipping real estate with the necessary infrastructure. There are ten RZIs in Poland. Out of ten, eight are Regional Infrastructure Boards; the other two are the Military Infrastructure Board in Poznań (WZI) and the Capital Infrastructure Board in Warsaw (SZI). Expending public funds for the implementation of tasks entrusted to Regional Infrastructure Boards should be carried out following the procedures compliant with the Public Procurement Law. The research presented in the publication aims to identify differences and similarities in tenders carried out by two selected RZIs in Zielona Góra and Bydgoszcz in 2014-2017.
The article is an attempt to highlight the main types of security threats in cyberspace. As literature provides a multitude of different approaches, standards, methodologies, and proposals for the classification of threats, the article focuses on threats to privacy and national ICT security. Cyberspace is subject to increasingly sophisticated and targeted threats, while our growing reliance on cyberspace exposes our privacy to risks, giving rise to new and significant security gaps. Due to its specific characteristics, it generates serious threats to individuals as well as to national and international security. Depending on the research perspective we adopt, these threats are variable, multidimensional, and multifaceted in nature. Therefore, they require systematic analysis and response.
Objectives The purpose of this article is to identify the role of international diplomacy in shaping the outer Space Traffic Management. Methods The theoretical research methods were used in this paper – analysis, synthesis, abstraction and generalization. Results The article presents the potential possibility of not only gaining the public awareness in the area of space traffic management problems thanks to the international mandate of institutions such as the European Union (EU) or NATO, but also its attempt to indicate the role of European institutions in shaping international security in the context of the development of space traffic management at the global level. Conclusions Taking into consideration all potential space threats and military and non- military issues of building international security we can find straight links of complexity with the outer space environment and multilateral diplomacy. It sems to be the most efficient tool to build resilience in the environment of international institutions of strategic status to establish space situational awareness of key importance for future global defence and deterrence. Taking a huge intensity of space traffic management, especially with the example of the tensed conflict in Ukraine since 24th February 2022 we are witnessing the new era of space technological resolutions. The awareness should also concern the possibility of technical achievement, as the example done by Chinese or Russians that can destroy satellites in orbit in case of the possible conflict scenario in the space.
The aim of this article is to identify important factors that determine the strategy of the energy sector. It has been assumed that the determinants of this strategy are goals related to the energy security of a European Union member state and the reduction of environmental pollution and anthropogenic pressures. Therefore, this article uses the method of the strategic analysis of critical success factors (CSFs), applied to the energy sector. As the name implies, in this method, factors that determine energy strategies, relating to the economic, technological, political, social and ecological spheres, were identified. Poland served as a case study. Research was carried out by experts in the energy sector and people working with this sector in order to determine the significance of the most important CSFs related to the energy security strategy. This approach is based on an evolutionary approach to creating a security strategy. The proposed analysis is a new proposal for a sectorial analysis based on the application of benchmarking, taking into account, in particular, the current conditions for the development of the energy sector. Our findings indicate that: European Union countries have different energy strategies, resulting from an evolutionary approach. The member states of the European Union create individual solutions in the field of energy strategies, which are conditioned by many factors, the most important of which are the geographic and physical location of a country on the European continent, economic and social contexts, and environmental as well as political conditions. According to Polish experts, the key success factors in building an energy strategy stem mainly from the economic and political areas, followed by the technological area, while the environmental and social areas are the least important. The authors hope that the article will serve to popularize the use of CSFs in scientific research, which can then translate into improved government policies for the energy sector.
Agricultural insurance and green agriculture are strongly related. Agricultural insurance not only motivates farmers to adopt environmentally friendly production technology and enhances the effectiveness of production, but it also accomplishes the goal of lowering the number of chemicals that are put into the environment. This article investigates the dynamic relationship between agricultural insurance, air pollution, and agricultural green total factor productivity. To complete the aim, the authors used the panel auto-regressive distributed lags method (PMG method) and panel data from 50 states of the United States between 2005 and 2019. The empirical findings demonstrate a considerable co-integration and a cross-sectional reliance between agricultural insurance, air pollution, and agricultural green total factor production. Expanding agricultural insurance may boost agricultural green whole factor output but also exacerbate air pollution. However, significant air pollution does not increase agricultural production's green total factor productivity. The panel Granger causality test shows a one-way causal relationship between agricultural insurance, green total factor productivity, and air pollution. A one-way causal relationship exists between air pollution and agricultural green total factor productivity. The author concluded that improving agricultural insurance coverage or cutting down on air pollution will boost agricultural green total factor output. These findings have long-term policy and management repercussions, particularly for those involved in agriculture policy and environmental management. Citation: Ahmed, N.; Hamid, Z.; Mahboob, F.; Rehman,K.U.; Ali, M.S.e.; Senkus, P.; Wysokińska-Senkus, A.; Siemiński, P.; Skrzypek, A.
Combating chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) threats with novel solutions reduces disasters and accident risks and, at the same time, aids sustainability. This research aims to identify the innovations in combating CBRN threats and verify how they fall within the scope of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The study relies on mixed-method research, including bibliometrics and text-mining used to identify clusters, most frequent words, and codes. The material for the research was 156 publications from the Scopus database from 2017 to April 2022. From the analytical process, textual data served as the indicators of the innovations’ directions driven by SDGs. The research results indicated that innovations for combating CBRN threats support sustainability mainly in health and environmental areas, specifically in: SDG 3: Good Health and Well-being; SDG 6: Clean Water and Sanitation; SDG 14: Life Below Water; SDG 15: Life On Land. The research contributes to the landscape of innovations serving sustainable development. Further studies may focus on narrower perspectives, such as environmental protection and health innovations. There can also be concerns about the dark side of CBRN innovations and technologies of dual use.
The Polish activities in the SSA domain despite having been continuously developed from the beginning of the space era however have until recently mainly concentrated on the science and research domain. The Polish participation in various international SSA initiatives such as ESA SSA/Space Safety Programme, European Space Surveillance and Tracking Consortium (EUSST) represented by Polish Space Agency (POLSA) or Space Weather Service for ICAO PECASUS consortium represented by Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Science has shifted those activities also into the operational domain. The current SSA system in Poland is based on the pool of the Polish scientific and commercial assets organized by the Polish space administration. Currently, Polish SST network consists of over 20 optical sensors operating for national purposes with a part contributing to EUSST. The paper presents a general outlook of SSA capability in Poland focusing mainly on the SST component, a preview of recent developments, and the preliminary results in terms of photometric solutions as an effort to extend current operational Polish capabilities in preparation for the future more complex environment in support of national and European efforts.
Context: Food safety is essential for every human. It determines public health, nutrition, elimination of hunger, and the promotion of sustainable agriculture. It is crucial for sustainable production, consumption, and international food trade. Ensuring food safety is the fundamental challenge of the 21st century. Food safety is often related to food defense and includes protection against intentional contamination with various chemical, biological, or other harmful substances. By introducing food protection tools and methods, any company reduces risk and creates an opportunity to generate more significant and reliable profits and improved production for society. One such method could be the CARVER+Shock. The method is an offensive targeting prioritization tool that has been adapted for use in the food sector. Objective: The article aims to present the experience of the first implementation of CARVER+Shock in a Polish primary production company, to improve the approach to food safety and food defense. Methods: The article is a case study. Descriptive analysis was performed to analyze legal acts and safety management standards in food defense. The authors used the CARVER+Shock expert method to estimate companies’ vulnerability. CARVER is an acronym for Criticality, Accessibility, Recoverability, Vulnerability, Effect, Recognizability. The visualization and risk analysis were made using business process management and business process modeling (VACD diagram) Results and conclusions: Primary production enterprise dealing with the cultivation and confectioning of the pre-treatment and sale of peeled onions for further processing purposes was examined. Five essential stages of the production process were assessed, and risks were assigned. Recognizability and criticality turned out to be the most crucial attribute of CARVER+Shock. Overall, the study showed that the company was not fully prepared for the threat posed by food terrorism. The organization did not have any procedures describing how to proceed during deliberate attacks. In addition, workers had low awareness of food defense throughout the food chain. Based on these conclusions, several detailed improvement actions were formulated. The results obtained from the pioneering application of the CARVER+Shock method for a Polish primary production company may constitute a benchmark for other sectors of the food industry, both domestically and abroad. Significance: The article describes the results of the first Polish attempts to use CARVER+Shock and business process management to improve the approach to food safety in a primary production enterprise.
Na podstawie teoretycznych założeń funkcjonowania otoczenia ogólnego organizacji, ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem wymiarów go tworzących oraz jego znaczenia dla organizacji, przeprowadzona została z wykorzystaniem analizy przypadków, jako metody badawczej wiodącej, identyfikacja czynników zmian dla prowadzenia działalności linii lotniczej na rynku usług lotniczych w dobie pandemii Covid-19. Wskazano układ relacji zachodzących między tymi czynnikami a kształtem strategii działań. Wskazano zasady funkcjonowania systemu, który tworzą linia lotnicza oraz port lotniczy i agent obsługi naziemnej. Dookreślono znaczenie kryzysu w działalności linii lotniczej dla zmian w zakresie funkcjonowania pozostałych podmiotów w tym układzie relacji. Wdrożenie opisanego kształtu procedury badawczej pozwoliło na pro-wadzenie badania „w działaniu”, tj. rzeczywiste zidentyfikowanie występowania relacji pomiędzy otoczeniem ogólnym a strategią działania i oszacowanie charakteru, zakresu i natężenia tych relacji, a w przyszłości dostosowanie działań do zachodzących zmian.
Negocjacje są skutecznym sposobem rozwiązywania sytuacji kryzysowych. Liczne badania dowodzą efektywności pracy zespołu negocjacyjnego w przypadku porwań dla okupu i innych interwencji kryzysowych. Z kolei w sytuacji sporów międzynarodowych prawdopodobieństwo zawarcia porozumienia jest sześciokrotnie większe, gdy pertraktacje prowadzone są przy wsparciu mediatorów. Z uwagi na powyższe celem podjętej analizy jest systematyzacja wiedzy na temat czynników warunkujących przystąpienie do negocjacji oraz strategii pozwalających na pozytywne zakończenie zdarzenia lub sporu. W przypadku zdarzeń naruszających bezpieczeństwo powszechne na sukces negocjacji policyjnych wpływają zachowanie sprawcy, czas trwania zdarzenia, okoliczności oraz kompetencje negocjatorów. W przypadku sporów międzynarodowych strony przystępują do negocjacji i mediacji, kierując się przede wszystkim własnym interesem oraz racjonalną analizą zysków i strat. Zatem działania mediatora powinny skupić się na wpłynięciu na nastawienie i zachowanie stron przy jednoczesnej dbałości o ich interesy.
The issue of professional expectations and self-assessment in relation to the service performed by officers of the Polish Armed Forces is a very important issue for a specific and challenging military profession. The quality of performing professional tasks while solving various types of problems and the stress that arises at that time may be significantly reduced due to low self-esteem, and thus self-confidence. This may translate into lowered aspirations and, as a result, low expectations towards the profession. Therefore, it is worth taking a closer look at this issue through an in-depth analysis of its components, especially in terms of interdependence and social and professional conditions. The empirical research conducted for this purpose among the officers of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland allowed for the diagnosis of this problem and the formulation of appropriate conclusions. Calculations and analyzes in accordance with the adopted methodology were presented on the basis of the results of research conducted among officers carrying out various forms of education at the Academy of War Art. Elements of descriptive and correlation statistics were used to verify the collected empirical material and its detailed analysis
W artykule przedstawiono rolę oraz zadania Służby Ochrony Państwa jako formacji odpowiedzialnej za bezpieczeństwo oraz ochronę personelu dyplomatyczno-konsularnego, a także polskich misji dyplomatycznych. Zaprezentowano aktualną kategoryzację placówek zagranicznych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej w oparciu o przepisy prawne Ministerstwa Spraw Zagranicznych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Zagwarantowanie bezpieczeństwa polskim dyplomatom oraz ich rodzinom na całym świecie stało się nadrzędną wartością, która zdominowała wszystkie wcześniejsze cenione wartości materialne i niematerialne. Szerokie spectrum wymagań, które są niezbędne do zapewnienia odpowiedniego poziomu bezpieczeństwa i ochrony osób i obiektów podlegających szczególnej ochronie, niewątpliwie ma istotny wpływ na sposób planowania, organizowania i realizowania działań ochronnych przez instytucje do tego powoływane. Nie bez znaczenia pozostaje stale zmieniający się katalog zagrożeń dla osób sprawujących kierownicze funkcje w państwie, w tym dla personelu dyplomatyczno- konsularnego Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Scharakteryzowane zostały wybrane zagrożenia dla placówek zagranicznych Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej. Przedstawiono i przeanalizowano dotychczasowe zamachy oraz próby pozbawienia życia polskich dyplomatów. Podczas przygotowania artykułu wykorzystane zostały teoretyczne metody badawcze. Rozważania przedstawione przez autora publikacji wskazują jednoznacznie, iż system ochrony placówek zagranicznych RP oraz system ochrony kluczowych osobistości wymaga badań naukowych oraz wyciągania odpowiednich wniosków, co w efekcie ma zoptymalizować bezpieczeństwo i ochronę kierowniczych organów państwa, w tym personelu dyplomatyczno-konsularnego.
This book is the only monograph to date on Vidya Bharati: the largest network of private schools in India. These institutions are run by Hindu nationalists of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS) and thus are also connected to the party currently ruling India: Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). The organization makes for an interesting case: it runs school on an income-basis but its main objective is to spread a nationalist ideology. This work seeks to explain how did Vidya Bharati manage to navigate between these two factors to become such a successful venture. It concludes that Vidya Bharati found itself a wide gap on the Indian education market: its schools are usually much cheaper than elite private ones but also better organized than government institutions. In other cases, they are also found where no other private schools are active and when government schools are moribund. The network not only benefits from functioning in this middle zone, but skillfully hides its affiliation to the RSS and places radical, nationalist accents of its narrative in specific points of the curriculum and school life. The author has made use of original resources (Vidya Bharati school textbooks), as well as visited schools and conducted interviews with school employees.
Airports, linking air transport with other modes of transport, are indicated as one of the elements influencing regional and local development. Their presence strengthens the communication accessibility of a particular place in space attracting investors and dynamizing its development. Recently, the functioning of airports has been significantly affected by the COVID-19 pandemic drastically reducing passenger traffic at airports, which also translated into the situation of related companies and people who live near airports (commune). Assessing the impact of an airport on the socio-economic situation in a commune is difficult because, on the one hand, they create jobs and attract investors and, on the other hand, they generate noise and pollution. In this situation, a preliminary study was carried out in five communes throughout Poland. The aim of the research was to determine how residents and representatives of communes perceive airports located in their communes, in the context of the impact of these airports on the socio-economic situation in communes, also in the situation when the airports face problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim was achieved using analysis of strategic documents of communes, analysis of data on the functioning of communes and airports in the period 2016–2021, and a diagnostic survey using interview and survey techniques. The survey research involved 600 respondents from 5 communes located in different regions of Poland and 5 representatives of their authorities. To analyze the collected material and present the results, Statistica v.13.3 and R/RStudio software were used.
The article was written in consequence of works carried out in the Military Institute of Armament Technology related to the design of the artillery simulator – trainer Antracyt Plus. Research and development works focused on establishing current training needs of artillery subunits at the squadron level and proposing a simulation solution, which will enable the realization of all training undertakings in the scope of Fire Control Training and Individual Shooting Skills Training. An additional goal was to develop the simulation environment so that it would enable gunners to undertake training impossible to be realized under conditions other than combat. Given the modern battlefield conditions, several scenarios were developed to enable the realization of any fire tasks in real-time. The article describes the Missile and Artillery Forces’ training process and presents the capabilities of the simulator in this context. In conclusion, there are references to the work outside the automatic fire control system and the role of perfecting the artillery “craft” in the context of the growing role of artillery during recent armed conflicts.
The development of military technique and technology forces necessary changes in military reconnaissance using advanced methods of contemporary battlefield imaging. This paper addresses the topic of imagery intelligence as an essential source for gaining information about the deployment and quantity of means and forces of a potential enemy. Currently, armies of the world are equipped with modern imagery intelligence systems that make it possible to collect, process and analyse the collected data on enemy’s troops and the environment in which the enemy operates. The purpose of the study is to present the proper role of camouflage undertakings that make it possible to counteract imagery, optoelectronic and radar intelligence. The increasing capabilities in this problem area mean that in the near future intelligence tasks will be carried out not only by ground, space or naval systems, but primarily by reconnaissance aircraft and unmanned aerial systems. In accordance with the problem indicated in the topic, the paper brings closer the possibilities of counteracting imagery intelligence from the theoretical and practical perspective. In addition, it presents the latest camouflage solutions employed both in the Polish Armed Forces and other selected armies. At the end of the paper, the authors formulate the most important conclusions that constitute a generalisation of the results of studies presented in different parts of the publication.
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227 members
Małgorzata Gawlik-Kobylińska
  • Command and Management Faculty
Dorota Domalewska
  • Faculty of National Security
Waldemar Kitler
  • Wydział Bezpieczeństwa Narodowego
Maciej Wojtacki
  • Faculty of Law and Administration
Malwina Kołodziejczak
  • National Security Faculty
Information
Address
al. gen. A. Chruściela 103, 00-910, Warsaw, mazowieckie, Poland
Head of institution
gen. bryg. dr inż. Ryszard Parafianowicz
Website
http://akademia.mil.pl
Phone
+48 261 813 380