Akademia Ignatianum w Krakowie
  • Kraków, Małopolska, Poland
Recent publications
Many researchers have demonstrated the relationship of religiosity with dimensions of mental health such as searching for meaning in life, the presence of meaning in life, and life satisfaction. Hence, this study attempts to link such aspects of religiosity with the experience of the presence and/or absence of God with the search for and presence of meaning in life and satisfaction with life among a group of Polish women who have experienced a stillbirth in the past five years. The study included 64 women who lost a baby through stillbirth after the 22nd week of gestation. All the women were born into Christian families and declared themselves to be Christians and actively practicing their faith. Women’s ages ranged from 29 to 47 years. The research results showed that the experience of God’s presence and absence have a positive and significant relationship with the search for meaning in life and the presence of meaning in life, as well as with the satisfaction with life in the lives of women after stillbirth. The strongest relationship was between the presence of meaning in life and life satisfaction (r = .72; p < .01), God’s presence and life satisfaction (r = .66; p < .01), as well as the presence of meaning in life and the search for meaning in life (r = .57; p < .01). The structural equation model showed that the experience of God’s presence and God’s absence have a significant, direct impact on the search for meaning in life and the presence of meaning in life, and the satisfaction with life. These also have an indirect impact on the satisfaction with life in the lives of women who have lost a child to stillbirth.
COVID-19 pandemic raised many problems for patients with acne-prone skin: a limited access to healthcare services, the necessity of developing telemedical consultations also in dermatology, and the usage of face masks. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of respiratory protective measures (type of masks, wearing time during the day) on declared skin condition in patients already diagnosed with acne or reporting acne for the first time. The study was conducted in Poland among 1,420 responders using the original authors' questionnaire, of which 1,274 responders were included in the final sample. Acne exacerbations were reported as being more frequent and more severe in women than in men. Changing cosmetic products, facial skin decontamination before or after applying masks, the number of days per week that a mask was worn were related to acne exacerbation. The type of mask had no significant impact on the occurrence of acne lesions. Respondents noted that masks contribute significantly to skin condition worsening by exacerbating existing and causing new acne lesions. This phenomenon was particularly observable in women, in whom, according to the research results, new lesions appeared much more frequently. Therefore there is a need to develop new ways of limiting acne exacerbation during COVID-19 pandemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This paper aims at problematizing this distinction between status quo and revisionist/imperialist states by creating a typology of four kind of states: imperialist, status quo, young and old narcist state. The text will proceed in three sections that: 1) problematises the contemporary realist theorising; 2) reconstructs Morgenthau’s notions of sources of national and political power, ideal types of foreign policy and the character of political community and its interest; 3) presents the four ideal types of states. This typology, based on analyticist metatheory and deeply inspired by Hans Morgenthau’s thought, aims at solving problems with neorealist, and neoclassical realist theorising. Based on such non-positivist metatheory, and thus closer to the classical realist roots, it omits the offensive/defensive neorealist assumption about states motivation. By explicitly combining the three historically bound qualities of states –their sources of national power, extraction capability and foreign policy behaviour it transcends the problems with weak causal linkages between state level variables present in neoclassical realism. Hence, it exemplifies the approach to general theory-building that is practically viable for explicitly exerting normative judgement, also from the perspective non great power state actors – the consistent weakness of mainstream, contemporary realist theorising.
Women older than 60 have a higher risk of dementia, aging-related cognitive decline, and Alzheimer's Disease (AD) than the rest of the population. The main reason is hormonal senescence after menopause, a period characterized by a decline in estrogen levels. Since the effectiveness of drugs currently approved for the treatment of AD is limited, it is necessary to seek the development of new therapeutic strategies. Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in AD patients and individuals with dementia in general. The supplementation of this vitamin in dementia patients might be an interesting approach for increasing the effectiveness of pre-existing medications for dementia treatment. Thus, the present study aims to investigate the effect of vitamin D treatment associated with memantine and donepezil in female mice submitted to ovariectomy (OVX) for five months and subjected to a dementia animal model induced by intracerebroventricular injection of aggregated amyloid βeta (Aβ1–42). For this purpose, Balb/c mice were divided into five experimental groups, which received 17 days of combined therapy with vitamin D, donepezil, and memantine. Then, animals were subjected to behavioral tests. OVX groups exhibited reduced levels of E2 in serum, which was not altered by the combined therapy. Higher levels of vitamin D3 were found in the OVX animals submitted to the triple-association treatment. Mice exposed to both OVX and the dementia animal model presented impairment in short and long-term spatial and habituation memories. Also, female mice exposed to Aβ and OVX exhibited a reduction in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels, and an increase in tumor necrose factor-α (TNFα) levels in the hippocampus. Besides, increased levels of IL-1β in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were observed, as well as a significant increase in immunoreactivity for GFAP, an astrocytes marker, in the hippocampus. Notably, triple-association treatment reversed the effects of the exposition of mice to Aβ and OVX in the long-term spatial and habituation memories impairment, as well as reversed changes in TNFα, IL-1β, IL-4, and GFAP immunoreactivity levels in the hippocampus of treated animals. Our results indicate that the therapeutic association of vitamin D, memantine, and donepezil has beneficial effects on memory performance and attenuated the neuroinflammatory response in female mice subjected to OVX associated with a dementia animal model.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of dementia. An association between vitamin D deficiency and subjective cognitive complaints in geriatric patients has been reported. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the neurochemical and behavioral effects of vitamin D3 (1α-25 Dihydroxyvitamin D3) on 2-, 6-, 13-, 22-, and 31-month-old male Wistar rats. Research Methods & Procedures: The animals were supplemented with vitamin D at doses of 42 IU/kg and 420 IU/kg for 21 days. The radial maze test was performed to evaluate spatial memory. After the behavioral test, the frontal cortex and hippocampus were dissected for the enzyme immunoassay analyses to measure cytokine levels (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10). Results: Our results showed that vitamin D supplementation was able to reverse the spatial memory impairment at the supplemented doses (42 and 420 IU/kg) in 6-, 13-, and 22-month-old animals and at a dose of 420 IU/kg in 31-month-old animals. Conclusion: Our results suggest vitamin D has a modulatory action on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, since older animals showed increased cytokine levels than the 2-month-old animals. The lower dose (42 IU/kg) was able to regulate both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the hippocampus. Our results suggest that vitamin D may exert an immunomodulating effect on aging
The article presents Ignatian (Jesuit) spirituality as the source of a pedagogical concept that takes a subjective view of the human being regardless of their social position. Other subjects in the educational process (educator and personal God) are companions on the way to achieving good and developing one’s life potential. Another important aspect of Ignatian spirituality is the assumption that it can also perform a healing function, particularly transcendentally. This function concerns all the structures of human development and can be reflected in many ways of supporting human health. This perspective makes it possible to develop a model of Ignatian pedagogy in which the following elements are present: context, experience, reflection, action and evaluation. Recognising the educational values of these elements makes it possible to develop a pedagogical theory, called the pedagogy of accompaniment, which is reflected in a deep inner and outer sense of human existence. Thus, the purpose of this article is to describe the meaning of Ignatian spirituality for the pedagogy of accompaniment, with reference to its function of supporting the health of the human being, particularly the young.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the general population and, to date, constitutes a major therapeutic challenge. In the pathogenesis of AD, aggregates of amyloid β (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) containing Tau-microtubule-associated protein (tau) are known to trigger a neuroinflammatory response with subsequent formation of an inflammasome. In particular, the NOD-like receptor pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is thought to play a crucial role in AD-related pathology. While the mechanisms for NLRP3 activation are not fully understood, it has been demonstrated that, after detection of protein aggregates, NLRP3 induces pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 18 (IL-18) or interleukin 1β (IL-1β), that further potentiate AD progression. Specific inhibitors of NLRP3 that exhibit various mechanisms to attenuate the activity of NLRP3 have been tested in in vivo studies and have yielded promising results, as shown by the reduced level of tau and Aβ aggregates and diminished cognitive impairment. Herein, we would like to summarize the current state of knowledge on NLRP3 inflammasome priming, activation, and its actual role in AD pathogenesis, and to characterize the NLRP3 inhibitors that have been studied most and their impact on AD-related pathology.
The aim of this study performed during the fourth wave of the pandemic was to analyse differences in sociodemographic and psychological variables between those who cite concerns regarding COVID-19 vaccination and those who do not, as well as the differences between those whose concerns stem from a negative evaluation of vaccines and those whose concerns are based on a positive evaluation of vaccines. The study included 417 participants aged 18 to 76 years (M = 34, SD = 13.9). Among the respondents, 89% were female. A survey questionnaire on sociodemographic variables and standardized research tools were used: mood (UMACL), emotions (PANAS), satisfaction with life (SWLS), optimism (LOT-R), and coping with stress (CISS). The results of the study indicate that the elderly and working people are concerned about inadequate vaccination of the population, whereas students are concerned about the pressure of compulsory vaccination. People who are concerned about inadequate vaccination of population are more likely to experience concerns about various stressors. Our results do not indicate a relationship between psychological variables and vaccination-related concerns. The results obtained may be the basis for the identification of target groups in order to adapt social campaigns promoting vaccination against COVID-19 in Poland.
Książka składa się z wprowadzenia do debaty zarówno w języku polskim jak i angielskim oraz 12 rozdziałów (referatów). Praca zawiera także noty o autorach oraz indeks. Autorami referatów są znawcy problematyki transhumanizmu, wywodzący się zarówno z renomowanych uczelni akademickich, jak i rozmaitych ośrodków badawczych. Publikacja jest nie tylko interesująca oraz inspirująca, ale też zmusza do pogłębionej refleksji nad naturą człowieka, jego istotą oraz wpływem technologii na jego życie, a także oceną etyczną tego wpływu. --------------------- Zgłoszono: 12/12/2021. Zrecenzowano: 09/01/2022. Zaakceptowano do publikacji: 26/04/2022.
The aim of this article is to assess the progressiveness of neoclassical realism (NCR) in the context of neorealism’s development. By appealing to the idea of Lakatos research programs, it shows possible ways of NCR’s development and projects its possible futures. The article proceeds in three parts. The first one juxtaposes literature concerning Lakatos’s notion of scientific progress in IR with the philosopher himself and consequently shows how trying to operationalize his methodology in social science is not the way to go. The paper refers to both Elmans’ (2002, 2003) and Schweller’s (2003) proposals, pointing out that the first attempt at a detailed operationalization of Lakatos’s idea is not possible in social sciences, and that the second, relying on a commonsense approach, also proved insufficient to apply Lakatos’s criteria in practice. The second part of the article identifies the theoretical contents of NCR: hard core as well as its positive and negative heuristic, whereas the third one presents how Lakatos’s philosophy inspired the authors to develop three metaphors – weathered tree, graft, and seedling – that help to convey something about the present version of NCR and its possible futures. Conclusions draw the readers’ attention to the question whether and which of the presented metaphors shows the progressive promise of NCR’s progress as understood in Lakatos’ terms.
The aim of the article is to show the correlation between the subject-partic-ipatory paradigm and the basic features of qualitative pedagogical research in practical terms. The choice of this research topic can be justified by the insufficient range of literature in the field. Therefore, the subject-participatory paradigm will be explored from the personalistic perspective, with reference to the constitutive features of pedagogical qualitative research in order to address the research problem while taking into account the above-mentioned correlation. The starting point is the concept of the subject-participa-tory paradigm grounded in the thought of Karol Wojtyła. Then, in conducting a hermeneutic analysis, the author refers to the concepts of scientists such as Dariusz Kubinowski, Krzysztof Szmidt, Marcella Kelly, Maura Dowling, Michelle Millar, Matthew de Carlo, and others. Also, references are made to the research stages, mainly embedded in the creative methodology, which can facilitate the emergence of the correlation between the aforementioned paradigm and the constitutive features of pedagogical qualitative research.
This article offers a critical analysis of the dispute between two prominent twentieth-century Jewish thinkers—Leo Strauss and Gershom Scholem—on the temporal nature of Jewish messianism, particularly the messianism of the Lurianic kabbalah. Whereas Strauss uses Scholem’s authority to criticize the idea of progress and claims that the messianic idea of Lurianism as interpreted by Scholem is purely restorative, Scholem actually argues for its dialectical nature: neither progressive nor regressive but seeking to synthesize the past and future in the utopian figure of “restoring” the original potentiality. The purpose of my analysis is twofold: to expose Strauss’s misreading of Scholem’s theory which has so far escaped the critical attention of scholars, and to contribute to the debate on religion and change by deconstructing the apparent opposition of progress and return (or utopia and restoration) in Jewish messianic tradition.
The aim of this study was to examine intrapersonal (actor) and interpersonal (partner) associations between attachment, assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview, and satisfaction with the relationship, as well as to establish the possibility of the mediatory effect of supportive, delegated, and common dyadic coping on the aforementioned associations. A dyadic approach has been introduced, using the actor–partner interdependence mediation model and data from 114 heterosexual couples, aged 26 to 60. It has been shown that one’s own secure attachment can be perceived as the predictor of one’s own relationship satisfaction in women and men and the predictor of a partner’s relationship satisfaction in men. The findings support the partially mediating role of dyadic coping in the association between attachment and relationship satisfaction and are a significant contribution to the issue of dyadic coping in general. Adults’ secure representations of their childhood experiences may be effective in using their partners as a secure base and also in serving as a secure base themselves, but it is not the sole influence on the quality of the couple’s experience together. The we-ness phenomenon and resulting clinical implications were discussed.
This article presents a method for qualitative data analysis, which is called proxemic analysis. This method was based on a didactic method of structural analysis of narratives (Knecht & Knecht, 1992; Zirker, 1991). A proxemic analysis consists in working with data and indicating five categories in the text – actors, places, time, values, and expectations – and building them using elements, called entities. During the next stage, the researcher discovers the understanding of these categories by defining the relationships between entities. This analysis can be used on narrative texts regardless of the way in which they were obtained (unstructured interviews, diaries, memoirs, autobiographies, etc.). Interpreting the relationships between entities allows the researcher to formulate pedagogical implications, which they may use as a premise for constructing theories and/or activities. The example of the technique presented in this paper, from andragogical research, refers to the study of a life story obtained from a narrative interview.
The Covid-19 crisis has led to a re-definition of our lives and a significant de-stabilization of our mental condition. Research shows that we tend to conceive of challenging realities in terms of war and battle: thus, we have struggled with depression, lower spirits and a lack of human interactions. If so, how can we counteract such depressive tendencies? Although today it seems both writing and reading are efficient in mitigating feelings of loneliness, historical records of the reactions to the Spanish influenza pandemic (1918) reveals that silence and evasion are also possible. Using the method of wide reading, I first examine the divergent responses to crisis. Through close reading, I then explore the manner in which literature may be therapeutic for both writers and readers. Finally, I argue that the literary choices of the reading public, recently re-directed towards auto/biographical fiction, may soon impact on the canon within education. This, in turn, prompts a final hypothesis concerning a generic re-shaping of a future literary canon.
Although the genesis of connectivism as a theory of learning in the digital age dates back to the early 2000s, in Polish pedagogy this concept remains relatively unknown, sparse in academic debates, and downright rare in empirical research. The main purpose of the article is to present the knowledge and opinions of Polish teachers regarding connectivism. To what extent do Polish teachers know the theory of connective learning? Which of its assumptions do they see as key? To what extent are they willing to apply these assumptions in practice as a path or tool for developing their own professional competences? These research questions were the basis for a survey, the presentation of which constitutes the backbone of this article. The research indicates a clear cognitive dissonance in the minds of the teachers surveyed: the gap between the perception of the potential values of connectivism and the ability/readiness to use its tools in their own learning. The summary of the text contains conclusions for in-service teacher training, which needs to be reorganized to include the most valuable connected learning instruments so as to provide teachers with the skills necessary for successful self-regulated learning in the digital age.
One of the most vigorously debated issues in attention labs concerns the nature of the coupling between the sensorymotor system and covert spatial attention. Proponents of the Premotor Theory of Attention (PToA) claim that attention should be accounted for in terms of motor preparation for goal-directed actions such as eye or hand movements. For others, it is a supramodal psychological entity that is independent of our sensorimotor machinery. Both parties also seek to articulate this controversy in terms of cognitive science as a question of whether attention is embodied or disembodied cognition. The PToA is thought to advocate the embodiment of attention. We, however, are inclined to think that a more nuanced view of this conceptual framework is needed to yield some insights into how radical it actually is in terms of embodied cognition (EC). We argue that PToA still seems to bear some features of weak embodiment. Yet we suggest that it has the potential to build a stronger concept of attention as EC, but somewhat paradoxically this would require giving attention deflationary treatment and reconstructing it in other terms. We propose that the notion of prereflective intentionality might serve as an inspiration to this end.
This article examines the relationship between mental health dimensions such as meaning in life, life satisfaction, and job satisfaction, and the religious experience of God’s presence and God’s absence in the lives of Polish nurses with a bachelor and master’s degree. The research was carried out in the city of Kraków, Poland. All nurses were brought up in Catholic families and declared themselves believing and practicing. The following research tools were used: the Meaning in Life Questionnaire, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Satisfaction with Job Scale, and the Intensity of Religious Experience Scale. Data analysis showed that the education level of Polish nurses does not significantly differentiate the analyzed variables. The correlation analysis showed that the strongest relationship was between satisfaction with life and satisfaction with job in the group of nurses with a bachelor’s degree and nurses with a master’s degree. The regression analysis showed that the strongest predictor of God’s presence in the group of nurses with a bachelor’s degree was satisfaction with job, and in the group of nurses with a master’s degree it was satisfaction with life. The structural equation analysis revealed that the satisfaction with life plays an important and positive mediation role between the presence of the meaning in life and the search for the meaning in life, and the experience of God’s presence and the experience of God’s absence in the life of nurses.
This paper presents a study on the perspectives of structure refinement of aluminum and its alloys by reciprocating extrusion (cyclic extrusion compression—CEC). The study included Al99.5 and Al99.992 aluminum and AlMg5 and AlCu4Zr alloy. Aluminum and alloys were deformed by reciprocating extrusion (CEC) in the strain range ϕ = 0.42 (1 CEC cycle) to ϕ = 59.8 (67 CEC cycles). After deformation, the structure of the specimens was investigated by optical microscopy (OM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which revealed that the primary mechanism of hardening, over the range of applied strains, was the result of the propagation of shear bands throughout the specimens. The intersection of shear bands was found to divide the volume of the specimens into nano and microvolumes with dimensions limited by the width of the microbands. Due to structure renewal processes such as polygonization and dynamic geometric recrystallization, the formed micro and nano volumes were transformed into nano and micrograins with large misorientation angles. In terms of the occurrence of grain microstructure, a sustained uniform level of hardening was found, which was defined as steady-state flow. The research has shown that the steady state of flow is a result of the competitive interaction between the processes of hardening and structure renewal. The higher the metal purity, the higher the intensity of the structure renewal processes was. The formation of new grains and their growth under dynamic and post-dynamic recrystallization was observed in Al99.992 aluminum, in which high purity of the metal and high strain accumulation caused the growth of new grains at room temperature.
The institutions of the European Union place a clear emphasis on the importance of energy transition. However, the speed and scope of actions aiming at achieving climate neutrality of economies varies in the different member states. Poland, with an economy based on coal and a particular emphasis on the demands of energy security, appears to be especially sluggish in this respect, despite external and internal pressure from diverse stakeholders expecting particular decisions. The subject literature to date has analysed the structural – economic, political and historical-cultural – difficulties of phasing out coal. This article gives further attention to the causes by analysing the temporality of energy policy, a rarely analysed subject in the literature. It examines various temporal structures in functional systems, questioning how politics, science, economics and social movements designate the future horizons, which concepts of time influence their observations of the environments and how they affect the relationships of expectations and decisions. The discordance of temporal structures generates sources of uncertainty and induces an autoimmunological reaction of the system.
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606 members
Lukasz Burkiewicz
  • Instytut Kulturoznawstwa
Adam Anczyk
  • Institute of Psychology
Wit Pasierbek
  • The Institute of Political and Administrative Science
Józef Bremer
  • Instytut Filozofii
ul. Kopernika 26, 31-501, Kraków, Małopolska, Poland
Head of institution
Józef Bremer
0048 12 3999 502
0048 12 3999 501