Ajayi Crowther University
  • Oyo, Oyo, Nigeria
Recent publications
Dimethyl nitrosamine (DMN) is a known hepatotoxin, carcinogen, and mutagen. This study is therefore carried out to investigate the therapeutic effects of syringic acid (SYRA) and ascorbic acid (ASCA) in DMN-induced hepatic injury in rats. Following DMN administrations, malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased. Also significantly increased were levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB). Following treatment with SYRA and ASCA, the activities of ALT, AST, GPx, CAT and SOD, as well as MDA, GSH, TNF-α, IL-1β, and NFkB levels were significantly reduced. Overall, both treatments were effective, but SYRA had a better therapeutic effect than ASCA. Therefore, this promising potential of SYRA can be taken advantage of in the treatment of DMN-induced hepatic injury.
Effective use of information resources by lecturers is one of the determinants of university education outcomes. To function optimally, lecturers utilise digitised information resources in their duties. University libraries are saddled with the responsibility of organising and providing lecturers’ needed information resources. This study, therefore, investigated the influence of digitised library information resources availability on the use of information resources by lecturers in six federal universities in Southern Nigeria. Instruments used for data collection were the DLIRA (r = 0.73) and UIR (r = 0.64) scales. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, the Pearson product moment correlation, and multiple regressions at .05 level of significance. The results showed that digitised library information resources availability on the use of information resources influenced the use of information resources by lecturers in the federal universities in Southern Nigeria. Thus, there is a need for the management of university libraries to intensify efforts at converting most of the paper-based resources to digitised formats for increased use of library resources by lecturers.
The need of keeping medical information safe and secure stems from the fact that doctors rely on it to make accurate diagnoses. If this information is altered in any way, no matter how minor, there is a risk of an inaccurate diagnosis, which could result in severe medical issues and death. The transition from paper to electronic health records (EHRs) has considerably improved patient care quality and efficiency. However, for many healthcare service providers, it has extended the attack surface. Because of the value of a patient’s medical information, this has posed a threat to both patients and healthcare providers. When security is not taken into account in healthcare systems, patients’ privacy is jeopardized. The intended solution to this challenge is to create a modified AES algorithm to secure patient medical information. Although, the AES algorithm is secure, however, there is always a need for improvement on any cryptographic algorithms in terms of computational cost. This study implements AES and modified the last round of the AES and their performance has been measured by scrambling input datasets of various contents and volumes. The experimental results show that modified AES outperforms AES algorithms in terms of Encryption time while AES outperform modified AES in terms of decryption time. Also, the Avalanche effect results revealed that modified AES has a higher avalanche effect for small-size files while a smaller avalanche effect for larger file sizes. This signifies that modified AES security is stronger for a small size file while conventional AES has higher security for larger file sizes. The average encryption time of the AES algorithm for text files is 1513.3ms while the modified AES average encryption time gives 1293.837ms. The average decryption time for conventional AES is 1289.627ms while the average decryption time for modified AES give 1400.136ms. Modified AES uses lesser time complexity during the encryption of all categories of data files while conventional AES uses lesser time complexity during the decryption of all categories of data files.
PurposeAvailable epidemiological reports have indicated an increase in the incidence of liver damage globally. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a widely used food additive in many processed foods which has been associated with tissue injury. However, there is a paucity of information on its effect on hepatic injury. Therefore, the present study examined the possible influence of high intake of MSG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced liver injury.Methods Twenty-eight healthy male Wistar rats were used for the study. MSG (1500 mg/kg) was administered orally for 14 days while LPS (0.25 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 7 days.ResultsAdministration of MSG to rats with hepatocyte injury intensified liver damage with a marked increase in the activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase. Moreover, MSG aggravated (P < 0.05) LPS-mediated hepatic oxidative stress as evidenced by a marked decrease in enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. The increase in inflammatory biomarkers, in addition to histological damage in the liver, was aggravated following the administration of MSG to rats with liver injury.Conclusion Taken together, MSG exacerbated liver injury via mechanisms relating to increased oxidative stress and inflammation.Graphical abstract
The British punitive expedition of 1897 led to the theft and vandalization of the cultural heritage of the Benin Kingdom. The plunder included more than 3,000 cultural objects made of bronzes, ivories, beads, and other objects, which were produced since the 1st century AD to commemorate historical moments, political transitions, and ritual purposes. This theft dishonoured the spiritual and ritual significance of these living cultural objects, and has turned them into museum artefacts. As international debates on restitution and the return of Benin Bronzes intensify, two pertinent questions which arise are: Who will be the custodians of the returned artefacts?; and How will they be conserved? In this article, we address these two questions through the lens of Benin customary laws and practices. We argue that within this local jurisprudence, the Emwin Arre-the living cultural heritage described above-belong to the Oba of Benin and should be returned to the Royal Palace, where they will be preserved, protected, and shared with the present and future generations.
This investigation was carried out to evaluate the collaborative antimicrobial effects of the Alliaceae family's culinary spices, Allium cepa and Allium sativum. Eight test isolates were screened out from over forty organisms, sourced from environmental samples, using standard microbiological methods. The test isolates were subjected to antibacterial analyses using commercially available antibiotics and ethanoic crude extracts from Allium sativum and Allium cepa leaves, to ascertain their individual and synergistic effects. Biochemical tests revealed the test isolates as Staphylococcusaureus (15.8%); Escherichia coli (5.3%); Shigella sonnei (15.8%); Aeromonas species (10.5%); Clostridium species (15.8%); Corynebacterium xerosis (21.1%); Bacillus species (10.5%); and Streptococcus species (5.3%). All tested extracts showed varying sensitivities against the test organisms. In tests with individual extracts, red garlic extract (16 mm) demonstrated the largest zone of inhibition against Aeromonas species, whereas white onion extract (4 mm) revealed the lowest zone of inhibition against Bacillus species. Similarly, the highest inhibition zone (30 mm) was produced by the pooled extracts of both red onion and red garlic against Streptococcus species. Of all test isolates, Bacillus species showed overall susceptibility to the various combinations of extracts used. The study concluded that the synergistic effects of Allium cepa and Allium sativum have a greater antimicrobial effect than individual extracts, and this effect is not general to all organisms but specific ones. The crude extracts also proved more potent than conventional antibiotics. Further research work was recommended on the antimicrobial effects of other members of the Allium family.
Kolaviron (KV) is a biflavonoid phytoconstituent of defatted Garcinia kola seeds that possessed antiproliferative and pharmacological activities. Benzene is an industrial solvent that, however, constitutes occupation hazard, leading to hematological disturbance and leukemia. Therefore, the potency of kolaviron against benzene-induced hematological and myeloid toxicity leading to leukemia was investigated in a rat model. Preleukemic conditions were induced in Wistar rats by intravenous administration of benzene solution. Following induction, 200 mg/kg kolaviron was administered orally for seven days. Hematological parameters, percentage blast cell occurrence and blood cell morphology were compared between baseline control and leukemic rats with or without kolaviron treatment. Plasma activity of arylesterase of paraoxonase-1, total thiol and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) along with clastogenicity and bone marrow architecture was assessed. Kolaviron restored altered hematology, reduced the occurrence of blasts and improved blood cell morphology. Kolaviron also decreased levels of AOPPs, increased total thiol, improved arylesterase activity and mitigated clastogenicity and dysplasia induced in leukemic rats. In conclusion, kolaviron protected against benzene-induced hematological and myeloid toxicities that are implicated in leukemia.
Ocimum gratissimum L. is a perennial herbaceous plant used in the treatment of fungal and bacterial infections. Green synthesis has provided cost effective, environment friendly procedure and raising safe strategies for the synthesis of nanoparticles. This study was aimed at investigating the potential of O. gratissimum for the synthesis of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) and their antimicrobial activities. Phytochemical screening on aqueous extract was carried out using standard procedures. Selenium nanoparticles was biosynthesized by O. gratissimum and characterized using Visual detection, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscope, Transmission Electron Microscope, Energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier Transform Infra-red spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Antimicrobial activity of the biosynthesized selenium nanoparticles by O. gratissimum was done using agar well diffusion method. Saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids and phenols were present. The biosynthesized SeNPs had a strong plasmon resonance band at 300 nm, changes in colour from dark brown to ruby red. The SeNPs were spherical and aggregated with varying shapes and size ranged from 20 – 50 nm. Strong signal of selenium element was observed. Hydroxyl, esters, aldehyde, alkane and amine are present and responsible for the efficient stabilization and bioreduction of Selenium nanoparticle. Furthermore, biosynthesized SeNPs by O. gratissimum (OGSeNPs) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity against both Gram ositive and Gram negative bacteria. Green synthesis of nanoparticles is a promising method in the biomedical field, due to its high bioactive components.
The high rate of poverty in Nigeria is alarming with over 105 million people living in poverty. Despite the significant proportion of the population living in poverty in the country and the obvious spatial variations, there is scant evidence regarding the spatial factors driving the variations, leading to ineffectual policies for tackling the problem. Thus, the aim of this study is to analyze the geographical distribution of poverty and the predictors across Nigeria with a view to providing spatially explicit policies to curb the high poverty rates. The data were obtained from the United Nations Development Program Report and the National Bureau of Statistics. Spatial statistics of global and local Moran's indexes, ordinary least squares regression, and the geographically weighted regression techniques were adopted for the data analysis. Noticeable geographical variations in poverty rates in the country were observed, with high clusters in northern Nigeria. Moreover, the predictors of poverty differed significantly across the country, following socioeconomic pathways and location. While the illiteracy rate and location (distance to the coast) were predictors of poverty in northern Nigeria, unemployment was more of a predictor in southern Nigeria. The study recommends spatially explicit policies to curb poverty in the country.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is considered to be the ninth leading cause of death and is one of the major public health problems in the world. The prevalence of hepatitis in Nigeria has been rated to be 8.3%. Hence, this study investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in a tertiary institution in Oyo State. Informed consent were obtained from the out-patients attending institution clinics. The design was a cross-sectional study and questionnaires were administered to investigate their knowledge and attitude towards safer practices against the spread of HBV. The seroprevalence of the participants were examined with LabAcon rapid kit with 98.2% - 100% and 97.2% - 99.8 for specificity and sensitivity respectively. The population distribution was observed to 45 (90%) female and 5 (10%) male. The prevalence of the HBsAg was found to be 10%. The prevalence of HBsAg among female participants was 11.1%. The relationship between knowledge of HBV infection and sex was insignificant (0.546) however the relationship between knowledge of HBV infection and age was significant (0.004). The occurrence of HBV infection is still area of concern because of the possibility of the virus to spread. This spread could better be curtailed based on regular awareness about the infection.
A long-surviving tradition in Nigeria’s foreign policy has to do with observing neutrality in the Arab-Israeli conflict. This neutrality, however, was tested between 1973 and 1992 when Nigeria had a sustained break in diplomatic ties with Israel. At no point did successive Nigerian governments use religion to justify either the sustained severance or eventual restoration of ties. However, religion is a non-material factor in international relations that can play out in multidimensional ways without being seen as a catalyst for an action or inaction. It is against this background that within the analytical purview of Rosenau’s linkage politics theory and the bottom up theoretical approach to public opinion in foreign policy, the essay investigates the extent to which religion determined Nigeria’s severed relations with Israel and its eventual restoration of ties with the Jewish nation. The essay is historical and employs the use of primary sources including materials sourced from Nigeria’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. There were also personal communications with veteran diplomats, including two of the foreign affair ministers who served during the period. The essay concludes that while religion was neither the justification for the severance of relations with Israel nor the restoration of ties with the Jewish nation, religion played a role in the manner successive governments dealt with the matter.
This study was carried out to determine the haematological and serum biochemical effect of rams fed graded levels of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) seed meal. In a 77-days feeding trial, sixteen west African dwarf rams, of 12 months old, were randomly allocated to four dietary treatments (4 animals per each), with different inclusion levels of kenaf seed meal as replacement with sorghum glume and cassava pulp, at 0 (K0), 15 (K15), 35 (K35) and 55 (K55) % respectively. Each animal was fed 5% of its body weight/head/day of the experimental diets and elephant grass with clean drinking water ad libitum. Two animals from each treatment were randomly selected and blood samples collected aseptically, via the jugular puncture for haematological and biochemical evaluation, at the termination of the experiment. The analysis of blood components at the end of the feeding trial revealed that packed cell volume, white blood cell and haemoglobin showed significant (P < 0.05) differences among the rams with packed cell volume, white blood cell, while the haemoglobin was significantly decreased in K55 (27.00%, 3200 × 10³ µL and 8.95 g/dL respectively) than in K0, K15 and K35. There were also significant (P < 0.05) differences in all the serum biochemical analysis except in the albumin. It was concluded that kenaf seed meal can be inculcated in the diet of rams up to 35% without any deleterious effect on their haematology and serum biochemical characteristics. Feeding of kenaf seed meal above 35% inclusion level resulted in negative alteration of the white blood cells which could lead to the loss of their protective system, thereby preventing rapid and potent defence against infectious diseases.
Biofilm could be defined as a complex communities of microorganisms seen affixed to surfaces, they form clusters without sticking to any surface and buried firmly in an extracellular matrix (ECM). This matrix is formed by microorganisms in the formation of either extracellular polymeric substances (EPSS) or extracellular polymer. Many reviews have addressed the negative consequences of biofilm production in the food industry, among which we talk about biofilms being responsible for spoilage microorganisms and foodborne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus cereus etc. These contamination could be linked to biofilms presence in the processing plant. Although researches have tried conferring solutions to these challenges in the food industry, however, in this review we have tried to focus on the positive impact of biofilms formed in the food industry. It is critically expedient while trying to find the solution to the challenges of biofilm in the food industry to develop and give a major focus on the advantages and positive impact biofilm has in the food industry, which has been greatly neglected. Hence in this article, we have highlighted some positive impacts of biofilms formed in the food industry, like enhancing plant health and productivity of food products, as an agent of water and wastewater treatment in the food industry, as a tool in reducing the amount of excess sludge in the wastewater treatment plant. The development of edible biofilms, fermented food products and the production of biodegradable food packaging are also part of biofilms beneficial roles in the food industries.
Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common adult cancer in women and the third most common in men, and it is the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Angiogenesis is a critical step in CRC progression and metastasis. Immune checkpoint proteins (ICP) such as programmed cell death 1 (PD1), PD1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4) act as inhibitory immunoreceptors that prevent cytotoxic T-cells from killing tumor cells. Studies have reported the contribution of angiogenesis and ICP to anti-tumor immunity. Indeed, targeting angiogenesis and use of ICP blockage have revolutionized colorectal cancer treatment and improved patients’ survival. However, the use of immune checkpoint inhibitors has been shown to induce immune-related adverse reactions such as colitis. 6-gingerol (6G), the most pharmacologically active compound discovered in Zingiber officinale (ginger), We have reported the anti-tumor effects of 6-gingerol. However, there is a lack of information on the effect of 6G on angiogenic drivers and T-cell cytotoxicity in a mouse model of CRC. Herein, we investigated the effects of 6G angiogenesis and cytotoxic T-cell signaling in mice model of CRC. Methods Male BALB/c mice were divided into three groups of 20 mice each. Group 1 mice served as controls Group 2 (CRC model) mice received a single dose of azoxymethane (AOM) 10mg/kg and, after one week, they received three cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) 4% in drinking water. Group 3 mice received 6G 10mg/kg/day by oral gavage in combination with AOM and three cycles of 4% DSS (W/V) in drinking water. The colons of the mice were observed daily for tumor development, and the experiment was terminated after confirmation of colorectal adenocarcinoma. Results Tumor burden was observed to be decreased in CRC mice treated with 6G. Also, 6G decreases the expression of collagen (type I and I), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and EGF receptor in mice with CRC when compared with control. Furthermore, mice administered 6G+AOM/DSS had increased expression of CD4 and CD8+ T-cells and decreased expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), PD1, PD-L1, and CTLA4 when compared to mice with CRC. Using computational oncology, we observed a high binding affinity of 6G with VEGF, VEGFR, EGF, EGFR, PD1, PD-L1, and CTLA4. Conclusions The result obtained from this study showed that 6-gingerol suppresses angiogenic drivers and promotes T-cell cytotoxicity in colorectal cancer. Ethics Approval The work was approved by Ajayi Crowther Faculty of Natural Science Research Ethic Committee
Cadmium chloride (CdCl2) is an important heavy metal widely regarded as an environmental contaminant. Hesperidin, a flavanone glycoside found in citrus fruits, has an established properties against free radicals, apoptosis, and inflammation. The present study investigated the protective actions of hesperidin on CdCl2-induced oxidative damage and inflammation in Drosophila melanogaster. For 7 consecutive days via their diet regimen, the flies were exposed to CdCl2 alone (0.05 mM) or in combination with hesperidin (50 and 100 μM). Exposure to CdCl2 significantly (p < 0.05) increased mortality rate of flies, whereas the survived flies demonstrated significant oxidative toxicity from decreased activities of catalase and Glutathione S-transferase (GST) and Total Thiol (T-SH) and Non-Protein Thiols (NPSH) levels as well as accumulation of Nitric Oxide (NO (nitrite/nitrate)), protein carbonyl and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2). However, hesperidin-supplemented diet improved Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, mitochondrial metabolic rate (cell viability), locomotor activity, and amelioration of oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation induced by CdCl2. The hesperidin diet supplement boosted the antioxidant milieu and ameliorated the oxidative damage in the treated flies. Overall, the findings revealed that hesperidin improved antioxidative protective capacity in Drosophila melanogaster model of CdCl2 induced toxicity. This suggests hesperidin as a potential therapeutic agent against oxidative stress disorders due to exposure to CdCl2 and or related toxicants.
Objectives: Renal failure has been reported in patients treated with Teicoplanin, a widely used antibiotic. Hesperetin, a flavonoid in citrus fruits, has been reported to possess nephro-protective effects. This study investigated the protective effect of hesperetin on teicoplanin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats (n=32, 144-180 g) were grouped into 4 groups of 8 rats each. The control, group 1 received water, group 2 received 50 mg/kg of hesperetin orally, group 3 received 10 mg/kg of teicoplanin intraperitoneally and group 4 received 50 mg/kg of hesperetin and 10 mg/kg of teicoplanin. Administration was done for 21 days. Rats were sacrificed 24 hours after the last administration, the kidney was excised and used for biochemical assays. Results: Administration of teicoplanin resulted in kidney injury that was characterized by significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine level relative to control group (p<0.05). Additionally, significant increase in biomarkers of inflammation (NO, MPO, TNF-α) and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde) of teicoplanin-treated rats were observed when compared with the control group. Furthermore, altered antioxidants status was observed following teicoplanin treatment. Activities of enzymic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST) and concentration of non-enzymic antioxidants (GSH and Ascorbic acid) were downregulated. In comparison to the teicoplanin-treated group, the administration of Hesperetin with teicoplanin significantly reduced all changes in the markers of kidney injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Histopathological examination revealed that rats given TEIC showed increased glomerular size and considerable hydropic changes in the proximal convoluted tubules, whereas rats given HESP and TEIC showed only mildly enhanced glomerular size and hydropic modifications. Conclusion: Hesperetin preserved the histo-architecture of the kidney. From this study, hesperetin offered a protective effect against teicoplanin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.
Sound barriers, rather than shutting off the source of noise, are the most effective method for reducing noise pollution and reducing the intensity from diverse sources. In the present study, a natural fiber was employed alongside a polymer material to produce a sound barrier system. The natural fiber composite used was Rice Husk-PU reinforced composite. The harmonic analysis was performed through ANSYS to evaluate the sound absorbing coefficient and transmission loss. More so, the stress–strain analysis with the total deformation of the panel has been analyzed. In order to have better understanding of the sound absorption coefficient and transmission loss, the frequency range on the simulation was set between 0 and 4000 Hz. The result showed better sound absorption coefficient on the lower frequency region when compared with standard and measured results from published paper. It also simulated higher transmission loss at a high frequency region since high frequency means high sound intensity level. For the validation of the simulated results, the data were compared with the tested experimental results for the same material and a very small difference was observed.
Five derivatives of 3-ferrocenylphenylimine were synthesized through arylation of ferrocene by diazonium salt under phase transfer conditions. Sn/HCl was used to reduce the nitro derivatives to ferrocenylanilines, which was followed by addition of aromatic aldehydes. The thus obtained compounds N-(2,3-dimethoxybenzylidene)-3-ferrocenylimine (L1), N-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-3-ferrocenylimine (L4), N-(2-thiophenecarboxbenzylidene)-3-ferrocenylimine (L5), N-(3-nitrobenzylidene)-3-ferrocenylimine (L9), and N-(2-furabenzylidene)-3-ferrocenylimine (L10) showed similar UV-vis absorption spectra with the exception of L4 which is the nitro-substituted benzylideneimine. Cyclic voltammetry of peak potential separation of the compounds under light and dark conditions was studied and the redox couple ferrocene/ferrocenium showed half-wave potentials around 0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl which is markedly higher than ferrocene. The dependence of the peak potentials and currents from the scan rates was studied in detail. While the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital was obtained from the half-wave potential of the oxidation, the energy of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) was estimated from the onset of the absorption spectra. The gaps range from 2.87 to 3.05 eV.
Background Treatment of the urinary tract infections (UTIs) is vast becoming worrisome because prominent antibiotic resistance among the bacteria involve in the infection. Species of Ochrobacterum are also involve in the infection affecting urinary tract and profusely resistance to antibiotics. Methods Urine samples were collected from out-patients of some hospitals and the bacteria were isolated and identified based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics. The most resistant isolate was selected for molecular identification by amplifying 16S rRNA gene. The bacterial isolates were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility assay and interpreted using standard of CLSI. The resistant isolate was evaluated for the presence of ESBL genes, MBL genes, biofilm gene and efflux pump gene. Results Fourteen (14) Ochrobactrum spp. were isolated from urine samples. Only 3 (21%) of the isolates were resistance to all the twenty-one (21) antibiotics while 7 (50%) were resistance to twenty (20) antibiotics. However, resistance was observed to atleastnine (9) antibiotics in all the antibiotics by the bacterial isolates. The selected isolated was identified to be Ochrobactrum anthropic strain U0145 with occurrence of blaTEM,blaSHV and blaCTX-M-9 as ESBLs genes while blaOXA-48 and blaNDM-1 genes as MBLs genes however, there was no occurrence of GES 1-9,11 gene. The bacterium possessed biofilm production gene while there was no efflux pump gene. Conclusion O. anthropiis becoming prominent among the bacteria responsible for nosocomial-associated infection especially when catheter is involved and treatment may be tasking therefore adequate infection control should be put in place.
Xylanase breaks xylan down to xylose which is used in industries such as pulp and paper, food, and feed, among others. The utilization of wastes for xylanase production is economical, hence, this work aimed at producing xylanase through solid-state fermentation and characterizing the enzyme. Xylanase-producing strains of Bacillus sp. (BA) and Aspergillus niger GIO were inoculated separately in a 5 and 10 days solid fermentation study on maize straw, rice straw, sawdust, corn cob, sugarcane bagasse, conifer liters, alkaline-pretreated maize straw (APM), and combined-alkaline and biological-pretreated maize straw, respectively. The best substrate was selected for xylanase production. The crude enzyme was extracted from the fermentation medium and xylanase activity was characterized using parameters such as temperature, cations, pH, and surfactants. Among different substrates, the highest xylanase activity of 3.18 U/mL was recorded when Aspergillus niger GIO was grown on APM. The xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger and Bacillus sp. had their highest activities (3.67 U/mL, 3.36 U/mL) at 40 °C after 30 and 45 minutes of incubation, respectively. Optimum xylanase activities (4.58 and 3.58 U/mL) of Aspergillus niger and Bacillus sp., respectively were observed at pH 5.0 and 6.2. All cations used enhanced xylanase activities except magnesium ion. Sodium dodecyl sulfate supported the highest xylanase activity of 6.13 and 6.90 U/mL for Aspergillus niger and Bacillus sp. (BA), respectively. High yields of xylanase were obtained from Aspergillus niger GIO and Bacillus sp. (BA) cultivated on alkaline pretreated maize straw. The xylanase activities were affected by pH, temperature, surfactants, and cations.
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231 members
Adewale A Oke
  • Medical Laboratory Science
Ayokanmi Ore
  • Chemical Sciences
Ajayi OLUWASEUN Babajide
  • Biochemistry Unit Department of Chemical Sciences
John Chiwuzulum Odozi
  • Agricultural Economics and Extension
Temitope T. Dele-Afolabi
  • Department of Mechanical Engineering
Oyo-Ogbomosho Road, 234, Oyo, Oyo, Nigeria
Head of institution
Vice Chancellor: Professor Timothy A. Adebayo