Nanoparticles (NPs) are insoluble particles with a diameter of fewer than 100 nanometers. Two main methods have been utilized in orthodontic therapy to avoid microbial adherence or enamel demineralization. Certain NPs are included in orthodontic adhesives or acrylic resins (fluorohydroxyapatite, fluorapatite, hydroxyapatite, SiO2, TiO2, silver, nanofillers), and NPs (i.e., a thin layer of nitrogen-doped TiO2 on the bracket surfaces) are coated on the surfaces of orthodontic equipment. Although using NPs in orthodontics may open up modern facilities, prior research looked at antibacterial or physical characteristics for a limited period of time, ranging from one day to several weeks, and the limits of in vitro studies must be understood. The long-term effectiveness of nanotechnology‑based orthodontic materials has not yet been conclusively confirmed and needs further study, as well as potential safety concerns (toxic effects) associated with NP size.
Primary yolk sac tumors are extragonadal germ cell tumors commonly seen in children and young adults. They are more common in men. Germ cells tumor on histopathological characteristics is classified as seminoma and non-seminomatous (NSGC). The rarest form of NSGC is an extragonadal yolk sac tumor of mediastinum. Clinical presentations are not specific and may imitate other chronic disease such as other malignancies or tuberculosis such as chest discomfort, vena cava superior syndrome, fever, weight loss, and chronic cough. Immunohistochemistry showed a positive result in Alpha-fetoprotein and pan-cytokeratin. Due to its rarity, brain metastases' clinical signs and symptoms, anatomical sites, and characteristics are less well documented. However, the metastatic brain process gave similar histological findings to the primary site. Additional radiological and laboratory tests can be carried out to identify other metastatic processes. Standardized treatment of primary mediastinal sac tumors with brain metastasis has not yet been established. Combining chemotherapy, surgery and radiation treatment could improve overall outcomes and prognosis. We present a scarce case of primary mediastinal yolk sac tumor with metastatic brain process in a 32-year-old male with a short survival period.
Left distal transradial artery (dTRA) access in the anatomical snuffbox is a relatively novel technique and is considered beneficial when left TRA access is required. This technique offers essential advantages, including improved patient comfort and lower vascular complications. dTRA may provide an entry site for retrograde recanalization of the radial artery. We presented a case of a 65-year-old man with 5-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and had left a radio-cephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) for routine hemodialysis. There was obstruction of AVF a month after creation. The vascular intervention has been performed using left dTRA access for retrograde recanalization. Angiogram showed cephalic vein obstruction and non-significant stenosis of the proximal radial artery. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was successful in improving cephalic vein flow. Hemostatic performed without a hemostatic device. This case report highlights the dTRA access approach in the anatomical snuffbox to recanalize AVF occlusion in the wrist in a patient with CKD.
Groundwater contamination remains a global threat due to its toxic effects to humans and the environment. The remediation of contaminated groundwater sites can be costly, thus, identifying the priority areas of concern is important to reduce money spent on resources. In this study, we aimed to identify and rank the priority groundwater sites in a contaminated petrochemical district by combining alternative, non-animal approaches-chemical analysis, cell-based high throughput screening (HTS), and Toxicological Priority Index (ToxPi) computational toxicology tool. Groundwater samples collected from ten different sites in a contaminated district showed pollutant levels below the detection limit, however, hepatotoxic bioactivity was demonstrated in human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Integrating the pollutants information (i.e., pollutant characteristics and concentration data) with the bioactivity data of the groundwater samples, an evidence-based ranking of the groundwater sites for future remediation was established using ToxPi analysis. The currently presented combinatorial approach of screening groundwater sites for remediation purposes can further be refined by including relevant parameters, which can boost the utility of this approach for groundwater screening and future remediation.
Photocatalytic degradation is a valuable direction for eliminating organic pollutants in the environment because of its exceptional catalytic activity and low energy requirements. As one of the prospective photocatalysts, zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) is a promising candidate for photoactivity due to its favorable redox potential and higher chemical stability. ZrO2 has a high rate of electron-hole recombination and poor light-harvesting capabilities. Still, modification has demonstrated enhancements, especially extra-modification, and is therefore worthy of investigation. This present review provides a comprehensive overview of the extra-modifications of ZrO2 for enhanced photocatalytic performance, including coupling with other semiconductors, doping with metal, non-metal, and co-doping with metal and non-metal. The extra-modified ZrO2 showed superior performance in degrading the organic pollutant, particularly dyes and phenolic compounds. Interestingly, this review also briefly highlighted the probable mechanisms of the extra-modification of ZrO2 such as p-n heterojunction, type II heterojunction, and Z-scheme heterojunction. The latter heterojunction with excellent electron-hole space separation improved the photoactivity. Extensive research on ZrO2's photocatalytic potential is presented, including the removal of heavy metals, the redox of heavy metals and organic pollutants, and the evolution of hydrogen. Modified ZrO2's photocatalytic effectiveness depends on its band position, oxygen vacancy concentration, and metal defect sites. The opportunities and future problems of the extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalyst are also discussed. This review aims to share knowledge regarding extra-modified ZrO2 photocatalysts and inspire new environmental remediation applications.
This study aims to investigate the influence of the volatility of exchange rates on manufacturing commodity exports in the ASEAN-5 (Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Malaysia, and the Philippines). The study used the ARCH/GARCH, ARDL, and Nonlinear ARDL to determine the symmetrical and asymmetrical influence of the volatility of the exchange rate on manufacturing exports in both the short run and long run. Five leading commodity exports for each of the ASEAN-5 countries were used and analyzed over the period January 2007–March 2019. Our strategy using the ARDL approach revealed that volatility has a significant influence on 13 commodity exports in the short term. While the Nonlinear ARDL approach revealed that volatility influenced 19 commodity exports. Additionally, in the long run, finding from ARDL and Nonlinear ARDL also indicates risk-averse behaviour by exporters. However, in the long run, the nonlinear model demonstrates that volatility asserts an asymmetric influence on nearly all commodity exports. With this, therefore, there is the need for policymakers to uphold steadiness in the exchange rate via the use of adequate foreign reserves and amplified the level of investment.
Background: This study aims to prove the healing results (regeneration) in cartilage defects using a combination treatment of microfractures and transplantation synovium-platelet rich fibrin (S-PRF). Methods: A cartilage defect was made in the trochlear groove of the knee of adult New Zealand white rabbits, and was classified into three treatment groups. The group 1 was cartilage defect without treatment, 2 with microfracture treatment, and 3 with microfracture covered with a synovium-platelet rich fibrin (S-PRF) membrane. Twelve weeks after the intervention, the animals were macroscopically and histologically examined, and evaluated by the International Cartilage Repair Society (ICRS). Additionally, the expression of aggrecan and type 2 collagen was examined by real-time-PCR. Results: The ICSR scores for macroscopic were significantly higher in the microfracture and S-PRF transplant group than in the other groups. Also, the ICSR scores for histology were significantly higher in this group. The expression of aggrecan and type 2 collagen was higher in the group that received complete treatment. Conclusions: Microfractures and transplantation of synovium-platelet rich fibrin (S-PRF) can regenerate knee cartilage defects which have been shown to increase the expression of mRNA aggrecan and mRNA type 2 collagen resulting in excellent repair.
Aim To compare the outcome of sole dexmedetomidine or with other sedative drugs in paediatric patients during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Literature was obtained from PubMed and ScienceDirect from 2010-2020 using key words: sedation, paediatric, dexmedetomidine, ambulatory, MRI, ketamine, propofol, midazolam. The literature selection was based on Participant, Intervention, Comparators, Outcomes (PICO) analysis. All English full-text and peer-reviewed articles were included. The primary outcome was hemodynamic stability, respiratory compromise, and recovery time. The risk of bias analysis was assessed using Cochrane collaboration Risk of Bias (RoB 2.0). Result Of 106 studies, 17 studies were included with a total 3.430 paediatric patients undergoing MRI. Dexmedetomidine alone provides a more stable hemodynamic but longer recovery time than ketamine, propofol or midazolam. The combination of dexmedetomidine and ketamine provides more stable hemodynamics, especially in the incidence of hypotension and bradycardia, and does not significantly reduce airway configuration more than sole dexmedetomidine or ketamine. Intranasal dexmedetomidine is more recommended than its combination with midazolam. Combining dexmedetomidine with ketamine, propofol or midazolam provides a shorter recovery time. Conclusion A combination of dexmedetomidine with other sedatives such as ketamine, propofol and midazolam is better than sole dexmedetomidine for paediatric sedation during magnetic resonance imaging.
Objectives: The inability to adapt to difficult and stressful situations in the environment leads to low resilience ability in street children. Knowing the influencing factors is important to help them achieve optimal resilience. This study aims to analyze the relationship between factors related to street children's resilience. Methods: This study used a correlational design with a cross-sectional approach. The population was street children in two halfway-home in Surabaya (Kampung Anak Negeri and Sanggar Alang-Alang). The sample was 129 respondents obtained using simple random sampling. The independent variables were unpleasant past experience, antisocial behavior, level of depression, age, sex, length of time being street children and positive support. The dependent variable was resilience. Data were collected using questionnaires and analyzed by Spearman Rho-test with p<0.05. Results: The result showed, that unpleasant past experiences (p=0.00 and r= -0.313), level of depression (p=0.00 and r= -0.279) and positive support have an association with resilience (p=0.000 and r=0.331). The lowest unpleasant past experiences and depression levels and the higher positive support will make higher resiliency in street children. Conclusions: This study has explained the unpleasant past experiences and depression levels as risk factors and the positive support as a supportive factor for street children's resilience.
The reproductive system is extremely vulnerable to chemotherapy drugs, ionizing radiation, toxic heavy metals, chemicals, and so on. These harmful stimuli are able to induce oxidative damage, apoptosis, inflammation, and other mechanisms in the reproductive organs, leading to different adverse reproductive effects. It was shown that using medicinal plants (medicinal herbs) can be an effective medication for the prevention and treatment of multiple health conditions. Silymarin is a medicinal herb extract, obtained from the seeds of Silybum marianum. This herbal agent is a nontoxic agent even at relatively high physiological dose values, which suggests that it is safe for use in the treatment of different diseases. The hepato-, neuro-, cardio-and nephro-protective effects of silymarin have been assessed previously. The protective activities of silymarin can point to anti-oxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic, immunomodulatory, and membrane-stabilizing properties. In this review, we aim to summarize current studies on the protective potentials of silymarin against reproductive toxicity. The molecular mechanisms of silymarin protection against cellular toxicity are also studied. Moreover, the findings obtained from improved formulations and delivery systems of silymarin have been addressed.
The development of two-dimensional (2D) materials for biomedical applications has accelerated exponentially. Contrary to their bulk counterparts, the exceptional properties of 2D materials make them highly prospective for contrast agents for bioimage, drug, and heat delivery in biomedical treatment. Nevertheless, empty space in the integration and utilization of 2D materials in living biological systems, potential toxicity, as well as required complicated synthesis and high-cost production limit the real application of 2D materials in those advance medical treatments. On the other hand, green technology appears to be one of strategy to shed a light on the blurred employment of 2D in medical applications, thus, with the increasing reports of green technology that promote advanced technologies, here, we compile, summarize, and synthesize information on the biomedical technology of 2D materials through green technology point of view. Beginning with a fundamental understanding, of crystal structures, the working mechanism, and novel properties, this article examines the recent development of 2D materials. As well as 2D materials made from natural and biogenic resources, a recent development in green-related synthesis was also discussed. The biotechnology and biomedical-related application constraints are also discussed. The challenges, solutions, and prospects of the so-called green 2D materials are outlined.
A growing body of evidence has revealed that microRNA (miRNA) expression is dysregulated in cancer, and they can act as either oncogenes or suppressors under certain conditions. Furthermore, some studies have discovered that miRNAs play a role in cancer cell drug resistance by targeting drug-resistance-related genes or influencing genes involved in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis. In this regard, the abnormal expression of miRNA-128 (miR-128) has been found in various human malignancies, and its verified target genes are essential in cancer-related processes, including apoptosis, cell propagation, and differentiation. This review will discuss the functions and processes of miR-128 in multiple cancer types. Furthermore, the possible involvement of miR-128 in cancer drug resistance and tumor immunotherapeutic will be addressed.
Abstract Background Children have largely been ignored in the fight against sexually transmitted infection (STI). Among children, STI is reported to be a globally emerging public health challenge. We evaluated the burden of HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among children (< 15 years old) and its determinants in urban Ethiopia. Methods For this study, we used data from the Ethiopian Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (EPHIA), collected through a nationally representative, community-based study conducted in Ethiopia from October 2017 to April 2018. We used plasma samples from 4729 children. Moreover, we linked the data and analysed them alongside their respective mothers. Child and maternal HIV status was determined using the national testing algorithm. Plasma samples from children were also tested for syphilis and HBV surface antigen. A descriptive analysis was done followed by bivariable analysis with 95% confidence interval (CI) at a significance level of p < 0.05. We finally evaluated predictors of STIs using regression analysis. Results HIV, HBV and syphilis prevalence rates among urban children in Ethiopia were 0.36%, 1.48% and 0.28%, respectively. Children living in Gambella and Addis Ababa had a 6.41-fold (95% CI: 3.20–9.88) and 4.20-fold (95% CI: 3.24–5.46) higher risk of HIV infection compared with those in Dire Dawa. Children of HIV-positive mothers had a 10.31-fold (95% CI: 3.20–18.19) higher risk of HIV infection, and if those mothers were not taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the risk was 7.27 times higher (95% CI: 2.57–12.64). Those who were from HIV-positive mothers with viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mL had a 18.64-fold (95% CI: 6.36–31.24) higher risk of HIV infection and those with a history of breastfeeding had a 3.27-fold (95% CI: 1.11–5.67) higher risk. Children from Addis Ababa had a 3.26-fold (95% CI: 1.64–6.66) higher risk of HBV infection compared with those from Dire Dawa. Moreover, for those from HIV-positive mothers and whose mother was not taking HAART, the risk of HBV transmission was 6.37 (95% CI: 2.20–19.96) and 3.62 (95% CI: 1.27–11.29), respectively. Children living in Gambella, Somali, Afar and Tigray had a 7.21-fold (95% CI: 2.30–18.68), 3.10-fold (95% CI: 1.28–3.74) and 1.32-fold (95% CI: 1.11–3.38) higher risk of acquiring active syphilis compared with those living in Dire Dawa, respectively. Those from HIV-positive mothers also had a 4.22-fold (95% CI: 1.16–8.39) higher risk of acquiring active syphilis. Conclusion The burden of HIV, HBV and syphilis was high among children in urban Ethiopia. The key determinants for the high burden of HIV, syphilis and HBV were maternal factors including maternal HIV status and breastfeeding. This might be due to the challenges associated with mother-to-child transmission. Hence, the programme shall focus on the elimination of the triple infections of HIV, syphilis and HBV.
Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a non-keratinization cell-derived neoplasm. Surgical excision is the most common way to remove a tumor. The excision depends on the tumor type, size, and location. This paper reported a 44- years-old woman presented with the chief complaint of a single bump that bleeds easily in the facial region that began one year ago. Dermatology examination revealed hyperpigmented plaque with an ulcer in central, solitary, oval, 2 cm x 1 cm in size, covered with blackish crust on top. A Dermoscopy examination showed blue dots and globules, arborizing vessels, and ulceration. Histopathology examination findings were in concordance with BCC. The patient was treated with elliptical surgical excision. The lesion was successfully removed and showed good results with minimal scarring. BCC occurs in 75% of all skin cancers. Elliptical surgical excision on the left cheek was performed after considering the location anatomy, defect size, age, and general condition patient and postoperative cosmetic estimates. The minimal scar that occurs is planned to be performed with a fractional laser. The prognosis is generally good. There is no recurrence until one year later. In conclusion, elliptical surgical excision is an effective standard treatment if performed with a safe margin. In this case, we used 5 mm safe outer margin.
Malaria is a parasitic infectious disease that remains one of the focuses of world health problems. The ethanol extract of Hedyotis corymbosa has biochemical compounds potentially become a new antimalarial drug. This study aimed to analyze the effect of this extract on parasitemia and hepatomegaly in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Twentyfive BALB/c mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA and grouped into 5 groups. Group 1-3 were treated with 250 mg/Kg BW (HC250), 300 mg/Kg BW (HC300), and 350 mg/Kg BW (HC350) of ethanol extract of H. corymbosa (EEHC), respectively. Group 4 was a positive control (POS) which was given dihydroartemisisnin-piperaquin (DHP) and Group 5 was a negative control (NEG) which was only given CMC Na 1%. Treatments were given orally once a day for four consecutive days. Parasitemia was observed daily on Giemsa-stained tail blood smear. On day 5 the mice were sacrificed, blood were collected by cardiac punctured, the livers were removed and the length, width, and weight were measured. There was no significant difference on parasitemia between Group 1, 2, 3 and NEG. However, the highest inhibition of parasite s growth was found in Group 3 (61.4%. Observation on hepatomegaly, showed that a significant difference on the length of the liver was found between Group 3 and NEG.
Malaria is a disease transmitted through the bite of a female Anopheles mosquito caused by the Plasmodium parasite. Plasmodium has been reported to become resistant to artemisinin. Thus, the study on the ethanol extract of mango parasite leaves/Dendrophthoe pentandra (MP) on P. berghei-infected BALB/c mice with and without artemisinin combination (MP+A) was conducted. This study is experimental laboratory research with a post-test only design. The percent parasitemia in mice treated with ethanol extract of MP and MP+A leaves decreased. There was no difference in the spleen index in mice given ethanol extract of MP, and MP+A leaves with p = 0.203 and the spleen weight of mice with p = 0.134 (significance: p <0.005). Pearson Correlation test showed a correlation between spleen index with parasitemia and spleen weight with parasitemia; however, there was no correlation between body weight and parasitemia. The ethanol extracts of MP and MP+A leaves had significant antimalarial activity, and the difference in the percent parasitemia between groups was significant but not so far. The spleen index value was not affected by the ethanol extract of MP and MP+A leaves, but the percent parasitemia was affected.
Angiogenesis plays an important role in fracture healing with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as the main protein involved. Micro-computed tomography (CT) angiography may be used to analyze this revascularization with several parameters such as number of branches, total volume, and diameter. This systematic review is aimed to assess available studies on the temporal pattern of vascular imaging on micro-CT angiographs, especially in terms of the number of branches, total volume, and diameter as well as the temporal pattern of VEGF mRNA expression as the molecular comparison during bone fracture healing. This review was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. Electronic database searches were performed using PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, EBSCOhost, Taylor & Francis Online, and hand searching. The search strategy and keywords were adjusted to each database using the Boolean operators and other available limit functions to identify most relevant articles based on our inclusion and exclusion criteria. Screening and filtration were done in several stages by removing the duplicates and analyzing each title, abstract, and full-text in all included entries. Data extraction was done for syntheses to summarize the temporal pattern of each parameter. A total of 28 articles were eligible and met all criteria, 11 articles were synthesized in its angiograph's analysis, 16 articles were synthesized in its VEGF mRNA expression analysis, and 1 article had both parameters analyzed. The overall temporal pattern of both three micro-CT angiographic parameters and VEGF mRNA expression was in line qualitatively. The number of branches, total volume, and diameter of the blood vessels in micro-CT angiography showed an exponential rise at week 2 and decline at week 3 of fracture healing, with the VEGF mRNA expression concurrently showing a consistent pattern in the phase.
Bacteria are inactivated using a technique called photodynamic inactivation, which combines light with a photosensitizer with the right spectrum. The objective of this study is to ascertain the eciency of purple LEDs for photoinactivating Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria as well as the ideal purple LED exposure energy density. This study technique involves exposing bacteria to purple LED radiation. Two elements of variation are used during irradiation. The first variation is the illumination variation at distances of 3 cm, 6 cm, 9 cm, and 12 cm. The second variation involves changing the amount of radiation for 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The Total Plate Count (TPC) method was used to count the number of colonies. Statistical tests were utilized in data analysis, namely the One Way Anova test (analysis of variance). The results of this study indicated that 395 nm purple LED irradiation caused a decrease in Log CFU/mL of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria. Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis bacteria showed a higher mortality percentage than Escherichia coli bacteria. Changes in other irradiation distances also showed a higher percentage of death for Bacillus subtilis bacteria than Escherichia coli bacteria. The highest percentage of death was 98.5% for Bacillus subtilis bacteria and 94.3% for Escherichia coli bacteria at position C with an irradiation distance of 3 cm and an energy density of 524 J/cm ² with an LED exposure time of 120 minutes. This shows that the percentage of death of bacteria Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli increased with increasing doses of LED energy with the greatest percentage of death in Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis .
Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a biomaterial widely used to treat bone defect, such as due to traffic accident. The HA scaffold is obtained from synthetic HA or natural sources, such as bovine hydroxyapatite (BHA). This study aims to compare the characteristics and in vivo performance of BHA-based and HA-based scaffolds. For this purpose, the scaffold was formulated with gelatin (GEL) and characterised by SEM-EDX, FTIR and mini autograph. The defect model was carried out on the femur area of Wistar rats classified into three animal groups: defect, HA-GEL and BHA-GEL. Postoperatively (7, 14 and 28 days), the bone was radiologically evaluated, and stained with haematoxylin–eosin, anti-CD80 and anti-CD163. The BHA-GEL scaffold showed a regular surface and spherical particle shape, whereas the HA-GEL scaffold exhibited irregular surface. The BHA-GEL scaffold had higher pore size and compressive strength and lower calcium-to-phosphorus ratio than the HA-GEL scaffold. In vivo study showed that the expression of CD80 in the three experimental groups was not significantly different. However, the expression of CD163 differed significantly between the groups. The BHA-GEL group showed robust expression of CD163 on day 7, which rapidly decreased over time. It also showed increased osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes cell count that contributed to the integrity of the defect area. In conclusion, the BHA-based scaffold exhibited the desired physical and chemical characteristics that benefit in vivo performance versus the HA-based scaffold. Thus, the BHA-based scaffold may be used as a bone graft.
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Kampus C Universitas Airlangga, Mulyorejo, 60115, Surabaya, Jawa Timur, Indonesia
Head of institution
Prof. M. Nasih
031-5914042, 5914043, 5912546, 5912564, 5915551