Farmyard manure is the most common type of organic fertilizer, and its properties depend mainly on the type of livestock, bedding material and the conditions of fermentation. Co-maturing of manure with other amendments to modify its final properties has been seen as a win–win strategy recently. This study aimed to evaluate the differences in the effect of unenriched manure and manures co-matured with biochar, elemental sulfur or both amendments on the soil physico-chemical and biological properties, and plant (barley, maize) biomass production. For this purpose a pot experiment was carried out in a time-dependent way. Samples were taken from 12 week-lasting (test crop barley) and 24 week-lasting (test crop maize) pot cultivation carried out in a growth chamber. Co-matured manure with biochar showed the highest rate of maturation expressed as humic to fulvic acid ratio, its amendment to soil significantly increased the dry aboveground biomass weight in the half-time (12 weeks) of experiment. However, the effect vanished after 24 weeks. We received for this variant highest long-term (24 weeks) contents of total carbon and nitrogen in soil. Contrarily, co-matured manure with biochar and elemental sulfur led to short-term carbon sequestration (the highest total carbon in 12 weeks) due to presumed retardation of microbial-mediated transformation of nutrients. We conclude that the prolonged pot experiment with biochar or elemental sulfur enriched manure led to the increased recalcitrancy of soil organic matter and retardation of soil nutrient transformation to the plant-available form.
The impact of graphene oxide (GO) nanocarbon on soil properties is mixed, with both negative and positive effects. Although it decreases the viability of some microbes, there are few studies on how its single amendment to soil or in combination with nanosized sulfur benefits soil microorganisms and nutrient transformation. Therefore, an eight-week pot experiment was carried out under controlled conditions (growth chamber with artificial light) in soil seeded with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and amended with GO or nano-sulfur on their own or their several combinations. The following variants were tested: (I) Control, (II) GO, (III) Low nano-S + GO, (IV) High nano-S + GO, (V) Low nano-S, (VI) High nano-S. Results revealed no significant differences in soil pH, dry plant aboveground, and root biomass among all five amended variants and the control group. The greatest positive effect on soil respiration was observed when GO was used alone, and this effect remained significant even when it was combined with high nano-S. Low nano-S plus a GO dose negatively affected some of the soil respiration types: NAG_SIR, Tre_SIR, Ala_SIR, and Arg_SIR. Single GO application was found to enhance arylsulfatase activity, while the combination of high nano-S and GO not only enhanced arylsulfatase but also urease and phosphatase activity in the soil. The elemental nano-S probably counteracted the GO-mediated effect on organic carbon oxidation. We partially proved the hypothesis that GO-enhanced nano-S oxidation increases phosphatase activity.
Digestate prepared from anaerobic digestion can be used as a fertilizer, as it contains ample amounts of plant nutrients, mainly nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium. In this regard, digestates produced from mixed intercropped cereal and legume biomass have the potential to enrich soil and plants with nutrients more efficiently than monoculture-based digestates. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of different types of digestates applied at a rate of 40 t·ha ⁻¹ of fresh matter on soil properties and crop yield in a pot experiment with lettuce ( Lactuca sativa ) as a test crop. Anaerobic digestion of silages was prepared from the following monocultures and mixed cultures: broad bean, maize, maize and broad bean, maize and white sweet clover, and white sweet clover. Anaerobic digestion was performed in an automatic custom-made system and applied to the soil. Results revealed that fresh and dry aboveground biomass as well as the amount of nitrogen in plants significantly increased in all digestate-amended variants in comparison to control. The highest content of soil total nitrogen (+11% compared to the control) and urease (+3% compared to control) were observed for maize digestate amendment. Broad bean digestate mediated the highest oxidizable carbon (+48%), basal respiration (+46%), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine-, L-alanine-, and L-lysine-induced respiration (+22%, +35%, +22%) compared to control. Moreover, maize and broad bean digestate resulted in the highest values of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and β -glucosidase (+35% and +39%), and maize and white sweet clover digestate revealed the highest value of arylsulfatase (+32%). The observed differences in results suggest different effects of applied digestates. We thus concluded that legume-containing digestates possibly stimulate microbial activity (as found in increased respiration rates), and might lead to increased nitrogen losses if the more quickly mineralized nitrogen is not taken up by the plants.
Background Sewage sludge (SS) has been considered a potent source of soil nutrients. However, its direct application to agricultural soils have been discouraged owing to its toxic nature. Therefore, conversion and modification of SS to decrease its toxicity has resulted in advanced methods. Co-pyrolysis of SS with other amendments is an ideal treatment resulting in an environmentally safe and nutrient rich final products with additional properties to sequester carbon. In the present study, a novel biochar was produced through the microwave pyrolysis of SS mixed with zeolite and sawdust. The pyrolysis product was thus characterized for elemental composition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, via Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and for its effects on soil microbial characteristics, soil health and plant biomass after soil application. Results Results revealed that, the SS modification resulted in stable product with higher nutrients which further depend on the type and ratio of feedstock used. Its application to soil significantly improved soil chemical and microbiological properties and altered lettuce biomass. Conclusions We concluded that sawdust feedstock promoted nutrient availability in the resulting biochar and induced higher activity of nutrient mineralizing enzymes, whereas zeolite slowed down the release of nutrients from soil and putatively immobilized enzymes. This joint effect of sewage sludge biochar, sawdust and zeolite benefited the plant acquisition of nutrients in comparison with the microbial nutrient uptake. We thus conclude that microwave pyrolyzed SS could be used as a soil enhancer. Graphical Abstract
The rising prerequisite for developing a novel green remediation methods for trace‐element‐contaminated lands is allied to the necessity to real mend the soil environs. The effectiveness of zeolite‐aided phytostabilization (AP) of soil contaminated with trace elements (TEs), from a scrap yard, using L. perenne as the plant for testing, was determined and discussed. The variability and activity of the rhizospheric bacterial community were also examined. The initial soil used in the AP experiment was characterized by especially high total contents of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd. The TE total contents in roots and above‐ground parts of L. perenne as well as in the phytostabilized soil materials were analyzed with the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The study revealed, that the addition of natural zeolite into TE‐contaminated soil increased the relative plant biomass as well as the soil pH value as compared to the phytostabilized non‐amended series, whereas the total contents (with respect to an absolute values) of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were generally higher in roots than in the above‐ground parts of L. perenne. In particular, the incorporation of zeolite to the soil contributed most significantly to the considerable relative decrease in the total contents of Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn in the soil, as well as the content of bioavailable and leachable speciations of Cd, Cu, Zn and Pb extracted from the soil using CaCl2 solution as compared to the non‐amended series. In the phytostabilized zeolite‐amended soil, the overall bacterial diversity decreased but the presence of zeolite favored the growth of microorganisms belonging to Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetia, and Thermomicrobia, in particular, the genera Mycobacterium, Williamsia, and Prochlorococcus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Background Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) is a bacterial intracellular carbon and energy storage polymer, used as a thermoplastic polyester in a wide array of industrial and agricultural applications. However, how the soil microbiome and fertility are altered by exogenously applied P3HB has been relatively unexplored. This study aimed to assess the effects of P3HB addition to nutrient restricted soil: its biological properties and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata L.) biomass production. The experiment was designed to evaluate impacts of spatial arrangement of the relatively organic-rich (soil organic matter, P3HB particles) versus poor fractions of the matrix with confounding factors such as variable microbial biomass, inherent nutrient/energy status, different water relations (due to variable hydrophysical properties of soil augmented by sand at different ratios). Results The results revealed that P3HB in soils induced inconsistent to contradictory changes in the microbial abundance as well as in most enzymatic activities. The differences were conditioned by the sand content both under P3HB presence or absence. On the other hand, dehydrogenase, urease activities, basal and substrate-induced soil respirations were mostly enhanced by P3HB addition, directly with increasing sand content (several respiration types). Nevertheless, P3HB significantly inhibited lettuce biomass production. Conclusions P3HB introduction to soil boosts the microbial activity owing to the preferential utilization of P3HB as C source, which depletes soil N and strongly inhibits the plant growth. Enhanced microbial activity in P3HB-amended soils with high sand content (60–80%) suggested that in nutrient-impoverished soil P3HB can temporarily replace SOM as a C source for microbial communities due to the shift of their structure to preferentially P3HB-degrading microbiome. Graphical Abstract
The ever-increasing human population associated with high rate of waste generation may pose serious threats to soil ecosystem. Nevertheless, conversion of agricultural and food wastes to biochar has been shown as a beneficial approach in sustainable soil management. However, our understanding on how integration of biochar obtained from different wastes and mineral fertilizers impact soil microbiological indicators is limited. Therefore, in the present study the effects of agricultural (AB) and food waste derived (FWB) biochars with and without mineral fertilizer (MF) on crop growth and soil health indicators were compared in a pot experiment. In particular, the impacts of applied amendments on soil microbiological health indicators those related to microbial extracellular (C, N and P acquiring) enzymes, soil basal as well as different substrate induced respirations along with crop’s agronomic performance were explored. The results showed that compared to the control, the amendment with AB combined with MF enhanced the crop growth as revealed by higher above and below ground biomass accumulation. Moreover, both the biochars (FWB and AB) modified soil chemical properties (pH and electric conductivity) in the presence or absence of MF as compared to control. However, with the sole application of MF was most influential strategy to improve soil basal and arginin-induced respiration as well as most of the soil extracellular enzymes, those related to C, N and P cycling. Use of FWB resulted in enhanced urease activity. This suggested the role of MF and FWB in nutrient cycling and plant nutrition. Thus, integration of biochar and mineral fertilizers is recommended as an efficient and climate smart package for sustainable soil management and crop production.
Improvement of manure by co-composting with other materials is beneficial to the quality of the amended soil. Therefore, the manure was supplied with either biochar, elemental sulphur or both prior to fermentation in 50 L barrels for a period of eight weeks. The manure products were subsequently analyzed and used as fertilizers in a short-term pot experiment with barley fodder ( Hordeum vulgare L.). The experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in a growth chamber for 12 weeks. The sulphur-enriched manure showed the lowest manure pH and highest ammonium content. The co-fermentation of biochar and sulphur led to the highest sulphur content and an abundance of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in manure. The biochar+sulphur-enriched manure led to the highest dry aboveground plant biomass in the amended soil, whose value was 98% higher compared to the unamended control, 38% higher compared to the variant with biochar-enriched manure and 23% higher compared to the manure-amended variant. Amendment of the sulphur-enriched manure types led to the highest enzyme activities and soil respirations (basal, substrate-induced). This innovative approach to improve the quality of organic fertilizers utilizes treated agricultural waste (biochar) and a biotechnological residual product (elementary sulphur from biogas desulphurization) and hence contributes to the circular economy.
Endophytic bacteria improve the growth, physiology, and metabolite profile of plants. They are known as potential biocontrol agents of soil-borne diseases. This study evaluated the effects of endophytic bacterial strains on growth, vase life, biochemical attributes, and antioxidant and nematicidal activities of French marigold (Tagetes patula). French marigold seeds were sole and consortium inoculated with three promising endophytic bacterial strains, Burkholderia phytofirmans (PsJN), Enterobacter sp. (MN17), and Bacillus sp. (MN54). The vase life of French marigold was promoted by 66.6% in the individual application of PsJN and 100% in plants treated with consortium compared to the uninoculated control. The shoot and root fresh weights were also increased by 65.9 and 68.7%, with the combined application of all three strains. The total phenolics, flavonoid, and protein contents were higher in consortium treatment with an increase of up to 38.0, 55.9, and 65.9%, respectively, compared to the uninoculated control. Furthermore, combined application of endophytic bacterial strains promoted DPPH radical scavenging, mortality of plant-parasitic nematodes, and ferric reducing antioxidant power activities with increase of up to 278.0, 103.8, and 178.0%, respectively, compared to uninoculated control. An increase in antioxidant activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed up to 77.3, 86.0, 91.6, and 102.9%, respectively by combined application Frontiers in Plant Science 01 frontiersin.org Naveed et al. 10.3389/fpls.2022.993130 of endophytic bacterial strains. So, given the economic importance of floriculture crops, endophytic bacterial isolates studied here have shown a great potential for improving the productivity of cultivated ornamental French marigold.
Background Elemental sulfur (S ⁰ ) is a cost-efficient fertilizer and the least rapidly utilizable source of S for soil microorganisms and plants. Its bacterial-mediated oxidation to sulfates is dependent on particle size. Finely formulated (micronized, nanosized) S ⁰ exerts enhanced oxidation rate and benefit due to nutrient availability and crop nutrition efficiency. Graphene oxide (GO) affects soil properties both negatively and positively. A pot experiment was carried out with lettuce using soil supplemented with S ⁰ in different composition, applied alone or in combination with GO. The following variants were tested: control, GO, micro-S ⁰ , micro-S ⁰ + GO, nano-S ⁰ , nano-S ⁰ + GO. Results Nanosized S ⁰ improved most of enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulfatase, N -acetyl-β- d -glucosaminidase, β-glucosidase, phosphatase). However, respirations induced by d -glucose, protocatechuic acid, l -arginine were decreased. GO mitigated negative to neutral effect of micro-S ⁰ in the soil pH, dehydrogenase and urease activity. Furthermore, micro-S ⁰ positively affected basal respiration and respirations induced by d -trehalose and N -acetyl-β- d -glucosamine. Nano-S ⁰ + GO improved plant biomass yield and enzyme activities. However, nano-S ⁰ + GO significantly decreased all substate-induced respirations. Conclusions The benefit of soil treatment with nano-/micro-sized S ⁰ and its combination with GO on soil biological parameters was partially demonstrated. Graphical Abstract
Background The farmyard manure application maintains quality of arable soils, provides nutrients, mitigates climate change by soil carbon sequestration. Biochar and other complex carbon rich amendments may stabilize organic matter derived by composting and decelerate organic carbon mineralization. However, how the combined utilization of biochar, humic substances and manure effects on soil chemical and biological properties have been least explored, especially their effect on soil basal and substrate induced respirations are needed to be further explored. Therefore, the potential of biochar and Humac (a commercial humic substances product) in combination with manure to improve the soil properties and plant growth was investigated in this experiment using barley under a short-term (12 weeks) and maize under long-term (following 12 weeks, a total of 24 weeks) cultivation. Results In the early phase of cultivation (12 weeks) Humac- or biochar-enriched manures (M + H, M + B, respectively) enhanced the contents of nutrient elements (carbon + 5.6% and + 7%, nitrogen + 6.7% and − 5%, sulphur − 7.9% and + 18.4%), the activity of enzymes including (β-glucosidase + 32% and + 9.6%, phosphatase + 11% and 6.3%), and dry aboveground biomass (+ 21% and + 32%), compared to the control and manure-treated soil. However, these impacts of M + H and M + B manures were reduced under longer period, i.e., at the experiment end (24 weeks). After 24 weeks of cultivation, a decrease in absolute values of all determined enzyme activities indicated putative reduction of mineralization rate due to presumed higher recalcitrance of manure-derived organic matter, with Humac, biochar amendments. Increased stability of soil organic matter reduced microbial activity due to lower availability of nutrients. Possibly, the shortened period of manure maturation could help preserve a higher amount of less degraded organic matter in the enriched manures to counteract these observed features. Conclusions We summarized that the biochar and humic substances combined with manure have the potential to improve the soil characteristics, plant biomass and soil health indicators but the improvements faded away in a cultivation time-dependent manner. Further studies are required to explore the structure and functioning of microbial activities under long-term experimental conditions. Graphical abstract
Background The use of maize-legume mixed culture to produce renewable energy and fertilizers by anaerobic fermentation (AD), while respecting soil quality is a favourable approach in sustainable farming. This paper investigates how the substrate (silage) composition affects the quality of digestate and thus its effect on selected soil parameters (respiration, content of carbon and nitrogen). The high content of remaining nutrients (mainly N) in the AD residual biomass of digestate may increase the biomass of amended plants. One objective of this study was to determine the composition of different digestates produced by anaerobic fermentation of the biomass of intercropped (mixed) cultures. Other objectives focused the digestate impact on soil properties and yield of tested plant (lettuce) in a pot experiment, carried out under controlled conditions in the growth chamber for 6 weeks. Variants tested in the pot experiment included negative control, maize ( Zea mays L.) digestate, broad bean ( Vicia faba L.) digestate, white lupine ( Lupinus albus L.) digestate, maize + broad bean digestate, maize + white lupine digestate. Results As compared to maize, silage from the mixed culture (or legumes) positively affected the properties of digestate (content of N, P, K, Acid Detergent Fibre (ADF), Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL). The effect of digestate application on soil parameters depended on the digestate composition: the highest basal respiration was induced by digestates with the increased content of dry matter and ADF – maize + broad bean and white lupine. The broad bean variant showed glucose-induced respiration 0.75 (μg CO 2 ·g ⁻¹ h ⁻¹ ), while the lowest value was in the maize variant (0.45 μg CO 2 ·g ⁻¹ h ⁻¹ ). The application of digestate derived from the mixed culture increased the plant biomass more than that of single maize silage digestate (+ 14% in the maize + broad bean variant and + 33% in the maize + white lupine variant). Conclusions A potential was found of silage made of leguminous plants to increase the digestate N content. Nevertheless, it is desirable to increase the C/N ratio by raising the amount of C containing substances. Fertilization with digestate showed a potential to increase the plant biomass (compared to the unfertilized control); however, differences among the individual digestates were not observed. The benefit of legume added to the maize-based silage was proven, especially the contribution of nutrients to arable soil. Graphical abstract
With the rising interest in digestate use as a fertilizer on permanent cultures, there is a need to examine its effects on food and feed quality. This study is focused on the use of digestate in grassland fertilization and its effects on nutritive value parameters such as mycotoxin contamination (deoxynivalenol, aflatoxin, and T-2 toxin) and nutrient content (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, nitrogen-free extract, digestibility of organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and ash-free neutral detergent fiber). The experiment was carried out in the Czech Republic, and the effects of fertilization regime, year, and harvest date (summer and fall cuts) on nutritive value were observed. An effect of the year on DON, AFB1, and T-2 contamination levels was observed. An effect of the harvest or fertilization regime on mycotoxin contamination was not observed. Significant differences were observed in the content of all nutrients, except ash, depending on the year. Differences were found only in the case of ADF levels, depending on the harvest date, as well; however, no differences were found between fertilization regimes. Our findings suggest that digestate does not negatively affect fodder in terms of nutritive value nor safety.
Milk fat is an important nutritional compound in the human diet. From the health point of view, some fatty acids (FAs), particularly long-chain PUFAs such as EPA and DHA, have been at the forefront of interest due to their antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor properties, which play a positive role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), as well as linoleic and γ-linolenic acids, which play an important role in CVD treatment as essential components of phospholipids in the mitochondria of cell membranes. Thus, the modification of the FA profile—especially an increase in the concentration of polyunsaturated FAs and n-3 FAs in bovine milk fat—is desirable. The most effective way to achieve this goal is via dietary manipulations. The effects of various strategies in dairy nutrition have been thoroughly investigated; however, there are some alternative or unconventional feedstuffs that are often used for purposes other than basic feeding or modifying the fatty acid profiles of milk, such as tanniferous plants, herbs and spices, and algae. The use of these foods in dairy diets and their effects on milk fatty acid profile are reviewed in this article. The contents of selected individual FAs (atherogenic, rumenic, linoleic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic, and docosahexaenoic acids) and their combinations; the contents of n3 and n6 FAs; n6/n3 ratios; and atherogenic, health-promoting and S/P indices were used as criteria for assessing the effect of these feeds on the health properties of milk fat.
Fertilization management influences not only productivity but also the nutritive value of forage legumes. However, there have been few studies about these effects in long-term fertilization experiments. Our objectives were: (i) to compare the effects of mineral fertilization and organic manure on lucerne forage yield and leaf and stem nutritive value over a 2-year period following 60 years of different fertilization managements, and (ii) to investigate relationships among canopy structure traits and forage nutritive value in association with these fertilization treatments. The long-term fertilization experiment was established with four replications in the Czech Republic in 1955. Three levels of mineral N, P and K application (0:0:0, 39:24:109 and 91:31:146) were investigated, each with and without farmyard manure, resulting in six treatments. Lucerne stands were established in 2012 and 2013 in two strips. Forage yield was measured in two cuts in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Canopy structure traits and forage nutritive value (crude protein, ash, neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and NDF digestibility (NDFD) were analysed in the first cut in each year. Intensive mineral fertilization reduced lucerne nutritive value through a reduction in stem NDFD (-6%) and leaf weight ratio (-10 %) under higher forage productivity (+10 % of annual yield). Manure fertilization improved nutritive value of leaves and stems, with an associated increase in whole plant nutritive value as leaf proportion was maintained with increased yield (+8%). This positive response could be attributed to a soil environment effect: greater root development in soil that had received long-term manure fertilization probably reduced forage lignification and maintained leaf proportion in association with reduced drought stress. Long-term manure fertilization demonstrated potential for improvement of lucerne nutritive value despite the negative relationships between increased plant growth under higher nutrient supply and forage nutritive value.
Bentonite-based organic amendments may have the potential to enhance soil microbial properties. The experiment was carried out from 2014 to 2017 comprising four treatments: NPK fertilizer (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium mineral fertilizer as a control), NPK + cattle manure, NPK + bentonite, and NPK + combination of manure with bentonite (MB) to verify this hypothesis. The effect of treatments on seven different soil microbial properties was measured: dehydrogenase activity (DHA), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid content, fungal phospholipid fatty acid content, microbial biomass carbon (C mic), 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA, and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soil. The results showed that solely bentonite treatment increases the bacterial and fungal biomass, which was further confirmed by the increased 16S rDNA and 18s rDNA gene copy numbers. The only significantly decreased values upon treatment with solely bentonite were recorded for DHA and C mic. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria population increased with the sole application of bentonite and reached its maximum value when bentonite was applied with manure. The MB treatment showed the highest value for all seven measured properties. In summary, the application of bentonite solely might increase or decrease the soil activity, but its addition, along with manure, always promotes an abundance of soil microorganisms and their activity. The co-application of bentonite with manure altered the soil microbial properties in a 3-year field experiment in favor of increased microbial biomass, which is beneficial for agriculture and environment and reveals the potential for the restoration of polluted lands.
The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in chemical soil properties of permanent grasslands after the cessation of their regular utilisation and organic fertilisation. A long-term small plot trial was established in 2004 in locality Rapotín. During 2004-2012 the experiment was fertilised with compost and slurry, both with the range of stocking rates 0.9, 1.4, and 2.0 livestock units (LU).ha −1 (corresponding to 54, 84, and 120 kg N.ha −1). It was further observed the unfertilised grassland as control. The plots were cut 2-4 times per year depending on given dose of fertiliser. During 2013-2016 the regular management was ceased and the grasslands were completely abandoned. It was found statistically significant influence of the year and the type of fertiliser almost for all evaluated parameters. The dose of nitrogen was not significant. On the basis of our results we can conclude, that the both types of the organic fertilisers had a positive influence on the chemical soil properties, however, the compost manifested itself as the better fertiliser than the slurry from this point of view. In 2016, four years after the last application of the organic fertilisers, there were found the better chemical soil conditions in the treatments previously fertilised with compost.
The aim of this paper was to verify the effect of the Z'fix (PRP Technologies, France) activator of biological transformation of manure from the viewpoint of the cowshed conditions parameters, produced manure quality, manure application effect on crop yields, and overall economics. Concerning manure production, the application of the Z'fix agent enhanced quality, structure and nutrient content (N total by 23%, P<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> by 42%, K<sub>2</sub>O by 17%) in the manure from deep litter housing. Compared to the untreated control, differences in the nutrient content of N total and K<sub>2</sub>O were statistically significant, NH<sub>3</sub> emissions dropped significantly by almost 35%. The economic benefit of manure production with the use of the Z'fix agent demonstrated overall savings at the level of 1,369 CZK/LU/year. The influence of manure produced combined with the PRP Sol application was tested in terms of a boost of crop yield potential of silage maize and of winter wheat. Compared to the control, both crops reached yields higher by 0.7% to 9.8%.
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