Background: Snakebite envenoming is a neglected tropical disease affecting deprived populations, and its burden is underestimated in some regions where patients prefer using traditional medicine, case reporting systems are deficient, or health systems are inaccessible to at-risk populations. Thus, the development of strategies to optimize disease management is a major challenge. We propose a framework that can be used to estimate total snakebite incidence at a fine political scale. Methodology/principal findings: First, we generated fine-scale snakebite risk maps based on the distribution of venomous snakes in Colombia. We then used a generalized mixed-effect model that estimates total snakebite incidence based on risk maps, poverty, and travel time to the nearest medical center. Finally, we calibrated our model with snakebite data in Colombia from 2010 to 2019 using the Markov-chain-Monte-Carlo algorithm. Our results suggest that 10.19% of total snakebite cases (532.26 yearly envenomings) are not reported and these snakebite victims and do not seek medical attention, and that populations in the Orinoco and Amazonian regions are the most at-risk and show the highest percentage of underreporting. We also found that variables such as precipitation of the driest month and mean temperature of the warmest quarter influences the suitability of environments for venomous snakes rather than absolute temperature or rainfall. Conclusions/significance: Our framework permits snakebite underreporting to be estimated using data on snakebite incidence and surveillance, presence locations for the most medically significant venomous snake species, and openly available information on population size, poverty, climate, land cover, roads, and the locations of medical centers. Thus, our algorithm could be used in other countries to estimate total snakebite incidence and improve disease management strategies; however, this framework does not serve as a replacement for a surveillance system, which should be made a priority in countries facing similar public health challenges.
Citrus leprosis (CiL) is one of the destructive emerging viral diseases of citrus in the Americas. Leprosis syndrome is associated with two taxonomically distinct groups of Brevipalpus -transmitted viruses (BTVs), that consist of positive-sense Cilevirus , Higrevirus , and negative-sense Dichorhavirus . The localized CiL symptoms observed in multiple citrus species and other alternate hosts indicates that these viruses might have originated from the mites and eventually adopted citrus as a secondary host. Genetic diversity in the genomes of viruses associated with the CiL disease complex have complicated current detection and diagnostic measures that prompted the application of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) protocols for improved detection and diagnosis. Two cileviruses are known to infect citrus, and among them only citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2) hibiscus strain (CiLV-C2H) has been reported in hibiscus and passion fruit in the US. Based on our current CiL disease complex hypothesis, there is a high probability that CiL disease is associated with more viruses/strains that have not yet been identified but exist in nature. To protect the citrus industry, a Ribo-Zero HTS protocol was utilized for detection of cileviruses infecting three different hosts: Citrus spp., Swinglea glutinosa , and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis. Real-time RT-PCR assays were used to identify plants infected with CiLV-C2 or CiLV-C2H or both in mixed infection in all the above-mentioned plant genera. These results were further confirmed by bioinformatic analysis using HTS generated data. In this study, we utilized HTS assay in confirmatory diagnostics to screen BTVs infecting Dieffenbachia sp. (family: Araceae), Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae), and Smilax auriculata (Smilacaceae). Through the implementation of HTS and downstream data analysis, we detected not only the known cileviruses in the studied hosts but also discovered a new strain of CiLV-C2 in hibiscus from Colombia. Phylogenetically, the new hibiscus strain is more closely related to CiLV-C2 than the known hibiscus strain, CiLV-C2H. We propose this strain to be named as CiLV-C2 hibiscus strain 2 (CiLV-C2H2). The findings from the study are critical for citrus growers, industry, regulators, and researchers. The possible movement of CiLV-C2H2 from hibiscus to citrus by the Brevipalpus spp. warrants further investigation.
The natural rubber plantations of Bajo Cauca (Antioquia) require a high tapping intensity. This generates a higher cost of labor and overexploitation. This is why physiological and production parameters were evaluated in rubber trees clone FX3864, which were subjected to different tapping frequencies and chemical stimulation in Northeast of Antioquia, Colombia. The latex yield and the contents of sucrose, inorganic phosphorus, thiols, and total solids content were compared in rubber trees stimulated with 2.5% ethephon and subjected to three tapping frequencies (every two, three, and four days). The highest latex production was reached in trees stimulated and tapped every four days (170.99 mL.d-1 per tree), without indications of overexploitation for this frequency. Stimulation and the reduction of tapping intensity in rubber trees increase the yields without significant metabolic alterations.
Rice genotypes with possible tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses are interested in genomic studies for their use in breeding programs. Colombian Plant Germplasm Bank (CPGB) has preserved local rice genotypes without genomic analysis yet. Considering the need to develop genomic studies with these genotypes and minimize costs in the genotyping process, in this research, five CTAB DNA extraction protocols (P1-P5) were evaluated and compared with a commercial kit. Four local rice accessions from the CPGB were used, and DNA concentration (fluorescence and absorbance), quality (absorbance, integrity, and enzymatic digestion), and cost analysis were determined. A selection index (SI) was established to choose the best DNA protocol. Finally, the selected protocol was validated in 14 local rice genotypes through Illumina sequencing. The six evaluated DNA extraction protocols presented significant differences in quantification and quality variables. From the SI established, the protocol selected was the P4 (SI = 147.7); this protocol allows obtaining DNA with high concentrations and quality levels at a 50% lower cost than the commercial kit. The sequences generated from the DNA obtained with the P4 protocol presented 7 million reads with high levels of quality (Q30) and length (> 50 pb) per evaluated accession; On average, 98.9% of these sequences mapped to the rice genome and identified up to 15,436 SNP markers without missing data. These results confirm that the DNA from rice local genotypes obtained with the P4 CTAB protocol has the requirements for routine use in genomic studies based on genotyping processes that require Illumina sequencing.
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is an important measure for identifying areas of conservation. Phylogenetic diversity is a robust biodiversity metric because it accounts for the relationships among species, and not just the number of species. For this reason, it is an essential element for conservation planning. Unfortunately, PD metrics are not used by many for conservation planning. In the case of Colombia, which is rich in crop and wild plant biodiversity, lacks information on genetic resources of Crop Wild Relatives (CWR). Due to deforestation and agriculture expansion, the habitat, where these crop wild relatives grow, is being reduced at an alarming rate and could be destroyed altogether. This study focuses on crop wild relatives in Colombia, comparing species diversity versus PD‐based metrics to show the advantages of using evolutionary information for conservation planning. We identified new areas with high PD and endemism among CWR diversity which are important to establishing comprehensive conservation strategies.
Five genes of large phenotypic effect known to confer abiotic stress tolerance in rice were selected to characterize allelic variation in commercial Colombian tropical japonica upland rice cultivars adapted to drought‐prone acid soil environments (cv. Llanura11 and Porvenir12). Allelic variants of the genes ART1, DRO1, SUB1A, PSTOL1, and SPDT were characterized by PCR and/or Sanger sequencing in the two upland cultivars and compared with the Nipponbare and other reference genomes. Two genes were identified as possible targets for gene editing: SUB1A (Submergence 1A), to improve tolerance to flooding, and SPDT (SULTR3;4) (SULTR‐like Phosphorus Distribution Transporter), to improve phosphorus utilization efficiency and grain quality. Based on technical and regulatory considerations, SPDT was targeted for editing. The two upland cultivars were shown to carry the SPDT wild‐type (nondesirable) allele based on sequencing, RNA expression, and phenotypic evaluations under hydroponic and greenhouse conditions. A gene deletion was designed using the CRISPR/Cas9 system, and specialized reagents were developed for SPDT editing, including vectors targeting the gene and a protoplast transfection transient assay. The desired edits were confirmed in protoplasts and serve as the basis for ongoing plant transformation experiments aiming to improve the P‐use efficiency of upland rice grown in acidic soils.
Passiflora edulis, commonly known as passion fruit, is a vine species of passionflower native to South America. In Colombia, yellow passion fruit (P. edulis f. flavicarpa) is the most important species in terms of net production and local consumption. Recently two brevipalpus transmitted cileviruses, (i) passion fruit green spot virus (PfGSV) and (ii) hibiscus strain of citrus leprosis virus C2 (CiLV-C2H) were detected in passion fruit in Brazil and Hawaii, respectively (Ramos-González et al., 2020, Olmedo-Velarde et al., 2022). CiLV-C2H infects both citrus and hibiscus in Colombia (Roy et al., 2015, 2018) but there was no report of PfGSV elsewhere apart from Brazil and Paraguay (Costa-Rodrigues et al., 2022). Apart from emerging begomovirus diseases, five major viruses are known to infect passion fruit in Colombia: soybean mosaic virus (SMV), cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus, passion fruit yellow mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus, and a tentative Gulupa bacilliform badnavirus A (Cardona et al., 2022). Current findings of CiLV-C2H in passion fruit and PfGSV in hibiscus motivated us to investigate the possibilities of cilevirus infection in passion fruit in Colombia. During surveys, along with healthy yellow passion fruit leaves, five symptomatic plant samples from Meta and three from Casanare were collected before sent to the Molecular Plant Pathology Laboratory at Beltsville, MD under APHIS permit. Passion fruit samples from Meta showed leaf mottling, rugose mosaic, and leaf distortion, whereas leaf variegation, chlorotic spots, yellowing, green spots in senescent leaves and green vein banding were observed in the Casanare samples (Supp. Fig. 1). Total RNA was extracted using RNeasy Plant Mini Kit (Qiagen, USA). To know the potential cilevirus infection in these samples, three PfGSV specific (Ramos-González et al. 2020) and a CiLV-C2 generic primer pairs (Olmedo-Velarde et al. 2021) were used in the RT-PCR assays. All five passion fruit samples from Meta failed to produce either CiLV-C2 or CiLV-C2H or PfGSV amplicon whereas all three Casanare samples successfully amplified 321, 244 and 299 nts of PfGSV-RNA1 and -RNA2 amplicons using C13F/C13R, C6F/C6R and C8F/C8R primers, respectively. Bi-directional amplicon sequencing followed by BlastN analysis revealed ≥99% nt identity with the PfGSV-RNA1 (MK804173) and -RNA2 (MK804174) genome sequences. An optimized ribo-depleted library preparation protocol was utilized to prepare two cDNA libraries using the RNA extracts of a PfGSV suspected positive (Casanare) and a negative (Meta) samples (Chellappan et al., 2022). HTS libraries of Casanare and Meta samples resulted in 22.7 to 29.5 million raw reads, respectively. After adapter trimming and filtering, clean reads were mapped to the Arabidopsis thaliana reference genome and unmapped reads were de novo assembled (Chellappan et al., 2022). BlastN analysis from the assembled contigs identified 1-3 contigs corresponding to PfGSV-RNA1 and -RNA2, respectively, from Casanare sample whereas 3 contigs of SMV were identified in Meta passion fruit sample. No other virus sequence was obtained from either of the libraries. Assembled contigs covered 99.33% of the RNA1 and 94.42% of the RNA2 genome, with read depths of 64,474 and 119,549, respectively. Meta sample contigs (OP564897) covered >99% of the SMV genome, which shared >99% nt identity with the Colombian SMV isolates (KY249378, MW655827). Both RNA-1 (OP564895) and -2 (OP564896) segments of the Casanare isolate shared 99% nt identity with PfGSV isolate (MK804173-74). Our discovery identified PfGSV in Colombia, for the first-time outside Brazil and Paraguay. The findings of PfGSV in yellow passion fruit increases the potential threat and possibility of PfGSV movement via Brevipalpus sp. from passion fruit to other hosts.
Crop models that can accurately estimate yield and final biomass have been used for major herbaceous crops and to a lesser extent in forage systems. The AquaCrop version 7.0 contains new modules that have been introduced to simulate the growth and production of perennial herbaceous forage crops. Simulated forage yields as a function of water consumption provide valuable information that allows farmers to make decisions for adapting to both climate variability and change. The study aimed to calibrate and validate the AquaCrop model for perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) in the high tropics of Colombia (South America). The experiments were conducted during two consecutive seasons, in which perennial ryegrass meadows were subjected to two irrigation regimes: full irrigation and no irrigation. The model was evaluated using precision, accuracy, and simulation error indices. The overall performance of AquaCrop in simulating canopy cover, biomass and soil water content showed a good match between measured and simulated data. The calibration results indicated an acceptable measurement of simulated canopy cover (CC) (R2 = 0.95, d-index = 0.41, RMSE = 9.4%, NRMSE = 12.2%, and FE = −21.72). The model satisfactorily simulated cumulative dry mass (R2 = 0.95, d-index = 0.98, RMSE = 2. 63 t ha−1, NRMSE = 11.8%, and FE = 0.94). Though the biomass values obtained in the end-of-season cuts were underestimated by the model, soil water content was simulated with reasonable accuracy (R2 = 0.82, d-index = 0.84, RMSE = 6.10 mm, NRMSE = 4.80%, and FE = 0.32). During validation, CC simulations were good, except under water deficit conditions, where model performance was poor (R2 = 0.42, d-index = 0.01, RMSE = 40.60%, NRMSE = 40.90%, and FE = −25.71); biomass and soil water content simulations were reasonably good. The above results confirmed AquaCrop’s (v 7.0) suitability for simulating responses to water for perennial ryegrass. A single crop file was developed for managing a full season and can be confidently applied to direct future research to improve the understanding of the necessary processes and interactions for the development of perennial herbaceous forage crops.
Introduction: Anisakiasis is a human parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw fish or shellfish containing larvae of the Anisakidae family. It is currently considered an emerging disease of public health interest. Objective: To identify the presence of larvae of the Anisakidae family in samples of frozen raw fish fillets intended for human consumption in markets in Medellín and its metropolitan area in Antioquia, Colombia. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out, in which larvae of the Anisakidae family were detected and identified in frozen raw fish fillets from three representative markets in Medellín and its metropolitan area. A total of 384 ready for consumption fillets were analyzed (197 sawfish, 137 salmon, 37 tuna, and 13 hake), using the pressing and ultraviolet light method. Taxonomic keys were used to identify the collected parasites and to establish its genus. Conventional PCR and Sanger sequencing was performed to determine the species. Results: Four larvae were found in 4 of the 384 (1.04%) fillets (CI95% 1.04 ± 1.01%). The species of fish in which the larvae were found was sawfish (Scomberomorus spp.) and the genus and species of the larvae was established as Anisakis pegreffii. Conclusions: According to the study, the presence of Anisakis parasites in frozen raw fish fillets in the influence area is evident.
Copoazú (Theobroma grandiflorum) is an Amazonian fruit with great economic potential, due to its high nutritional value, being an important source of ascorbic acid and phenolic compounds. Its pulp of high viscosity and acidity makes its industrial processing difficult. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of enzymatic liquefaction with two commercial pectinolytic enzymes (Rapidase® LIQ Plus and Rapidase® Citrus Cloudy) at different temperature conditions (15 to 45 ºC) and incubation time (2 to 5 h) on the Physicochemical characteristics of the juice and the technological properties of the copoazú residue, under a response surface design. Juice yields of up to 87.96% were obtained with the Rapidase® LIQ Plus enzyme at 15 ° C and during 2 h of incubation, showing the use of hydrolytic enzymes as an ideal biotechnological alternative for the physicochemical and rheological adaptation of the copoazu pulp, with potential positive impact for its implementation in remote areas, where the fruit is produced, eliminating the problems generated by the high viscosity of the pulp. The copoazú residue has a high content of dietary fiber (42.48% on a wet basis). In addition, it presented excellent characteristics such as swelling capacity (CH) (3.85 g of water / g of dry matter) and water retention capacity (CRA) (3.94 g of water / g of dry matter). Consequently, the solid by-product from the enzymatic clarification of copoazú pulp has quality characteristics similar to those registered in commercial fiber additives used by the industry.
Salmwood (Cordia alliodora (Ruiz and Pav.) Oken) (Boraginaceae) is used as a shade plant for cacao and coffee agroforestry systems in Colombia. In 2016 these trees were severely defoliated by insects on a farm in northeastern Colombia. One hemipteran and one lepidopteran were found to be associated with the damage, and one hymenopteran was found to parasitize the hemipteran. The hemipteran was Edessa panamensis Fernandes von Doesburg and Greve (Pentatomidae), a new record for Colombia and the first record of this species as a parasitoid host. A parasitoid wasp, Neorileya albipes Girault (Eurytomidae), emerged from E. panamensis eggs, and is recorded for the first time from Colombia. The lepidopteran feeding on salmwood was Paridnea squamicosta (Walker) (Pyralidae). The larva takes refuge from natural enemies in domatia on salmwood branches and emerges to feed on leaves. The larval leaf consumption was estimated to be 134.1 cm2 with a larval duration of 15.64 days; the pupal stage was 20.44 days. We also report for the first time another host for this larva, the moncoro tree (Cordia gerascanthus L.), which was affected to a lesser degree. Photographs of insect adults, larvae, eggs, and morphological structures are provided. El nogal cafetero Cordia alliodora (Ruiz y Pav.) Oken (Boraginaceae) es usado como una planta de sombro en sistemas agroforestales en Colombia, en 2016 estos arboles fueron severamente defoliados por insectos en una finca al noroeste de Colombia. Un hemptero y un lepidptero fueron asociados con el dao, adems un himenptero fue encontrado parasitando el hemptero. El hemptero fue identificado como el chinche Edessa panamensis Fernandes von Doesburg and Greve (Pentatomidae), un nuevo registro para Colombia. La avispa parasitoide, Neorileya albipes Girault (Eurytomidae), emergi de huevos de E. panamensis y es registrada por primera vez para Colombia. El lepidoptero que se alimenta de hojas de nogal cafetero fue identificado como Paridnea squamicosta (Walker) (Pyralidae). La larva se refugia de sus enemigos naturales en los domacios en las ramas de nogal, desde all sale a consumir hojas. En la fase de larva el consumo de hojas fue estimado en 134,1 cm2 con una duracin de 15,64 dias, la duracin de la etapa de pupa fue 20,44. Tambin se reporta por primera vez otro hospedero para esta larva, el arbol de moncoro (Cordia gerascanthus L.), el cual es afectado en menor grado. Se presentan fotografas de insectos adultos, larva, huevo y estructura morfolgicas.
This study evaluated the effect of dietary supplementation of macadamia oil and vitamin E on lamb’s growth, blood parameters, carcass, meat quality and the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism of the Longissimus lumborum muscle. Thirty male lambs Santa Inês x Dorper (22.6 ± 2.59 kg) were divided into three diets: control (n = 10); macadamia oil (supplementation of 0.1% live weight) (MO) (n = 10) and MO with vitamin E (500 mg/kg DM) (MOVE) (n = 10). Plasma cholesterol increased in lambs fed with MO whereas plasma insulin increased in lambs supplemented MOVE (P = 0.011). Lambs fed with MO reduced dry matter intake (P = 0.002) and improved feed efficiency (P = 0.001) without impairing daily weight gain and carcass characteristics (P > 0.05). The use of MO increased the intramuscular fat and consequently improved meat's flavor (P = 0.043) and tenderness (P = 0.027). The inclusion of vitamin E positively reduces lipid oxidation (P = 0.002). Inclusion of MO in the diet increased C18:3 n3 (P < 0.001) in meat and the expression of the stearoyl‐CoA desaturase (SCD1) (P = 0.022) and elongase 6 (ELOVL6) (P = 0.019) genes when associated with vitamin E.
Appropriate flowering time is a crucial adaptation impacting fitness in natural plant populations. Although the genetic basis of flowering variation has been extensively studied, its mechanisms in non-model organisms and its adaptive value in the field are still poorly understood. Here, we report new insights into the genetic basis of flowering time and its effect on fitness in Panicum hallii, a native perennial grass. Genetic mapping in populations derived from inland and coastal ecotypes identified flowering time QTL and loci exhibited extensive QTL-by-environment interactions. Patterns of segregation within recombinant hybrids provide strong support for directional selection driving ecotypic divergence in flowering time. A major QTL on chromosome 5 (q-FT5) was detected in all experiments. Fine-mapping and expression studies identified a gene with orthology to a rice FLOWERING LOCUS T-like 9 (PhFTL9) as the candidate underlying q-FT5. We used a reciprocal transplant experiment to test for local adaptation and the specific impact of q-FT5 on performance. We did not observe local adaptation in terms of fitness tradeoffs when contrasting ecotypes in home versus away habitats. However, we observed that the coastal allele of q-FT5 conferred a fitness advantage only in its local habitat but not at the inland site. Sequence analyses identified an excess of low-frequency polymorphisms at the PhFTL9 promoter in the inland lineage, suggesting a role for either selection or population expansion on promoter evolution. Together, our findings demonstrate the genetic basis of flowering variation in a perennial grass and provide evidence for conditional neutrality underlying flowering time divergence.
The global banana industry is threatened by one of the most devastating diseases: Fusarium wilt (FWB). FWB is caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), which almost annihilated the banana production in the late 1950s. A new strain of Foc, known as tropical race 4 (TR4), attacks a wide range of banana varieties including Cavendish clones which are the source of 99% of banana exports. In 2019, Foc TR4 was reported in Colombia, and more recently (2021) in Peru. In this study, we sequenced three fungal isolates identified as Foc TR4 from La Guajira (Colombia) and compared them against 19 whole-genome sequences of Foc TR4 publicly available, including four genome sequences recently released from Peru. To understand the genetic relatedness of the Colombian Foc TR4 isolates and those from Peru, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis based on a genome-wide set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Additionally, we compared the genomes of the 22 available Foc TR4 isolates looking for the presence-absence of gene polymorphisms and genomic regions. Our results reveal that (i) the Colombian and Peruvian isolates are genetically distant, which could be better explained by independent incursions of the pathogen to the continent, and (ii) there is a high correspondence between the genetic relatedness and geographic origin of Foc TR4. The profile of present/absent genes and the distribution of missing genomic regions showed a high correspondence to the clades recovered in the phylogenetic analysis, supporting the results obtained by SNP-based phylogeny.
The variability of potato cultivars and environments in the production area of Nariño-Colombia, demands the adjustment of agronomic recommendations for the improvement of crop management. Physiological behavior and yield of four short-cycle potato cultivars were evaluated: Solanum tuberosum Phureja groups (Mambera, Ratona Morada and Criolla Colombia) and Andigena (Morasurco), under three environments, characterized edaphoclimatically (AH1, AH2, and AH4) and three fertilization levels. The yield components did not present differences between these levels, except for AH2, where level 3 surpassed the others in yield, and AH3 for harvest index with differences between levels. Regarding the cultivars, there were statistical differences in all environments; the highest yield was obtained by Ratona Morada and Mambera in AH4, Criolla Colombia in AH1, and a homogeneous behavior for Morasurco in all environments. In AH1 and AH2 the physiological indexes were similar in proportion and occurrence, while in AH4 the behavior was variable, with higher values in Morasurco and Mambera. ANOVA and discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) differentiated Morasurco from Phureja cultivars and Criolla Colombia from Ratona and Mambera. The grouping of environments in the DAPC ratifies the classification of the environments. The nutritional requirements of the genotypes can be limited by elements different from those evaluated; the productivity was mainly influenced by the environments; Mambera and Ratona Morada are established as alternatives in the AH4 environment, and Criolla Colombia and Morasurco in the other environments.
El objetivo del estudio fue comparar el consumo de nutrientes, la producción y la composición diaria deleche, y la ganancia diaria de peso en vacas de doble propósito suplementadas con dietas energético-proteicasbalanceadas con base en subproductos agroindustriales no convencionales (DEP) con una dieta ofrecida por elproductor (DProd) durante el segundo y tercer tercio de la lactancia por 177 días en cuatro fincas comerciales en elCaribe colombiano. Se encontró un mayor consumo de proteína (g/día) (p = 0.009) y de extracto etéreo (p = 0.001)en vacas de la dieta DEP en comparación con la DProd en fincas de San Carlos (SC) y El Carmen de Bolívar (CB).Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en el consumo de nutrientes digestibles totales y en la energía metabolizable(Mcal/día) entre dietas. La producción de leche fue superior en los grupos suplementados con DEP que con DProden las vacas de CB (p = 0.035; 6.43 vs. 5.88 kg/vaca/d, respectivamente) y en SC (p = 0.008; 4.4 vs 3.7 kg/vaca/d, respectivamente). Se observó una mayor ganancia diaria de peso en las vacas que recibieron la dieta DEP que laDprod en SC (0.375 kg/vaca/d; p < 0.05). En las crías mayores de 4 meses en CB, la ganancia diaria de peso fuemayor con DEP frente a la dieta del productor (0.470 vs 0.407 kg/a/d; p < 0.05). El uso de DEP permitió aumentar elconsumo de nutrientes, la producción diaria de leche y la ganancia diaria de peso de vacas y crías. El uso desubproductos de la agroindustria parece ser una alternativa para aumentar la productividad en los sistemas deproducción de doble propósito del Caribe colombiano.
Hyperhydricity can affect the development of plant morphology. A better understanding of the anatomical and physiological changes of hyperhydric plants is needed to predict and control the occurrence of hyperhydryc conditions. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the role of oxidative stress in hyperhydricity. To this end, the anatomical, physiological and biochemical responses to oxidative stress in shoots of Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. ex Wendl were compared during the in vitro-ex vitro transition. For this propose, we used shoots grown in two different culture systems: liquid static culture medium and temporary immersion system. Our results showed that hyperhydricity was associated with oxidative stress in the shoots. In hyperhydric shoots chlorophyll content decreased when cultured in liquid static culture medium. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide content and malondialdehyde, as well as the activities of catalase and enzymes of ascorbate-glutathione cycle (ascorbate peroxidase, monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase) were increased in these shoots. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy showed that the leaves of hyperhydric shoots exhibited anatomical changes in the stomata of the plants, whereas the leaves of normal shoots showed normal structural development. Finally, normal shoots showed high survival rate and allowed better adaptation of the plantlets in the greenhouse.
Introducción / objetivo: Hoy en día, la sociedad requiere de los sistemas agrícolas no solo el aprovisionamiento de bienes sino también la prestación de servicios ambientales y sociales. Esta transformación es un desafío complejo ya que requiere implementar acciones en un sistema de muchas variables, y bajo condiciones de riesgo e incertidumbre que no garantizan los beneficios de las acciones. Este artículo de perspectiva describe la aplicación del Análisis de Decisiones (AD) en tales escenarios de decisión de los sistemas agrícolas. Metodología: Este trabajo presenta un protocolo general para la implementación de AD, y desarrolla una perspectiva espacio-temporal para la aplicación de AD en los sistemas agrícolas usando conceptos extraídos de las áreas de Teoría de Decisiones y planificación estratégica, e introduce un estudio de caso para mostrar cómo esta perspectiva puede ser introducida en los sistemas de innovación del sector agrícola. Resultados: Los problemas de los sistemas agrícolas pueden describirse como una tipología de modelos de decisión usando escalas de planificación estratégica. Esta perspectiva tiene el potencial de permitir la aplicación de AD en los esfuerzos de planificación del Sistema Nacional de Innovación Agropecuaria (SNIA) de Colombia, especialmente en la implementación de los Sistemas Territoriales de Innovación (STI). Conclusión: Este artículo presenta una perspectiva extendida de AD orientada a proveer una base conceptual para su aplicación en la búsqueda de soluciones en el contexto de complejidad de los sistemas agrícolas, en la planificación de las actividades de ciencia, tecnología, e innovación en el sector agrícola, y para apoyar el proceso transformación hacia la sostenibilidad de los sistemas agrícolas.
Institution pages aggregate content on ResearchGate related to an institution. The members listed on this page have self-identified as being affiliated with this institution. Publications listed on this page were identified by our algorithms as relating to this institution. This page was not created or approved by the institution. If you represent an institution and have questions about these pages or wish to report inaccurate content, you can contact us here.
Head of institution
Jorge Mario Díaz
(+57 1) 4227300
(+57 1) 4227300