In this research, we design an open, easy-to-use robotics platform for education applications, focused on primary education. Our platform is statistically evaluated and is modular, expandable, and scalable in terms of supporting the development of new modules. Our proposed platform, in contrast to other commercial ones, is easy to use, cheap, and modular. Additionally, we present initial results regarding the evaluation of the usage of the proposed robotic structure under the technology acceptance model (TAM) in terms of easiness of usage. According to the results, the proposed open educational robotic platform shows a positive effect toward its usage by active teachers.
The present chapter presents information pertinent to foodborne pathogens (bacteria and bacterial toxins, viruses, and parasites) and other biological issues (prions and biogenic amines) with importance to the safety of meat and meat products. Aspects covered refer mainly to the characteristics of the most important pathogenic organisms, their distribution in the environment, their transmission routes to humans, as well as their epidemiology and association with sporadic or epidemic foodborne illness. Current and emerging challenges to meat safety assessment and management also are discussed.
A comprehensive evaluation of the effects of cerium on plants is lacking even though cerium is extensively applied to the environment. Here, the effects of cerium on plants were meta-analyzed using a newly developed database consisting of approximately 8500 entries of published data. Cerium affects plants by acting as oxidative stressor causing hormesis, with positive effects at low concentrations and adverse effects at high doses. Production of reactive oxygen species and its linked induction of antioxidant enzymes (e.g. catalase and superoxide dismutase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (e.g. glutathione) are major mechanisms driving plant response mechanisms. Cerium also affects redox signaling, as indicated by altered GSH/GSSG redox pair, and electrolyte leakage, Ca2+, K+, and K+/Na+, indicating an important role of K+ and Na+ homeostasis in cerium-induced stress and altered mineral (ion) balance. The responses of the plants to cerium are further extended to photosynthesis rate (A), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic efficiency of PSII, electron transport rate, and quantum yield of PSII. However, photosynthesis response is regulated not only by physiological controls (e.g. gs), but also by biochemical controls, such as via changed Hill reaction and RuBisCO carboxylation. Cerium concentrations <0.1–25 mg L−1 commonly enhance chlorophyll a and b, gs, A, and plant biomass, whereas concentrations >50 mg L−1 suppress such fitness-critical traits at trait-specific concentrations. There was no evidence that cerium enhances yields. Observations were lacking for yield response to low concentrations of cerium, whereas concentrations >50 mg Kg−1 suppress yields, in line with the response of chlorophyll a and b. Cerium affects the uptake and tissue concentrations of several micro- and macro-nutrients, including heavy metals. This study enlightens the understanding of some mechanisms underlying plant responses to cerium and provides critical information that can pave the way to reducing the cerium load in the environment and its associated ecological and human health risks.
Urban farming on rooftops is a contemporary approach that combines the benefits of green roofing with food production within the city sprawl. The present study aims at assessing plant growth, nutritional value, and consumer safety of two vegetables, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown on urban green roof. Treatments included: (a) two substrate depths (7.5 and 15 cm) and (b) three types of fertilization (granulated complex fertilizer [GF], slow nitrogen release complex fertilizer [SR], and liquid fertigation [LF]). Measurements included plant growth, total fresh yield, dry weight, and quality characteristics such as nutrient content, nitrate accumulation in lettuce and firmness, and total soluble solids [TSS] in tomatoes. Production safety was evaluated through tissue analyses of the edible parts for heavy metal residues. Results showed that 15 cm substrate depth improved the total yield for both vegetables, and the firmness of tomato fruit, compared to 7.5 cm depth. Fertilization type had no impact on tomato productivity but GF increased TSS in tomato fruits while LF enhanced lettuce yield. The deeper substrate increased N, P, K, Ca, Mg in lettuce leaves but only P and Mn in tomato fruits. In contrast, fertilization type affected leaf nutrient levels in lettuce, where N, P, and Mg were increased using LF. In tomato, the LF increased the fruit P, K, Ca, Mg, and Fe concentration. LF increased the concentration of nitrates in lettuce to levels exceeding the maximum safety limits according to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) but not according to EU regulation No 1258/2011. The leaf Mn concentrations in lettuce were higher than the health limits for young children in all measured samples irrespective of the experimental treatments. Selenium (Se) exceeded the health limits in tomato fruits for adults and toddlers using SR but only for toddlers using LF, while GF maintained the Se content below the safety levels. Lead (Pb) and aluminium (Al) were high for both vegetables but did not exceed the EFSA safety limits for adults. However, Pb exceeded the EU Commission Regulation No 420/2011 limit, for both vegetables and fertilization treatments. Washing the leaves of lettuce reduced only Fe and Al concentration but the remaining elements were unaffected. In conclusion, our results suggest that lettuce and tomato of adequately high quality for human consumption can be produced on urban green roofs with shallow substrate depths ranging from 7.5 to 15 cm but, further research is needed to ensure production safety.
Carlina acaulis L. is a herb mainly used in central Europe as traditional medicine or food. Recently, C. acaulis essential oil (EO) and its nanoemulsion showed elevated efficacy against several insects of medical and agricultural importance. In the current study, efficacy of C. acaulis EO was estimated against several stored product pests. The EO was sprayed on wheat to control Acarus siro L. (adults, nymphs), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (adults, larvae), Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (adults, larvae), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (adults), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (adults), Tenebrio molitor L. (adults, larvae), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (adults, larvae), and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (adults, larvae). Carlina acaulis EO was mainly composed by carlina oxide (98.8%), with benzaldehyde (1.2%) and ar-curcumene (traces) as minor components. Both adults and nymphs of A. siro showed high mortality, i.e., 91.1 and 95.6%, after 7 days of initial exposure to 1000 ppm (1000 μL C. acaulis EO/kg wheat), respectively. This concentration provided the death of 25.6% of the exposed A. diaperinus adults at the termination of trials. Total mortality (100.0%) of A. diaperinus larvae was reached 2 and 4 days after initial exposure on wheat sprayed with 1000 and 500 ppm of C. acaulis EO, respectively. One thousand (1000) ppm of EO killed 96.7% of O. surinamensis adults and all larvae 7 and 2 days after initial exposure, respectively. Concerning adults of R. dominica and S. oryzae, 1000 ppm achieved complete mortality after 4 and 6 days of initial exposure, respectively. Tenebrio molitor adults reached 81.1% mortality after their 7-days exposure to 1000 ppm C. acaulis EO. All T. molitor larvae were dead after 7 or 4 days of initial exposure to 500 and 1000 ppm, respectively. Carlina acaulis EO caused 97.8 and 100.0% mortality to adults of T. castaneum after 7 and 5 days of initial exposure to 1000 and 500 ppm, respectively. Complete mortality was observed after 16 h (1000 ppm) and 2 days (500 ppm) of initial exposure for T. castaneum larvae. Similarly, both examined stages of T. confusum achieved 100.0% mortality at the concentrations of 500 and 1000 ppm, after 7 and 4 days (adults), and 1 day and 16 h (larvae) of exposure, respectively. Overall, C. acaulis EO demonstrated pesticidal efficacy higher to pirimiphos-methyl, a conventional organophosphate insecticide, against a wide range of stored-product pests. Therefore this EO represents a reliable option for further developing eco-friendly and non-hazardous pest management strategies.
Phytomanagement is a phytoremediation sub-technology in which industrial cash crops are cultivated on contaminated lands to produce useful biomass feedstock for bioproducts and bioenergy. Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.), and hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are suitable crops for this purpose since they have been reported to show a tolerance to toxic trace elements in soils, are fast-growing, yield a high biomass, have low input requirements, use well-known agricultural practices, and are multipurpose. The objectives of this research was to explore the potential of these crops for cultivation at sites highly contaminated with Cd, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sb, to assess their ability to accumulate these elements and to reveal their capacity for use as phytoaccumulators or phytostabilizers. Three varieties per crop were tested, i.e. for flax: Y2I328, Y2I329 and Zhongyama No. 1; for kenaf: Hongyou No. 2, GGS, HP; and for hemp: Guangxibama, Yunma No. 1 and Zhongdama No. 1. A pot experiment was conducted outdoors and two soil concentrations of each element were tested against a control, namely: Cd at 0, 40, 80 mg/kg; Ni at 0, 110, 220 mg/kg; Pb at 0, 1500, 3000 mg/kg; Zn at 0, 1500, 3000 mg/kg; Cu at 0, 1000, 2000 mg/kg; and Sb at 0, 50, 100 mg/kg. The effects of these elements on seed germination and growth parameters were measured. In addition, their concentrations in and uptake by the plants were determined. The results showed that the concentrations of Cu and Zn applied were lethal for all three crops and varieties. All crops were excluders of Sb. The kenaf varieties were more tolerant than the varieties of the other two crops, and at the same time, they had the best uptake potential for Cd and Ni. Under Pb treatment, two flax varieties concentrated this element in tissue at levels higher than 1000 mg/kg, an interesting result that has to be verified under field conditions.
A series of 3-hydroxy, 3-ethoxy and 3-benzyloxy-2-methylquinazolin-4[3H]-one derivatives were synthesized in one-pot four-component or in a two-step protocol under microwave irradiation. More specifically, anthranilic acids in combination with triethyl-orthoacetate, the corresponding hydroxylamine hydrochloride derivative (NH2OR·HCl, R = H, Et, Bn) and pyridine in AcOH were irradiated in a microwave reactor at 130–160 °C for 0.5–2 h to give the desired 2-methyl quinazolin-4[3H]-one derivatives in moderate to excellent yields. Isolation of the benzoxazinone intermediates via the reaction of the corresponding anthranilic acids with Ac2O and sequential reaction with NH2OR·HCl in AcOH in the presence of Na2CO3 provided an alternative second formation pathway. The scope and the limitations of the procedures are discussed for anthranilic acids in relation to each hydroxylamine derivative, evaluating data obtained from all attempted reactions and HRMS/MS analyses. The two protocols investigate the formation of molecules that consist of a quinazolinone “privileged” structure fragment accompanied by hydroxamic acid as an additional pharmacophore incorporated within the same molecule, in a rigid, compact form. Both pharmacophores may be highly functionalized and serve as useful intermediates in organic, medicinal and material chemistry, giving the profile of a “synthon” to such molecules. The green character of the reaction is qualified due to: a) the use of acetic acid as the green solvent to replace toxic pyridine; b) the quantity of pyridine, which at the one-pot protocol is in molar equivalency to the amine hydrochloride; c) the short reaction time; d) the relatively high yields.
The future of the Aegean Sea demersal fishery is projected under four climatic and socio-political scenarios, namely: “World Markets“, “Global Sustainability”, “National Enterprise” and “Local Stewardship”. The scenarios combine two IPCC climatic futures (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with four socio-political systems that foresee changes in economic, technological as well as management aspects of the fishery corresponding to four contrasting futures. The future projection of a large number of physico-chemical variables per climatic scenario, made available through CERES project (http://ceresproject.eu/), gave the opportunity to model the effects of Climate Change (CC) on the productivity of demersal stocks. The projections foresee an increase in primary productivity in the Aegean Sea waters, which is projected to become mesotrophic from currently oligotrophic, while statistical analysis suggests that mullet stocks might be favored, while the European hake stock is more likely to be in decline. The combined, as well as the individual, effects of the different components of change on the fishery are explored. With respect to management, the results demonstrate the key role of technical interactions in the attempt to achieve sustainable and optimally harvested fisheries. It is found that a minor reduction of effort can achieve sustainability and good yield (PGY) from key stocks. A main source of uncertainty stems from the large number of stocks that remain unassessed. The ongoing tropicalization of the Aegean Sea and the response of these other stocks to CC increases the uncertainty and creates new challenges but also new opportunities for the Aegean Sea demersal fishery.
This study investigated the production of bacterial cellulose (BC) from wheat milling by-products and its post-modification to obtain nanostructures (BCNs). Crude enzyme consortia produced by Aspergillus awamori were involved in the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat milling by-products to produce a nutrient-rich fermentation feedstock for BC production. The fermentation efficiency with Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM 15973 was evaluated under various pH values and C/free amino nitrogen (FAN) ratios. The highest BC concentration (5.2 g/L) and productivity (0.74 g/L/day) were obtained at a pH value of 5.2 and a C/FAN ratio of 14.5 g/g. Sequential ex-situ modification of BC using H2SO4-assisted hydrolysis, led to BCNs with 45.8–73.1 nm fiber diameter (D) and length (L)/D ratio higher than 13. The crystallinity index (CrI) of BCNs was increased by 1.1 folds (90.1%), while thermogravimetric analysis revealed slight differences regarding the maximum decomposition temperature compared to the untreated BC (338 °C). The FT-IR spectra of BC and BCNs showed typical cellulose vibration bands while peaks at 748 cm⁻¹ and 709 cm⁻¹ indicated the presence of Iα and Iβ allomorphs. Size distribution of BCNs via dynamic light scattering exhibited polydispersity within the nanoscale (72 nm and 931 nm). Surface charge of BCNs (in absolute value) was increased by 44.5% compared to BC.
Fish and seafood are highly prized commodities. However, their high perishability limits their commercialization and leads to waste due to their short shelf life. Nonthermal processing may inhibit microbial spoilage and enzymatic reactions and consequently extend shelf life, without affecting the nutritional value and functional properties of food. Technologies such as high pressure, osmotic dehydration, pulsed electric fields and cold plasma, have been introduced as alternative or complementary to the conventional post-harvest fish and seafood processing methods.The current practice for convenient fish and seafood products generates large quantities of side streams and waste, including, heads, viscera and fillet cut offs, which may account up to 70% of the production. Nonthermal processing enables the efficient and sustainable recovery of valuable and bioactive ingredients and fractions and the development of novel applications in food production, in health promoting foods, feeds, nutraceuticals product design and in energy production. Shelf life extension by nonthermal processing and improved utilization of side streams will increase the availability of sustainable, high quality fish and seafood and establish more diverse ways to process and market fish based products. This can be the basis for zero waste strategy in fish production, enhancing circular economy in fisheries and aquaculture sectors.KeywordsHigh pressurePulsed electric fieldsOsmotic dehydrationCold plasmaSupercritical fluid extractionFishSeafood
In recognition of the rising threats of ground-level ozone (O3) pollution to forests, agricultural crops, and other types of vegetation, accurate and realistic risk assessment is urgently needed. The accumulated O3 exposure over a concentration threshold of 40 nmol mol−1 (AOT40) is the most commonly used metric to investigate O3 exposure and its effects on vegetation and to conduct vegetation risk assessment. It is also used by international regulatory authorities for deriving critical levels and setting standards to protect vegetation against surface O3. However, fixed periods of the growing season are used universally, yet growing seasons vary with latitudes and elevations, and the periods of plant lifespan also differ among annual species. Here, we propose the concept of the Annual O3 Spectrum Profile (AO3SP) and apply it to calculate the profile of AOT40 throughout the year (AAOT40SP, Annual AOT40 Spectrum Profile) using the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) weeks as a shorter window ISO-based accumulated exposure. Using moving time periods of three (for crops) or six (for forests) months, the isoAOT40 behavior throughout the year can be examined as a diagnostic tool for O3 risks in the short- or long-term during the lifecycle of local vegetation. From this analysis, AOT40 (isoAOT40) that is most representative for the local conditions and specific situations can be identified, depending on the exact growing season and lifecycle of the target vegetation. We applied this novel approach to data from five background monitoring stations located at different elevations in Cyprus. Our results show that the AAOT40SP approach can be used for improved and more realistic assessment of O3 risks to vegetation. The AO3SP approach can also be applied using metrics other than AOT40 (exposure- or flux-based), adding a new dimension to the way O3 risk to vegetation is assessed. [This is an open-access paper]
Cheese is a universal fermented dairy product, which appears in a great diversity of flavors, aromas, textures, and shapes around the globe. From the very first moment of cheese making until the end of cheese ripening, numerous microbes are present and metabolically active. According to recent Statista data, the global market of cheese has been valued at approximately 70 billion $US in 2019 and is forecast to reach to 113 billion $US by 2025. For centuries, traditional cheese making has relied on the use of raw milk as well as the microbes that naturally occur in milk and cheese making milieu. Flavor is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in those prepared from pasteurized milk, and the abundant native milk microbiota is the focal player. The milk chemical composition, the cheese making technology and the microbial groups involved in cheese making, all together dictate the flavor, aroma, texture and color of cheese.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to assess tax regime similarities among Eurozone countries in the field of Personal Income Tax, given that human capital is highly mobile and thus affected by the design of a country’s tax code. Design/Methodology/Approach: Using information on the Central government personal income tax rates and thresholds, available on the OECD Tax Database, this article employs dendrograms to present similarities of tax regimes and clustering of homogeneous Eurozone countries for four different years (2003–2008–2013–2018), in order to capture the effects of the 2008 economic crisis in the design of personal income tax systems. Findings: Our findings suggest a great degree of divergence in the design of personal income tax systems, especially regarding the degree of progressivity as well as top income brackets and marginal rates. It is interesting to observe how clusters of groups of countries with similar tax regimes are differentiated through time. Originality/Value: Most of the literature, when comparing different tax regimes, focuses on tax revenues and average tax burdens. The value of this research stems from the fact that it provides a similarity analysis, based on the actual design of the tax schedule. Results can be indicative of the degree of convergence in Eurozone countries, thus providing tax authorities with a transparent methodology to assess the level of fiscal harmonization.KeywordsPersonal taxConvergenceEurozoneClusteringJEL ClassificationE63H20H24
b>Purpose: The healthcare sector is an important area for sustainable food initiatives, given its inherent mission to heal and its substantial impact on the food system. Foodservice managers can take part in these initiatives by using sustainable menu practices (SMPs). This study aimed to explore managerial perceptions of barriers and facilitators to adopting SMPs in Québec healthcare institutions. Methods: Seventeen foodservice managers were recruited through purposeful sampling to participate in a qualitative semi-structured interview. The Diffusion of Innovations theory was used to assess the main determinants of the diffusion of an innovation (SMPs) through a complex social system (healthcare organization). Results: Participants reported more barriers than facilitators. Lack of support at many levels was recognized as a major hindrance to SMP adoption, as were shortfalls in political directives. Increased collaboration between all food system actors and better communication in healthcare were perceived as needed for increased SMP adoption. Conclusions: This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of managerial experiences in SMP adoption in various regional and healthcare settings. Findings suggest the need for support and strategies that would remove important barriers for foodservice managers and contributed to the development of a guide to support foodservice managers in implementing SMPs.
The Strymon basin (Northern Greece) belongs to the geodynamically active regime of the Aegean and, as expected, it hosts active faults. Nevertheless, the study area exhibits a low instrumentally and historically recorded seismicity. In order to comprehend the crustal deformation, we implemented GNSS- and InSAR-based techniques. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) primary geodetic data recorded by 32 permanent stations over 7 years were analyzed and input in the triangulation methodology so as to calculate a series of deformational parameters. Moreover, a geostatistical methodology indicated the spatial distribution of each parameter, showing strain delimited up to 2750 × 10−9. These results are in broad agreement with palaeoseismological surveys and active fault mapping. Moreover, InSAR analysis, based on a 6-year data recording, concluded that no horizontal rates have been traced in the E–W direction; if they do exist, they would be below resolution (less than 2 mm/yr). Peak vertical subsidence values of a few mm/yr are traced towards the hanging wall of the Serres fault zone within the Quaternary sediments at the eastern margin of Strymon basin but are attributed mainly to groundwater extraction. However, it is noteworthy that geodetic strain analysis implies: (a) that a couple of areas need further study to trace potentially active faults by palaeoseismological means; (b) the fault trace of the Serres fault zone might be further prolonged 8–10 km eastwards, where Quaternary sediments cover the fault.
Objectives: To analyze phylogenetic relations and assess a role of cross-border clusters in the spread of HIV-1 subtype B across the Balkans, given the general trends of new HIV diagnoses in seven Balkan countries. Design: Retrospective phylogenetic and trend analysis. Methods: In-depth phylogenetic, phylodynamic and phylogeographic analysis performed on 2,415 HIV-1 subtype B sequences from 1999-2019 using maximal likelihood and Bayesian methods. The joinpoint regression analysis of new HIV diagnoses by country and modes of transmission using 2004-2019 ECDC data. Results: Ninety-three HIV-1 Subtype B transmission clusters (68% of studied sequences) were detected of which four cross-border clusters (11% of studied sequences). Phylodynamic analysis showed activity of cross-border clusters up until the mid-2000 s, with a subsequent stationary growth phase. Phylogeography analyses revealed reciprocal spread patterns between Serbia, Slovenia and Montenegro and several introductions to Romania from these countries and Croatia. The joinpoint analysis revealed a reduction in new HIV diagnoses in Romania, Greece and Slovenia, whereas an increase in Serbia, Bulgaria, Croatia and Montenegro, predominantly among men who have sex with men. Conclusion: Differing trends of new HIV diagnoses in the Balkans mirror differences in preventive policies implemented in participating countries. Regional spread of HIV within the countries of former Yugoslavia has continued to play an important role even after country break-up, whereas the spread of subtype B through multiple introductions to Romania suggested the changing pattern of travel and migration linked to European integration of Balkan countries in the early 2000 s.
In the present work, the profiles of bacterial communities of whole and filleted European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), during several storage temperatures (0, 4, 8 and 12 °C) under aerobic and Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) conditions, were examined via the 16S rRNA High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) approach. Sensorial attributes were also assessed to determine prod-ucts' shelf-life. Results indicated that shelf-life was strongly dependent on handling, as well as on temperature and atmosphere conditions. HTS revealed the undisputed dominance of Pseudomonas from the very beginning and throughout storage period in the majority of treatments. However, a slightly different microbiota profile was recorded in MAP-stored fillets at the middle stages of storage , which mainly referred to the sporadic appearance of some bacteria (e.g., Carnobacterium, She-wanella, etc.) that followed the dominance of Pseudomonas. It is noticeable that a major difference was observed at the end of shelf-life of MAP-stored fillets at 12 °C, where the dominant microbiota was constituted by the genus Serratia, while the relative abundance of Pseudomonas and Brochothrix was more limited. Furthermore, at the same temperature under aerobic storage of both whole and filleted fish, Pseudomonas almost co-existed with Acinetobacter, while the presence of both Erwinia and Serratia in whole fish was noteworthy. Overall, the present study provides useful information regarding the storage fate and spoilage status of whole and filleted European sea bass, suggesting that different handling and storage conditions influence the shelf-life of sea bass by favoring or delaying the dominance of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs), affecting in parallel to some extent the formation of their consortium that is responsible for products' sensorial deterioration. Such findings enrich the current knowledge and should be used as a benchmark to develop specific strategies aiming to delay spoilage and thus increase the products' added value.
The European Spongy moth, Lymantria dispar (L.) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae), is an abundant species found in oak woods in Central and Southern Europe, the Near East, and North Africa and is an important economic pest. It is a voracious eater and can completely defoliate entire trees; repeated severe defoliation can add to other stresses, such as weather extremes or human activities. Lymantria dispar is most destructive in its larval stage (caterpillars), stripping away foliage from a broad variety of trees (>500 species). Caterpillar infestation is an underestimated problem; medical literature reports that established populations of caterpillars may cause health problems to people and animals. Inflammatory reactions may occur in most individuals after exposure to setae, independent of previous exposure. Currently, chemical and mechanical methods, natural predators, and silvicultural practices are included for the control of this species. Various insecticides have been used for its control, often through aerial sprayings, which negatively affect biodiversity, frequently fail, and are inappropriate for urban/recreational areas. However, bioinsecticides based on various microorganisms (e.g., entomopathogenic viruses, bacteria, and fungi) as well as technologies such as mating disruption using sex pheromone traps have replaced insecticides for the management of L. dispar.
The essential oils (EOs) produced by a number of Apiaceae species are well known for their insecticidal efficacy against a wide spectrum of insects, including vectors, stored product and agricultural pests. In the real world, rawly formulated EOs are scarcely effective due to their low chemical stability, limited persistence into the environment, and poor hydrophilicity. Therefore, for practical applications they need to be encapsulated using nanocarriers. In the present study, we evaluated two novel EO-based nanoemulsions (NEs), derived from Pimpinella anisum and Trachyspermun ammi, two plants with documented insecticidal effectiveness, for the management of stored product insects causing economic damages, including Tribolium castaneum, Tribolium confusum, Tenebrio molitor, Trogoderma granarium adults or larvae, and Acarus siro adults or nymphs. The NEs were prepared by a high-pressure homogenization procedure and determined according to the distribution of particle size through dynamic light scattering. Pimpinella anisum EO resulted mainly dominated by the phenylpropanoid (E)-anethole and other minor compounds, while T. ammi EO was mainly composed of thymol, p-cymene, and γ-terpinene and other minor constituents. Each EO-based NE was tested at two concentrations (500 and 1000 ppm) on stored wheat. We evaluated mortality values of the arthropod pests after 4h, 8h, and 16h, and daily from 1–7 days. Complete mortality was achieved for T. castaneum larvae on wheat sprayed with 1000 ppm of 4% (w/w) P. anisum EO-based NE after 6 days of exposure. Similarly, the 8% (w/w) T. ammi EO-based NE killed 100.0% of the tested T. confusum larvae after 7 days to 1000 ppm. When A. siro adults was exposed to 1000 ppm of the 8% (w/w) T. ammi EO-based NE, 89.4% of the tested individuals were killed after 7 days. Binary EO-based NE combination toxicity tests were also carried out. Almost all T. molitor adults (97.8%) died after 7 days to 1000 ppm of 3% (w/w) T. ammi + 3% (w/w) P. anisum EO-based NE. The 3% (w/w) T. ammi + 3% (w/w) P. anisum EO-based NE killed 98.6% of T. granarium adults after 7 days at 1000 ppm. Overall, the tested Apiaceae EO-based NEs exhibited relevant pesticidal efficacy under short exposure intervals, therefore they could be taken into account as auxiliary management tools towards the sustainable protection of durable commodities in storages.
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