Soil weed seed bank is an important factor determining above‐ground floristic composition and weed density in agricultural systems. The quantitative and qualitative measures of weed seed bank can help growers to predict the extent to which they are facing weed problems. Along with tillage, crop residues can affect the fate of weeds in the upcoming crops. To investigate such effects, we compared the effects of tillage systems [conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT), and no tillage (NT)], wheat residue retention, and nitrogen (N) rates (0, 69, 138, and 207 kg N ha−1) on depth‐related characteristics of the weed seed bank under a sweet corn‐wheat sequence during 2014–2015 growing seasons in Shiraz, Iran. Soil bank was not affected by tillage systems but tended to be slightly higher under RT. The highest (898 seeds m−2) and lowest (322 seeds m−2) weed population at 0–10 cm depth were found when 138 kg N ha−1 in 2015 and 207 kg N ha−1 in 2014 were applied. Species richness and diversity were higher under NT and RT practices at the top layer, but CT system was more diversified at deeper depths. They were higher when crop residues were retained as well. Barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus‐galli [L.] Beauv), common lambsquarter (Chenopodium album L.), common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.), field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis L.), flixweed (Descoreinia sofia [L.] Webb. & Berth.), henbit (Lamium amplexicaule L.), pigweeds (Amaranthus spp.), and stinking goosefoot (Chenopodium vulvaria L.) were the most common weeds found in all tillage systems and soil depths. Grasses were relatively lower than broadleaves regardless of treatments. Weed seed bank was mostly affected by weather conditions than treatments in this short‐term experiment.
Phytophthora root and crown rot is a common disease of different hortcrops in rosaceae family including pomefruits and stonefruits. In order to characterize reaction of different quince genotypes to Phytophthora, infected root and crown tissues of apple and quince trees in addition to some soil around them were collected from the orchards and cultured on semi-selective media. Four oomycete isolates out of 20 samples were recovered from which Phytophthora isolates were identified as P. cactorum, using physiological and morphological criteria. Disease resistance evaluation of quince genotypes to P. cactorum was implemented using excised twigs of 24 genotypes in glass bottles containing carrot agar media overlaid with a fresh layer of P. cactorum. The pathogenic isolate of P. cactorum selected from a pathogenicity test on unripe pear fruits. After two weeks of preservation of bottles in dark condition in 25 °C in growth chamber, the extent of necrosis was measured using a digital calipers then it was divided by length of twig to get the necrosis proportion. The genotypes showed a statistically significant different reaction to the pathogen at 1% level. Comparison of means using Duncan multiple range test indicated that the genotype ASP2 with 82% of necrosis proportion was the most susceptible one and PH2 (released as cultivar Behta), Unk and Khosro genotypes with 8, 10 and 13 percent necrosis of twigs were the most resistant genotypes, respectively.
A feeding trial was designed to evaluate effects of soybean meal replacement (SBM) with sesame seed cake (SSC) at 0 (SSC0), 25 (SSC25), 50 (SSC50), 75 (SSC75), and 100 (SSC100) % in isoproteic (30%) and isolipidic (8%) diets on the growth performance, digestive function and serum and hematological parameters in Cyprinus carpio. Four hundred and fifty common carp juveniles (83.09 g) were randomly distributed into 15 tanks with a flow-through system. Triplicate groups of fish were hand-fed one of the diets to visual satiation thrice daily for 90 days. The survival rate, growth performance and somatic indices did not show significant differences between treatments. Among feed utilization indicators, nitrogen retention efficiency was significantly higher in SSC25 than in other treatments. Lipid retention efficiency significantly increased from SSC50 to SSC100. The number of white blood cells was significantly higher in SSC0 than other treatments. Significantly higher hemoglobin was observed in SSC75 as compared to SS0 and SSC25. Serum biochemical parameters did not significantly differ between dietary treatments. Dietary SSC resulted in significant increase in calcium ADC and activity of digestive trypsin, chymotrypsin, lipase, α-amylase, and alkaline phosphatase. Significantly higher villi height and intestinal muscle layer width were observed in fish fed the SSC75 diet. The villi width in SSC25 and SSC50 was significantly less than in SSC0. Comparable growth performance, feed utilization, apparent digestibility, digestive function, hematological and serum factors indicated the possibility of 75–100% substitution of SBM by SSC in the diet of juvenile C. carpio.
This study aimed at evaluating the efficacy of myrcene on water quality and stress responses of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, during transportation. A total of 126 fish (45.3 ± 1.65 g) were transported using 0, 10, 20, 30, and 50 µL/L myrcene for 6 h. All transported treatments exhibited significant decrease in water pH, dissolved oxygen, and increase in water temperature and ammonia. Myrcene had no effects on water pH and temperature after transportation, but 10 µL/L myrcene significantly decreased water dissolved oxygen, as 30 µL/L myrcene increased it, compared to the fish transported without myrcene. Moreover, 20–50 µL/L myrcene significantly decreased water ammonia, compared to the fish transported without myrcene. Transportation induced significant increases in water alkalinity in 0–30 µL/L myrcene and the highest alkalinity was related to 10 µL/L myrcene. Plasma ammonia significantly increased in all treatments after transportation and the lowest and highest levels were observed in fish transported with 20 and 50 µL/L myrcene. Plasma lactate significantly decreased in fish transported with 0–30 µL/L myrcene; but increased in fish transported with 50 µL/L myrcene. All transported fish showed similar plasma T4 levels, which were significantly lower than the before transportation. Transportation induced significant increase in plasma cortisol, glucose, superoxide dismutase, catalase, malondialdehyde and significant decrease in plasma T3, which 10 µL/L myrcene failed to mitigate such change, and nevertheless, 20 and 30 µL/L myrcene mitigated such changes. 50 µL/L myrcene led to higher cortisol, glucose, CAT, MDA, and lower T3 and GSH, compared to fish transported without myrcene. Plasma glutathione peroxidase activity significantly decreased in fish transported with 50 µL/L myrcene, compared to fish not transported. Myrcene is recommended as a sedative and stress-reducing agent in common carp transportation procedures. The beneficial concentration is 20–30 µL/L, but lower and higher concentrations have negative effects.
This study investigated the effect of Escherichia coli-derived phytase under the brand name Phyzyme® XP (PHZ) on the efficiency of substituting part of fish meal (FM) with soybean meal (SBM) within six treatments, including control (S0) (basal diet containing FM), S0P (basal diet + 0.02% PHZ), S20 (20% SBM), S20P (20% SBM + 0.02% PHZ), S40 (40% SBM), and S40P (40% SBM + 0.02% PHZ) in juvenile Caspian brown trout (Salmo trutta caspius Kessler, 1877) weighing 148.1 ± 2.98 g for 12 weeks. The S0 and S0P treatments had the best growth performance with a significant difference compared to the S40 and S40P treatments (P < 0.05). Serum glucose level in the S0 treatment showed a significant decrease compared to S40 and S40P treatments (P < 0.05). Decreased cholesterol and increased total immunoglobulin in the serum of S20, S20P, S40, and S40P treatments were significant compared to the S0 (P < 0.05). Serum triglyceride levels increased significantly in the S20, S40, and S40P treatments compared to the S0 (P < 0.05). The decrease in liver activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and also the significant increase in liver activity of malondialdehyde in the S40 and S40P treatments were significant compared to the S0 (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter was significantly increased in the S20, S20P, S40, and S40P treatments compared to the S0 and S0P treatments (P < 0.05). The highest body muscle protein was observed in the S0P treatment, which was significant compared to the S40 treatment (P < 0.05). The results showed that the addition of 0.02% PHZ to the diet replaced with 20% and 40% SBM instead of FM seems no any benefit for the fish. It is suggested to study Phyzyme® XP in doses higher than 0.02% to reduce the negative effects of SBM in the diet more clearly.
Under terminal drought conditions, due to limitation of current photosynthesis, the impact of cereal stem carbohydrates reserves and their contribution to the grain yield preservation could be enhanced. The role of stem fructan remobilization on yield of barley was examined under drought conditions in the present study. The fructan accumulation and remobilization rate of the penultimate internode were studied in Morocco 9–75 and Yousef, as drought susceptible and tolerant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, respectively. Drought stress increased the fructan accumulation and remobilization in Yousef, supporting it from severe yield loss compared to Morocco cultivar. Under drought stress conditions, during grain filling of Yousef cultivar, the strong correlations were observed between the relative expression of the key genes involved in the fructan metabolism, i.e., 1‐SST and 6‐SFT (fructan biosynthesis genes) with the fructan content, as well as between the expression of 1‐FEH (fructan exohydrolase) and SUT1 (sucrose transporter) with fructan remobilization. Yousef cultivar contained considerable water‐soluble carbohydrate content of stem internodes, and a rise in osmolytes such as fructan may lead to the efficient osmotic adjustment, which in turn resulted in maintenance of the water content and stomatal conductance. Based on the results, enhanced fructan accumulation and its induced remobilization under drought conditions can play an important role in yield stability of Yousef under stress. The barley genotypes with high potential for fructan production and remobilization under terminal drought stress could provide the appropriate materials for drought tolerance breeding and screening for these traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Organic acid-based trace minerals are known to have more bioavailability, possibly due to fewer antagonism reactions in the lumen. A 42-day study was conducted to assess the supplementation of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), iron (Fe), and copper (Cu) from different sources. To that end, a total of 1248-day-old As-hatched Arbor Acres chickens were examined for performance, histology, bone integrity, and plasma biochemical parameters. Experimental groups were as follows: basal diet supplying 50, 75, 100, and 120% of trace mineral requirements using an inorganic trace mineral supplement (ITM50, ITM75, ITM100, ITM120); basal diet supplying 33, 66, and 100% of trace mineral requirements using an organic acid-based trace mineral supplement (OAT33, OAT66, OAT100); plus a basal diet supplying 100% of trace mineral requirements using an amino acid-based chelated trace mineral supplement (ATM100%) as control positive. According to results, birds’ fed OAT66 had the highest (P < 0.05) average daily body weight gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Feeding OAT66 increased (P < 0.05) villus length to crypt depth ratio, compared to OAT33 and ITM100 by 26% and 19%, respectively. The relative weight of the bursa enhanced by 22% in birds’ receiving OAT supplement, compared to those received ITM supplement (P < 0.05). The plasma uric acid was reduced by 42% (P < 0.001) in birds fed with OAT66 and OAT100 when compared to those fed ITM50. Overall, our results indicated that the same performance could be achieved by using lower levels of organic trace minerals.
The spatial and temporal variations of wet and dry spells may be related to large‐scale climatic indices. To date, no comprehensive study has been conducted on Iran's spatial and temporal variations of wet and dry spells. To fill this gap, 14 wet/dry spell indices were calculated for 512 rain gauges across Iran from 1985 to 2016. The modified non‐parametric Mann‐Kendall test was then used to examine the temporal variations of wet and dry spell indices. Whether any relationships between spell indices and 13 large‐scale climatic indicators existed was determined. The maps showing the degree of correlation between wet/dry spell indices and two climatic indicators that reflect short‐term and long‐term El Niño oscillation were presented. The results demonstrated that precipitation typically occurs in bursts of one or two days in length, with most of the annual precipitation coming from a few exceptionally heavy or extreme events. Most dry spells in Iran occur from 6 to 27 days or longer. The length, frequency, and intensity of wet spells declined in southern Iran while expanding in northern Iran. However, extreme wet spells have intensified significantly across the country. When El Niño occurs, Iran experiences wetter weather. However, long‐term oscillations in sea‐surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean are found to be significantly correlated with wet/dry spells, outperforming those obtained for shorter periods. A smaller portion of the country showed a significant correlation in extreme spell indices, though.
Dragon’s head (Lallemantia iberica) is a medicinal and oilseed crop cultivated in different parts of Iran. In Jun 2018 in the experimental plots in Gonbad-Kavous, and 2022 in a commercial field in Gorgan, both located in the north of country, a typical Sclerotinia stem rot was observed. The isolated Sclerotinia-like fungus from the infected plant sample was subjected to morphological as well as molecular and phylogenetic investigations using the internal transcribed spacer gene region. The obtained results showed that the fungus is Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The pathogenicity tests on the plant in the field and under controlled conditions were positive. Koch’s postulates were confirmed through the successful re-isolation of the pathogen. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report of the disease not only in Iran but also in the world.
Iranian native chicken, including Fars indigenous chicken, is an important genetic resource due to its adaptation to stressful environmental conditions, good endurance and resistance to disease. The aim of this research was to determine the genetic infrastructure of Fars indigenous chicken using several nonlinear functions. The dataset included body weight at hatch (BW1), body weight at the 8th week (BW8), body weight at the 12th week (BW12), weight at sexual maturity (WSM), age at sexual maturity (ASM), number of eggs in the first 12 weeks of laying period (EN), egg weight at the first day of laying (EW1), average egg weight at the 28thday of laying (EW28), and average egg weight at weeks 28, 30, and 32 of the laying period (AEW). Growth models were fitted using the NLIN procedure and WOMBAT software was used to predict variance components for the best fit model parameters. Results suggested three‐parameter models, for example, Gompertz, fitted better to the data than others. The maturity weight (A), initial weight (B), and maturity rate (K) parameters in the Gompertz model were 1996.8 ± 6.63, 4.11 ± 0.03, and 0.021 ± 0.0001, respectively. The heritability of A, B, and K parameters were 0.03, 0.05, and 0.12, respectively.
Background: Determination of sex in fish without external sexual dimorphism is important. Sex determination of the flathead grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) in the culture system and spawn-producing and fish reproduction system is very important. Currently, there are several methods to determine the sex of fish; however, they are time-consuming, expensive and sometimes dangerous for the fish. Objective: The purpose of this study was the sex determination of flathead grey mullet by ultrasonography as a safe and accurate method. Methods: In this regard, 30 flathead grey mullets (early in their maturation) from a farm in Gomishan-Golestan province, Iran were examined using a portable ultrasound machine with a 6-12 MHz waterproof linear transducer. Scanning was performed on the ventral body surface in the sagittal and transverse planes, between ventral and anal fins. Results: Differences in shape, qualitative size, echogenicity and the wall layers of the ovary and testis were evaluated for sex determination. Results of ultrasonography were confirmed immediately at necropsy. Ultrasonographic accuracy for sex determination was 100%. The speed of the procedure was around 30 s per fish. Conclusions: Overall, the sex determination of flathead grey mullet by ultrasonography was high in accuracy and speed, non-invasive and safe for fish and consumers, and may be considered a priority. Place of the organs in the M. cephalus coelomic cavity and the obtained experience showed that for rapid and easy sex identification, the best place to put the transducer is on the ventral surface of the fish in the caudal part of the coelomic cavity for taking transverse and sagittal ultrasonograms.
Stillbirth (SB) is a threshold character that has been detected as the most important factor affecting the future reproductive life of an animal. In buffaloes, stillbirth accounts for approximately 42% of all reproductive disorders being considered as the main reproductive disorder in buffalo calves. The present study aimed to estimate the heritability values and to determine the genetic and phenotypic correlation between stillbirth rate and birth weight (BW) using a Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling method in a river buffalo population. A stochastic simulation was used to create a population in which random mating was used for 15 overlapping generations. A bivariate animal model including maternal effects was used. Maternal effects were significant (p < 0.05) for both BW and SB. The results showed that when the SB rate increased from 1 to 50%, the estimated direct heritability of SB increased. However, by increasing the SB rate from 50 to 99%, a decrease of the SB estimated direct heritability was observed. The genetic correlation between BW and SB was decreased by increasing the level of occurrence of SB in the population from 1 to 99%. The Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of heritability was increased from 40 to 70% level of occurrence of SB. Based on findings, it can be concluded that in order to reduce stillbirth rate in the population, it is possible to use genetic improvement program and birth weight could be one of the main components of a selection goal.
The present study is aimed to model the spatial pattern of gully distribution across the silt-rich soils of the northeastern loess of Golestan province, Iran. To this end, multiple data-involvement scenarios were designed, and their further contributions to the performance of a presence-only probabilistic model (Maximum Entropy) were assessed. The results revealed that the interconnection of topological and hydrological factors mainly corresponds to the spatial signature of gully distributions across the study area. In particular, valley depth, height above the nearest drainage, and drainage networks contributed the most to the model's performance. Based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) index, engaging factors collectively result in the highest goodness-of-fit and prediction power with the respective values of 0.889 and 0.867. The areal extent of the susceptibility classes indicates that approximately 15% (~ 121 km ² ) of the region is highly susceptible to gully occurrence, which entails further pragmatic actions and mitigation measures.
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), as one of the key enzymes in glycolytic pathway in higher plants, was identified as an important objective protein in oxidative stresses condition, which can undergo thiolation reaction in the active site. However, several genes encoding of cytosolic isoenzymes of GAPDH have been identified and characterized in some plants, to investigate the role of GAPDH under drought stress, cloning of full-length cDNA, and expression profile of Ocimum basilicum GAPDH ( ObGAPDH ) cDNA were investigated. The full-length ObGAPDH was 1315 bp long, its deduced protein consists of 399 aminoacids with a predicted molecular mass of 42.54 kDa and a pI of 6.01. Phylogenetic tree study exhibited a ObGAPDH shared evolutionary relationship with the protein sequence of ObGAPDH reported in Salvia splendens and Sesamum indicum . In silico identified oxidative function of ObGAPDH in response to stimuli and docking illustrated inaction of protein with H 2 O 2 as ligand. Expression profiling analysis exhibited different transcription ratios of ObGAPDH gene under water shortage stress. Overall, our findings revealed that the ObGAPDH regulation appears to be a cultivar- and drought stress-dependent mechanism.
Appropriate determination of actual evapotranspiration (ET a ) is crucial to improve crop water productivity and optimizing water resource consumption. Satellite data enables us to calculate ET a for a large spatial extent with higher granularity, but the temporal frequency of non-commercial satellite data is often a limitation. This research proposes a method that combines crop coefficients with satellite data to fill temporal data gaps and calculate ET a on a daily basis. The study was conducted on sugarcane crops in the Amirkabir Agro-industries area in the southern part of Khuzestan Province, southwestern Iran. First, Landsat-8 data with the 8- day temporal resolution is acquired to estimate Land Surface Temperature (LST) using Single-Channel Algorithm. The estimated LST is validated with the in-situ canopy temperature measurement via Infrared Thermometer (IRT). Then, the validated LST is used to predict the crop stress coefficient (K s ) based on its relationship with the crop water stress index (CWSI). The crop coefficient (K c ) is obtained from the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) algorithm. The predicted Ks and Kc with the 8-day temporal resolution are assumed to be constant during the eight days and are utilized to calculate daily ET a by multiplying by the daily reference evapotranspiration (ET 0 ) obtained from local meteorological data. The calculated K s based on the LST result showed that nRMSE ranged from 0.03 to 0.07 from April to September. The results indicate that the crop coefficients of sugarcane in the initial and mid-stage are 12% and 18%, respectively, higher than the proposed figures by the FAO56 guideline. The aggregated decadal and monthly ET a have shown remarkable similarity with the WaPOR datasets, represented by an RMSE of 8.7 and 1.93 mm, respectively. We think this naval approach can significantly overcome the challenge of remote sensing data availability with the desired higher temporal resolution.
Zearalenone, an estrogenic mycotoxin, is widely exists in rice and agricultural products. Zearalenone has side effects on animal’s reproduction and immunologic functions. Moreover, it can stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells through estrogenic effects. The aim of this research is to understand the interactive effect of zearalenone and bioactive components of Hashemi brown and white rice extracts and γ-oryzanol on proliferation of MCF-7 cell, which were determined through Resazurin assay, ROS generation and flow cytometry. Results showed that zearalenone (10− 4 to 1 µM) could stimulate the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. The results showed that the various fractions of Hashemi brown (methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol) extracts, white rice (methanol, dichloromethane and ethylacetate) extracts and γ-Oryzanol could significantly decrease the estrogenic effects and as a consequence inhibit the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. So that, methanol, butanol and ethylacetate fractions of brown rice and γ-oryzanol significantly alleviate the cell proliferative effect of zearalenone (0.01 µM) from 1.17 ± 0.0063 to 0.97 ± 0.0064, 0.97 ± 0.006, 1.01 ± 0.004 and 0.97 ± 0.009, respectively. γ-Oryzanol and hashemi brown and white rice could also decrease the ROS generation and apoptosis rate in MCF-7 cells induced by zearalenone. Thus, it seems the estrogenic and cytotoxic effect of zearalenone may be modulated when the whole rice is used and rice extract protect against the harm of zearalenone. Graphical abstract
Improving the pattern of water consumption in the agricultural sector is one of the necessary measures to manage the water crisis in the country. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of drought stress on yield and physiological characteristics of safflower under different amounts of potassium fertilizer. The experiment was performed as a combined analysis in a randomized complete block design with three replications during 2018 and 2019. The main plot consisted of drought stress at three levels of 45%, 65%, and 85% of permissible moisture drain and the subplot consisted of potassium fertilizer at four levels of zero, 75, 150, and 225 kg of potassium sulfate per hectare. In the second year compared to the first year, the amount of proline and seed oil were significantly higher by 23.4% and 4.43%, respectively, and the amount of carbohydrates and chlorophyll a were significantly lower by 11.9% and 27.4%, respectively. With increasing potassium intake, the amount of chlorophyll a increased significantly, and the highest amount of chlorophyll a at the rate of 16.7 mg/L was obtained in the treatment of 225 kg of potassium per hectare. With increasing the intensity of stress from 45% to 85% of moisture drain in different levels of potassium fertilizer, seed yield decreased significantly. Treatment of 85% moisture drain in no application of potassium showed the highest amount of proline. The application of potassium is effective in modulating the negative effects of drought stress on seed yield, qualitative, and physiological characteristics of safflower.
Solanum nigrum L. (Black nightshade), is one of the most troublesome weeds of summer crops such as corn, soybean, sunflower, etc. To study the effect of combined Castor oil as an adjuvant with different doses of Lumax (Mesotrion + S-metolacholor + Terbuthylazine) on the physiological behavior of Solanum nigrum L., a greenhouse experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with four replications in agricultural faculty of the University of Tabriz in 2021. A foliar application of Lumax increased proline, malondialdehyde, and hydrogen peroxide concentrations and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidase activity. The content of protein and photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids) also decreased significantly by using Lumax herbicide. Applying castor oil in combination with Lumax intensifies oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation. Results showed that by increasing the herbicide doses in comparison with control (non-herbicide), Area, Fm, Fv, Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, Sm, Sm/Tfm, and Fv/F0 decreased 48.32%, 19.52%, 27.95%, 10.47%, 50.90%, 28.34%, 79.38%, and 50.90%, respectively and F0, F0/Fm increased 46.76% and 82.38%, respectively. Castor oil showed a synergistic effect on Lumax herbicide and enhanced its efficacy on Solanum nigrum. The presented results supported the view that by evaluating chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, we would realize herbicide (alone or mixed with any adjacent) efficacy before the visual symptoms appear in the plant.
Two major aflatoxin-producing strains are Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger. Probiotic bacteria have been identified as a potential means to fight aspergilli and reduce the availability of aflatoxin (AFs) as well as other food contaminants. In this study, the potential of ABRIIFBI-6 and ABRIIFBI-7 strains to inhibit the growth of aspergilli was investigated. Both strains survived in the simulated gastrointestinal conditions and inhibited the growth of Aspergillus significantly. Auto-aggregation ranged from 67.4 ± 1.9 for ABRIIFBI-6 to 75.8 ± 2.3% for ABRIIFBI-7, and hydrophobicity ranged from 57.3 ± 1.6 to 61.2 ± 1.4% for ABRIIFBI-6 and ranged from 51.2 ± 1.4 to 55.4 ± 1.8% for ABRIIFBI-7. The ranges of coaggregation with Staphylococcus aureus were 51.3 ± 1.7 and 52.4 ± 1.8% for ABRIIFBI-6 and ABRIIFBI-7, respectively, while coaggregation with Bacillus cereus was 57.9 ± 2.1 and 49.3 ± 1.9% for ABRIIFBI-6 and ABRIIFBI-7, respectively. Both strains indicated remarkable sensitivity to clinical antibiotics. According to the analysis of the identified potential probiotics, the findings of this study could significantly contribute to the understanding of the probiotic potential of LAB in dairy products in order to access their probiotic characterization for use as biocontrol of aflatoxin-producing species.
Gastrointestinal nematode (GINs) infections are one of the causative agents of health and economic issues in sheep production systems worldwide. Considerable genetic variations in resistance or susceptibility in different sheep breeds are documented, but published results are conflicting. Recent advances obtained by high-throughput technologies such as commercial SNP chips, whole-genome sequencing, or whole transcriptome profiling provide new insights into breeding for host resistance or nematode control at the genetic levels. This study aimed to identify potential biomarkers associated with the resistance to ovine GINs through a network analysis approach. Comprehensive gene and protein interaction networks were reconstructed for candidate genes involved in the most related immune pathways associated with resistance to ovine GINs using data mining from literature. Generally, 30 genes including CD53, CHIA, RELN, HRH1, EPS15, LRP8, ATP2B1, IL4, IL5, IL13, IL2RA, IL23R, TNFα, IFNγ, TBX21, SH3RF1, HERC2, PTPN1, BIN1, HERC5, C3AR1, NOS2, STAT5B, STAT4, CCL1, CCL8, VIL1, CXCR1, CXCR2, and CXCR4 located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 13, 19, and 20 have been found as containing effective regions with the most related pathways to nematode infections. The results obtained by network analysis showed two functional modules, belonging to the interleukins family (IL4, IL5, IL13, IL23R, and IL2RA) and chemokine receptors or ligands family (CXCR1, CXCR2, CXCR4, CCL1, and CCL8). Interleukins are a group of cytokines that are expressed by white blood cells with a major role in the immune system. Chemokines are also a family of chemoattractant cytokines which play a vital role in cell migration that influence the immune system by a process known as chemotaxis. The results provide useful information for the functional annotation of candidate genes related to parasite resistance and add new information towards a consensus on quantitative trait loci (QTLs) related to the incidence of nematode infections.
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