ABSTRACT Four improved varieties of haricot bean flour prepared by soaking, autoclaving, germination, and germination followed by autoclaving were investigated. The objective was to obtain information on the effect of varieties, processing methods and their interactions on flour quality. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, ash, and carbohydrate contents of flours were from 8.05 to 9.72%, 23.11 to 27.96%, 1.33 to 2.87%, 3.82 to 5.97%, 3.45 to 5.52%, and 51.79 to 57.14%, respectively. The flour produced through germination followed by the autoclaving method showed a significant reduction in tannin, phytate, and oxalate contents with less acceptability by the consumer while the one that produced through germination increased in total flavonoids (2.79 to 3.69 mg QE/g), total phenol content (0.72 to 1.04 mg GAE/g) and DPPH scavenging activities (EC50). Germination showed increased foaming and emulsifying capacity; however, autoclaving and germination followed by autoclaving noticeably reduced foaming capacities.
Foreign aid is one source of physical capital accumulation in Ethiopia. It is also a main media of government revenue in meeting increasing trends of government expenditure. To investigate the impact of foreign aid flow on economic growth, various empirical studies were conducted, but they came up with mixed result. This leads to raise question of why impact of aid on economic growth in Ethiopia continues to be paradoxical in its findings. To assess the effectiveness of foreign aid in Ethiopia; this study sets predictability of foreign aid and economic growth in Ethiopia as a general objective. Specifically, the study sought to examine the contribution of foreign aid and the macroeconomic policy environment to economic growth in the country. In order to meet the aforementioned objective, the study employed an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach over the period 1985-2019. The empirical finding shows that foreign aid has a positive role in economic growth in the long run but its short run effect is found to be insignificant. Again, this finding also reveals that both in the short run and long run the predictability of foreign aid has a positive effect both on economic growth. Macroeconomic policy index also has a positive effect in the long run, but its short run effect become negative. Based on the listed empirical finding, the study came up with policy recommendation; the government should allocate the external assistance on the successful development projects rather than simply on consumption. Furthermore, for the persistent and predictable flow of foreign aid overtime, joint mechanism of transparency has to be developed between Ethiopian government and donor communities. Keywords: Foreign Aid; Ethiopia; Economic Growth; Macroeconomic Policy; ARDL
Herbarium specimens are being used as reliable sources for estimating phenological behavior for plant species. Flowering and fruiting periodicity of 520 herbarium specimens, collected between 1948 and 2007 and deposited at the National Herbarium of Ethiopia, were investigated. Scientific names, collection date and locality of specimens were documented to assess the periodicity of phenological events. For the evaluation of periodicity of reproductive phenophases, the presence of flowering and fruiting were visually confirmed from each specimen. Examination of flowering periodicity of Bersama abyssinica, Brucea antidysenterica, Maytenus arbutifolia and Rosa abyssinica showed continuous flowering while Prunus africana, Lobelia rhynchopetalum, Kniphofia foliosa, Solanecio gigas, Buddleja polystachya, Dombeya torrida and Embelia schimperi exhibited seasonal flowering. Although the fruiting period is extended over several months (B. abyssinica, B. antidysenterica, E. schimperi, M. arbutifolia and R. abyssinica), seasonality in fruiting was also observed in K. foliosa, L. rhynchopetalum and P. africana. The highest number of specimens found belonged to M. arbutifolia followed by B. abyssinca and B. antidysenterica, while the highest number of specimens were collected from Shewa Upland followed by Keffa and Bale floristic regions. Surprisingly, Euryops pinifolius, a species endemic to Ethiopia, was represented by only one specimen collected from Gojjam in 1985. The results revealed that herbarium specimens can be used to study flowering and fruiting periodicity of plant species. Therefore, botanists should be encouraged to continue collecting herbarium specimens based on the distribution of species in the flora area to avoid spatial and species biases for future studies.
Credit constraint is often considered as one of the key barriers to the adoption of modern agricultural technologies and low agricultural productivity in low- and middle-income countries. Past research and much of the policy discourse associate agricultural credit constraints with supply-side factors, such as limited access to credit sources or high costs of borrowing. However, demand-side factors, such as risk-aversion and financial illiteracy among borrowers could also affect credit-rationing of smallholder agricultural households. This study investigates the nature of credit constraints, factors affecting credit constraint status, and the effects of credit constraints on adoption and intensity of use of three modern agricultural technologies – small-scale irrigation, chemical fertilizer, and improved seeds. The paper also assesses whether credit constraints are gender-differentiated. Primary survey data were collected from sample farmers in Ethiopia and Tanzania, and Tobit and two-step hurdle econometric models were used to analyze these data. Results show that demand-side credit constraints are as important as supply-side factors in conditioning smallholders’ access to credit in both countries. We also find that credit is a binding constraint for the decision to adopt technologies and input use intensity in Tanzania but not statistically significant in Ethiopia. Results suggest that women are more likely to be credit constrained (from both the supply and demand sides) than men in both study countries. Based on these findings, we suggest that policies should focus on addressing both supply- and demand-side credit constraints to credit access, including through targeted interventions to reduce risk, such as crop insurance, and to strengthen the gender sensitivity of credit policies.
Abstract Background: Diacylglycerol acyl-CoA acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has become a promising candidate gene for milk production traits because of its important role as a key enzyme in catalyzing the final step of triglyceride synthesis.Thus use of bovine DGAT1 gene as milk production markers in cattle is well established. However, there is no report on polymorphism of the DGAT1 gene in Ethiopian cattle breeds. The present study is the first comprehensive report on diversity, evolution, neutrality evaluation and genetic differentiation of DGAT1 gene in Ethiopian cattle population. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic variability of exon 8 region of DGAT1 gene in Ethiopian cattle breeds. Results: Analysis of the level of genetic variability at the population and sequence levels with genetic distance in the breeds considered revealed that studied breeds had 11, 0.615 and 0.010 haplotypes, haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity respectively. Boran-Holstein showed low minor allele frequency and heterozygosity, while Horro showed low nucleotide and haplotype diversities. The studied cattle DGAT1 genes were under purifying selection. The neutrality test statistics in most populations were negative and statistically non-significant (p > 0.10) and consistent with a populations in genetic equilibrium or in expansion. Analysis for heterozygosity, polymorphic information content and inbreeding coefficient revealed sufficient genetic variation in DGAT1 gene. The pairwise FST values indicated significant differentiation among all the breeds (F ST = 0.13; p ≤ 0.05), besides the rooting from the evolutionary or domesti-cation history of the cattle inferred from the phylogenetic tree based on the neighbourhood joining method. There was four separated cluster among the studied cattle breeds, and they shared a common node from the constructed tree. Conclusion: The cattle populations studied were polymorphic for DGAT1 locus. The DGAT1 gene locus is extremely crucial and may provide baseline information for in-depth understanding, exploitation of milk gene variation and could be used as a marker in selection programmes to enhance the production potential and to accelerate the rate of genetic gain in Ethiopian cattle populations exposed to different agro ecology condition. Keywords: DGAT1, Ethiopian Cattle breeds, Genetic diversity, Evolution, Sequencing
The electrical activity produced during the heartbeat is measured and recorded by an ECG. Cardiologists can interpret the ECG machine’s signals and determine the heart’s health condition and related causes of ECG signal abnormalities. However, cardiologist shortage is a challenge in both developing and developed countries. Moreover, the experience of a cardiologist matters in the accurate interpretation of the ECG signal, as the interpretation of ECG is quite tricky even for experienced doctors. Therefore, developing computer-aided ECG interpretation is required for its wide-reaching effect. 12-lead ECG generates a 1D signal with 12 channels among the well-known time-series data. Classical machine learning can develop automatic detection, but deep learning is more effective in the classification task. 1D-CNN is being widely used for CVDS detection from ECG datasets. However, adopting a deep learning model designed for computer vision can be problematic because of its massive parameters and the need for many samples to train. In many detection tasks ranging from semantic segmentation of medical images to time-series data classification, multireceptive field CNN has improved performance. Notably, the nature of the ECG dataset made performance improvement possible by using a multireceptive field CNN (MRF-CNN). Using MRF-CNN, it is possible to design a model that considers semantic context information within ECG signals with different sizes. As a result, this study has designed a multireceptive field CNN architecture for ECG classification. The proposed multireceptive field CNN architecture can improve the performance of ECG signal classification. We have achieved a 0.72 F 1 score and 0.93 AUC for 5 superclasses, a 0.46 F 1 score and 0.92 AUC for 20 subclasses, and a 0.31 F 1 score and 0.92 AUC for all the diagnostic classes of the PTB-XL dataset.
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a disease of high economic consequence to the poultry sector. Gallid herpesvirus 1 (GaHV-1), a.k.a infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV), under the genus Iltovirus, and the family Herpesviridae, is the agent responsible for the disease. Despite the clinical signs on the eld suggestive of ILT, it has long been considered nonexistent and a disease of no concern in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2020 to June 2021 in three selected zones of the Amhara region (Central Gondar, South Gondar, and West Gojjam zones), Ethiopia, with the objective of estimating the seroprevalence of ILTV in chickens and identifying and quantifying associated risk factors. A total of 768 serum samples were collected using multistage cluster sampling and assayed for anti-ILTV antibodies using indirect ELISA. A questionnaire survey was used to identify the potential risk factors. Of the 768 samples, 454 (59.1%, 95% CI: 0.56-0.63) tested positive for anti-ILTV antibodies. Mixed-e ect logistic regression analysis of potential risk factors showed that local breeds of chicken were less likely to be seropositive than exotic breeds (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.24-0.61). In addition, factors such as using local feed source (OR: 6.53, 95% CI: 1.77-24.04), rearing chickens extensively (OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 0.78-5.02), mixing of di erent batches of chicken (OR: 14.51, 95% CI: 3.35-62.77), careless disposal of litter (OR: 1.62, 95% CI: 0.49-4.37), lack of house disinfection (OR: 11.05, 95% CI: 4.09-47.95), lack of farm protective footwear and clothing (OR: 20.85, 95% CI: 5.40-80.45), and careless disposal of dead chicken bodies had all been associated with increased seropositivity to ILTV. erefore, implementation of biosecurity measures is highly recommended to control and prevent the spread of ILTV. Furthermore, molecular con rmation and characterization of the virus from ILT suggestive cases should be considered to justify the use of ILT vaccines.
Nanoscale materials with multifunctional properties are necessary for the quick development of high-performance devices for a wide range of applications, hence theoretical research into new two-dimensional (2D) materials is encouraged.
The estrus detection system, proper time of insemination, feeding, and health care practices each make a significant contribution towards the herd's optimal breeding efficiency and lifetime production. In the sub-humid environments of Ethiopia, the age at first calving, days open, calving to first heat, and services per conception are economic traits in the reproductive performance of Horro and their crossbred dairy cows. As a result, data collected at Ethiopia's Bako Agricultural Research Center from 1980 to 2019 were used to study the reproductive performance of Horro and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey dairy cows. The overall mean ± standard error of age at first service (AFS), age at first calving (AFC), number of services per conception (NSP), calving interval (CI), days open (DO), conception rate (CR), and replacement rate (RR) were 29.2 ± 0.2 months, 39.8 ± 0.2months,1.76 ± 0.4, 13.2 ± 0.3 months, 94.3 ± 4.3 days, 75.0 ± 1.3%, and 28.4 ± 0.3%, respectively. At 60 and 90 days, the odd ratio of the non-return rate (NRR) was 0.22 and 0.96, respectively. The breeds (sire and dam) and birth period had a significant ( P < 0.001) influence on AFS and AFC, whereas season and dam parity had a significant influence on CI and DO. Inconsistent management in feeding, heat detection, inseminator skill, insemination time, health, and other husbandry practices may result in extended periods of AFS, AFC, CI, and DO. To improve the reproductive performance of Horro and their crosses with Holstein Friesian and Jersey dairy cows in Ethiopia's sub-humid environments, we should focus on increasing management factors.
Using a randomized experimental design, real-time electronic stove surface temperature measurements and controlled cooking tests, we estimate fuelwood and CO2 savings from an improved cookstove (ICS) program in rural Ethiopia. Cooking uses a majority of the fuelwood in the country and therefore is a critical determinant of greenhouse gas emissions. Estimating fuelwood savings is therefore a key aspect of crediting ICS climate change benefits. Our findings suggest that the Mirt injera stove saves a substantial amount of fuelwood. Using a relatively low estimate of percentage of nonrenewable biomass, on average one Mirt stove avoids the burning of approximately 634 kg of fuelwood per year and sequesters an additional 0.65 tons of CO2, which is about one-third of previous estimates. The U.S. Interagency Working Group (2013) 2015–2019 estimate for the global social cost of carbon of $44.00 per ton implies annual global benefits from reduced fuelwood burning of $28.60 per stove per year, which substantially exceeds the $12.00 initial cost of the stove. As the global benefit is much greater than the cost, which is borne entirely by Ethiopia, international transfers would be warranted to support expansion of Mirt adoption.
Background: Eimeria is a parasitic organism causing coccidiosis, an enteric disease of major economic importance in poultry. The conventional methods for species identification of Eimeria have major limitations. Methods: Fresh fecal samples were randomly collected from 50 small and large-scale commercial broiler farms located in Adama, Bishoftu, Dukem, and Mojo towns. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay was used for the differentiation of Eimeria species circulating among study sites and broiler farms. DNA was extracted from Eimeria oocytes using a DNeasy Tissue Kit. The extracted DNA templates and the genus-specific primers (Invitrogen) were used for the amplification of the ITS-1 region from seven Eimeria species of chicken. Descriptive statistical analysis and t-test were used to summarize and analyze the data. Results: The PCR result confirms that all the seven species of Eimeria were detected in both small and large-scale broiler farms. Prevalence variation was found among broiler farms and between study sites. The frequency of E. brunetti (P<0.006) and E. tenella (P<0.04) in the small-scale broiler farms was significantly higher compared to that of in large-scale farms. A significantly higher frequency of E. acervulina (P<0.03) and E. brunetti (P<0.03) was detected in broiler farms of Dukem and Mojo compared to the broiler farms in Bishoftu. The study also revealed that multiple infections of Eimeria species per sample are common in most farms. Among the evaluated small-scale broiler farms of Bishoftu, 80% showed up to 5 mixed species. In addition, about 33% of large-scale and 20% of small-scale broiler farms showed 6-7 mixed species. Conclusion: This study characterized all the seven Eimeria species and revealed that multiple infections of Eimeria species per sample are common in most of the evaluated farms. The current findings might be useful for future anticoccidial vaccine development and for effective chemoprophylactic and control strategies.
In this paper equatorward propagating large scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (LSTID) on 17 March 2015 were investigated using the Statistical Angle‐of‐Arrival and Doppler Method for GPS (SADM‐GPS) radio interferometry technique in data‐scarce East Africa. To apply the SADM‐GPS method, 5 GPS arrays each with 3 GPS receivers arranged in a triangular geometry were used. Our results show that during 15:00–18:00 UT on 17 March, TIDs with mean horizontal velocities between 161.9 and 464.4 m/s were observed. Using the wavelet analysis, the periods of TIDs in a range of 51–69 min that qualify to LSTIDs were revealed. The peak‐to‐peak phase shift of detrended total electron content (TEC) over latitudes in this study confirms the equatorward TID propagation, which was obtained by the SADM‐GPS technique. A pair of magnetometers were used to infer E × B drift and an adequate agreement was found with Swarm satellites derived plasma density that enabled us to explain the behaviour of ionospheric irregularity during the main phase of the geomagnetic storm. Moreover, significant TEC enhancement (reaching ∼20%–105%) were captured by GPS arrays during the period of TID propagation. Nevertheless, the rate of change of TEC (ROT) and ROT index (ROTI) show wavy structures that reflect TID effects over ionospheric modulations during the post noon to evening hours of 17 March 2015.
Citizen Science can fulfill the quest for high-quality and sufficient environmental data, such as rainfall. However, the factors affecting the quality of rainfall data collected by the citizen scientists are not well understood. In this study, we examined the effect of citizen scientists’ attributes on the quality of rainfall data. For this purpose, Principal Component Analysis (PCA), stepwise regression and Multiple Linear Regressions (MLR) were used. A quality control procedure was developed and applied for daily observed rainfall data collected in the summer rainy season of 2020. Attributes of the citizen scientist were gathered for those who collected rainfall data in the urban and peri-urban Akaki catchment which is located in the Upper Awash sub-basin, Ethiopia. We found that easy-to-detect errors, which were identified during the initial stage of quality control, formed most of the errors in the rainfall data. The PCA and the stepwise regression results revealed that four dominant attributes (education level, gauge relative location, use of smartphone app, and supervisor’s travel distance) highly affected the rainfall data quality. The MLR model using these four prominent dominant variables performed very well with R² value of 0.98. The k-fold cross validation result showed that the developed model can be used to predict the relationships between data quality and attributes of citizen scientists with high accuracy. Hence, the PCA technique, stepwise regression and MLR model can provide useful information regarding the influence of citizen scientists’ attributes on rainfall data quality. Therefore, future studies should carefully consider citizen scientist’s attributes when engaging and supervising citizen scientists, with a comprehensive data quality control while monitoring rainfall.
Small mammals are a diverse group of animals and studying such group is vital. This study documents species composition, relative abundance and habitat association of non-volant small mammals in Menz Guassa Community Conservation Area, central Ethiopia. Data were collected using capture mark-release technique in different habitats of the study area from October 2019 to August 2020 and analysed by descriptive statistics and Shannon-Wiener diversity index. A total of 724 individuals of rodents and insectivores were sampled over 1176 trap nights. Of these 418 individuals were newly captured while the remaining 306 were recaptured with an overall trap success of 35.5%. Five species of rodents namely Lophuromys flavopunctatus, Stenocephalemys griseicauda, Otomys typus, Arvicanthis blicki and Dendromus lovati, and two species of insectivores, Crocidura baileyi and C. thalia were sampled. The most abundant species identified in the study was L. flavopunctatus followed by S. griseicauda, while the least was D. lovati with relative abundances of 66.7%, 14.8% and 0.2%, respectively. The rodent and insectivore species were statistically significantly associated with their habitats (χ² = 10.44, df = 3, p < 0.05) with high association recorded in Euryops habitat 128 (30.6%). High diversity of small mammals was recorded in Erica-Festuca dominated habitat (H’ = 1.176) followed by Festuca-Euryops habitat (H’= 1.114) and the least was recorded in Festuca habitats (H’= 0.977). Small mammals showed variation in abundance across habitats between seasons but the difference was not statistically significant (F (1, 6) = 0.017, p > 0.05). Most of the rodents and insectivores were sampled during the night. Stenocephalemys griseicauda, D. lovati and C. baileyi were exclusively nocturnal while O. typus and L. flavopunctatus were predominantly diurnal in activity. There was relatively higher small mammal diversity in Menz Guassa Community Conservation Area. Further molecular study needs to be conducted to identify more non-volant small mammals in the area, more especially cryptic species.
Contamination of water by ciprofloxacin has become a significant concern due to its adverse health effects and growing evidence of antimicrobial-resistant gene evolution. To this end, a chemically modified bamboo biochar was prepared from bamboo sawdust to effectively remove ciprofloxacin (CIP) from an aqueous solution. Under similar adsorption conditions, the modified bamboo biochar (MBC) has an excellent CIP removal efficiency (96%) compared to unmodified bamboo biochar (UBC) efficiency (45%). Thus, MBC was used in batch adsorption experiments, and the process was optimized with the central composite design (CCD) framework of response surface methodology (RSM). Sorption process parameters such as initial CIP concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time were studied and found to have a significant effect on CIP removal. The optimal CIP removal (96%) was obtained at MBC dose (0.5 g L-1), CIP initial concentration (20 mg L-1), pH (7.5), and contact time (46 min). The adsorption kinetic data were well described by the pseudo-second-order model ( R 2 = 0.999 ), and both Langmuir ( R 2 = 0.994 ) and Freundlich ( R 2 = 0.972 ) models gave the best fit in CIP adsorption isotherm analysis. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of the MBC was 78.43 mg g-1 based on the Langmuir isotherm model. These results suggest that CIP adsorption was mainly controlled by chemisorption. Moreover, the CIP adsorption process was endothermic and spontaneous. Overall, MBC is a low-cost, efficient, and recyclable adsorbent for eliminating emerging contaminants such as ciprofloxacin from an aqueous solution.
Cities all around the globe are ramping up efforts to transform their infrastructure in order to achieve a carbon-neutral and sustainable future, resulting in fast electrification of transportation networks. The need for power in this industry is rising, notably in light rail transit. Application of train rooftops wind energy conversion has the potential to power light rail transits with renewable energy. This research paper presents a way to generate electrical energy by utilizing strong wind pressure from light rail trains that channels the induced wind towards the turbine. The current invention's main aim is to establish a method and system for producing energy utilizing winds that can be conveniently available in the operation of trains. Here the wind energy is independent of the variations in the direction and speeds in which seasonal winds move, which do not have the appropriate wind force or force at all times or places for operating the wind turbines. Vertical axis wind turbines are selected due to their advantage for the application under consideration. SOLIDWORKS and MATLAB simulation software were used for the design of the Train Roof-Tops Wind Energy Conversion System (TRT-WECS). The former was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) on the both normal train as well as the train having a turbine installed on the top, and a comparison has been made in terms of various parameters that affect the performance of the newly designed TRT-WECS. A mathematical model comprising mechanical and electric components has been developed by using MATLAB. Finally, the study found out that this special TRT-WECS design installed in each train provides an annual energy output of 4.9 MWh.
Cutting force is one of the significant parameters in the metal cutting process. The metal cutting process is the primary in the production and manufacturing industry to produce high-quality products. Every production and manufacturing needs to develop a technology, i.e., a cooling or lubrication system at the cutting zone while doing the metal cutting process. This current work focuses on developing the machine learning algorithm by using three different types of regression processes, namely, polynomial regression process (PR), support vector regression (SVR), and gaussian process regression (GPR). These three processes are developed to predict the machine learning force, cutting power, and cutting pressure by controlling primary factors (cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed rate). The cooling or lubrication process also affects the machining process. We need to maintain the minimum qualifications to perform under minimum quality lubrication (MQL) and high-pressure coolant (HPC). The ANN algorithm was used to run different parameters, and these parameters are optimized for cutting force.
Water management has followed a basin unit paradigm for several decades. This framing often inherits a pre-defined spatial and institutional boundary of analysis, one that largely fails to account for various externalities influencing water security beyond the hydrological unit. Moving away from this established basin-scale analysis, we present the concept of problemscapes, a systems approach for understanding how multiple physical and social drivers surrounding (and as part of) contextual water systems determine how they work and, ultimately, the outcomes in terms of the water security they provide. By first discussing the concept of boundaries for water paradigms, we argue that problemscapes can help us understand water security as a more dynamic and hybrid system by adapting these boundaries; enabling a clearer understanding of leverage points, interconnections and possible strategic solutions to longer-term water security challenges. We apply the method for establishing and utilizing a problemscape analysis across the Central Rift Valley, Upper Awash, and Abbay basins, as well as the capital city of Addis Ababa. The interactions in this part of Central Ethiopia are notoriously complex, with sets of critical water management issues at national and international scale, hybrid water security challenges across user communities, and contested management at different scales amidst multiple, and sometimes competing, ideologies. We show that problemscaping as an approach could support future planning decisions for long-term water security by enabling a systems perspective to emerge where complexity and connectivity between actors, institutions, and physical and social entities is considered.
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