Academia Sinica
  • Taipei, Taiwan
Recent publications
In this paper, we study the asymptotic behavior of an M/G/1 retrial queueing system with server breakdowns, which is described by infinitely many partial integro-differential equations. Through investigating the spectrum of the system operator associated with the system on the imaginary axis, we show that the time-dependent solution of the system is strongly stable in the natural Banach state space. When the server failure rate is equal to zero, we show that the system admits a unique positive time-dependent solution and the solution is strongly convergent to its steady-state solution. In addition, when the service completion rate of server is a constant, the spectrum of the system operator lies on the left real axis. Finally, the corresponding C0-semigroup generated by the system operator is uniformly exponentially stable, irreducible, uniformly mean ergodic, quasi-compact but not compact and not eventually compact.
Satellite aerosol optical depth (AOD) provides an alternative way to depict the spatial distribution of near-surface PM2.5. In this study, a mathematical formulation of how PM2.5 is related to AOD is presented. When simplified to a linear equation, a functional dependence of the slope on the aerosol type, scattering enhancement factor f(RH), and boundary layer height is revealed, while the influence of the vertical aerosol profile is embedded in the intercept. Specifically, we focus on the effects of aerosol properties and employ a new aerosol index (Normalized Gradient Aerosol Index, NGAI) for classifying aerosol subtypes. The combination of AOD difference at shorter wavelengths over longer-wavelength AOD from AERONET data could distinguish and subclassify aerosol types previously indistinguishable by AE (i.e., urban-industrial pollution, U/I, and biomass burning, BB). AOD-PM2.5 regressions are performed on these aerosol subtypes at various relative humidity (RH) levels. The results suggest that BB aerosols are nearly hydrophobic until the RH exceeds 80 %, while the AOD-PM2.5 regressions for U/I depend on RH levels. Moreover, the scattering enhancement factor f(RH) can be calculated by taking the ratio of intercepts between dry and humidity conditions, which is proposed and tested for the first time in this study. Our results show an f(RH ≥ 80 %) of ~2.6 for U/I-dominated aerosols, whereas the value is not over 1.5 for BB aerosols. The f(RH) can be further used to derive the optical hygroscopicity parameter (κsca), demonstrating that the NGAI can be used to exploit differences in aerosol hygroscopicity and improve the AOD-PM2.5 relationship.
This paper considers the problem of actuator dynamics and sensor dynamics compensation for linear systems. The dynamics compensations are described by stabilizing or observing cascade systems which can be decoupled by the upper-block-triangle transform. A full state feedback is designed to stabilize the cascade system exponentially and a state observer is proposed to estimate the system state in the abstract framework. It is shown that the error based observer design for output regulation can be converted into a sensor dynamics compensation problem by the well-known regulator equations. As applications, an unstable heat equation with ODE actuator dynamics and an ODE with an unstable heat equation sensor dynamics are investigated to validate the theoretical results. The numerical simulations for both of them are carried out to validate the proposed approach visually.
Background: Little is known regarding the health effects of different hypertension phenotypes including isolated systolic hypertension (ISH), isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH), and systolic and diastolic hypertension (SDH) defined by the 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guideline among young adults. We conducted this longitudinal study using time-varying analyses to evaluate the relationship between cardiovascular/all-natural mortality risk and different hypertension phenotypes in young adults. Methods: A total of 284 597 young adults (aged 18-39 years) were recruited between 1996 and 2016. Participants were classified into eight mutually exclusive BP groups: normal blood pressure (BP), elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, stage 1 SDH, stage 2 IDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH. The outcomes were cardiovascular and all-natural mortality. Results: After a median follow-up of 15.8 years, 2341 all-natural deaths with 442 cardiovascular deaths were observed. When compared with individuals with normal BP, the multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of cardiovascular mortality was 1.39 (1.01-1.93) for elevated BP, 2.00 (1.45-2.77) for stage 1 IDH, 1.66 (1.08-2.56) for stage 1 ISH, 3.08 (2.13-4.45) for stage 1 SDH, 2.85 (1.76-4.62) for stage 2 IDH, 4.30 (2.96-6.25) for stage 2 ISH, and 6.93 (4.99-9.61) for stage 2 SDH, respectively. In consideration to all-natural mortality, similar results were observed for stage 1 SDH, stage 2 ISH, and stage 2 SDH; but not for elevated BP, stage 1 IDH, stage 1 ISH, and stage 2 IDH. Conclusion: Young adults with stage 1 or stage 2 ISH, IDH, and SDH are at increased risk of cardiovascular death than those with normal BP. Regardless of BP stage, SDH was associated with a higher cardiovascular mortality risk than IDH and ISH.
Background: Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) is an immune checkpoint and regulates the immune function of T cells. However, previous findings regarding the association of CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer remain inconclusive. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the potential effects of five polymorphisms (-1722 T/C, -1661 A/G -318 C/T, +49 A/G, and CT60 A/G) in the CTLA-4 gene on breast cancer susceptibility. Methods: Relevant literatures were systematically searched through electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science up to October 10, 2021. Available data were extracted and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were used to estimate the pooling effect size. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was applied for assessing the quality of included studies. We conducted subgroup analyses based on ethnicity and control sources to explore levels of heterogeneity. Moreover, sensitivity analysis and publication bias were assessed. Results: Finally, a total of 12 eligible studies regarding CTLA-4 polymorphisms and breast cancer were included. For overall analyses, only the +49 A/G polymorphism was significantly associated with breast cancer under allelic (OR = 1.19), dominant (OR = 1.27), and recessive (OR = 1.27) models. Ethnicity-based subgroup analysis found that the +49 A/G polymorphism has a significant risk (OR = 2.03) of breast cancer under the recessive model in the non-Asian population. Studies with hospital-based controls showed that the +49 A/G polymorphism has significant breast cancer risks under allelic (OR = 1.44), dominant (OR = 1.86), and recessive (OR = 1.60) models. In addition, those with population-based controls found that -1722 T/C polymorphism has a significant breast cancer risk under allelic (OR = 1.19) and dominant (OR = 1.26) models. Conclusion: This meta-analysis suggested that CTLA-4 + 49 A/G polymorphism may significantly associate with breast cancer susceptibility. Future studies containing various populations are helpful for evaluating the impacts of CTLA-4 polymorphisms on breast cancer susceptibility.
As biodiversity loss continues, there is an urgent need to develop efficient conservation measures to protect diversity with limited conservation resources. Conservation targets have generally been selected based on their population size, but more detailed assessments clarifying the phylogenetic genetic status, history, and phylogenetic uniqueness of rare species is crucial to set more appropriate and effective conservation measures. In Japan, the Act on Conservation of Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora designated endangered plants with high conservation priority, but >40% of these species also grow overseas. We conducted comparative analyses based on ddRADseq and MIG-seq to evaluate the population conservation status and value of Vaccinium emarginatum and Elatostema platyphyllum which are growing across national borders at the eastern edge of their species distribution range. The analyses revealed contrasting conservation status between the two species; the Japanese population of V. emarginatum had lower genetic diversity at the individual level and phylogenetically differentiated from Taiwanese populations, while that of E. platyphyllum had higher diversity at the individual level and is a relatively recent migrant with little phylogenetical differentiation from Taiwanese populations. The two species, which share the common feature of being critically rare in Japan, showed contrasting genetic/phylogenetic characteristics. This study provided useful information for appropriate conservation measures based on species’ phylogenetic traits and genetic diversity.
The interaction between Typhoon Nepartak (2016) and the upper-tropospheric cold low (UTCL) is simulated to better understand the impact of UTCL on the structural and intensity change of tropical cyclones (TCs). An experiment without UTCL is also performed to highlight the quantitative impacts of UTCL. Furthermore, idealized sensitivity experiments are carried out to further investigate the specific TC-UTCL configurations leading to different interactions. It is shown that a TC interacting with the UTCL is associated with a more axisymmetric inner-core structure and an earlier rapid intensification. Three plausible mechanisms related to the causality between a UTCL and the intensity change of TC are addressed. First, the lower energy expenditure on outflow expansion leads to higher net heat energy and intensification rate. Second, the external eddy forcing reinforces the secondary circulation and promotes further TC development. Ultimately, the shear-induced downward and radial ventilation of the low-entropy air is unexpectedly reduced despite the presence of UTCL, leading to stronger inner-core convections in the upshear quadrants. In general, the TC-UTCL interaction process of Nepartak is favorable for TC intensification owing to the additional positive effect and the reduced negative effect. In addition, results from sensitivity experiments indicate that the most favorable interaction would occur when the UTCL is located to the north or northwest of the TC at a stable and proper distance of about one Rossby radius of deformation of the UTCL.
In last-mile delivery, the turbulence of traffic uncertainties is often solved by establishing and utilizing multiple buffering warehouses (satellites) with setup and operational costs, which are very costly in implementation. This distribution system involving satellites is often derived as the two-echelon location routing problem (2E-LRP). This study proposes a new variety of 2E-LRP problems with mobile satellites, called 2E-LRP-MS, which aims to reduce the cost of 2E-LRP by replacing fixed-located satellites with mobile satellites. Rather than utilizing fixed-location satellites, 2E-LRP-MS employs the first echelon vehicles (CT) as the mobile satellites moving around the city to replenish multiple second echelon vehicles (CF) en-route. For the cargo replenishment process, CT and CF can temporarily park at the consolidation points (CP), such as public parking lots or paid loading-unloading zones. With this flexibility, the high operational costs of the fixed-location satellites can be exchanged with CP’s relatively low maintenance or renting fees, such as parking expenses. In this work, we introduce a heuristic method called clustering-based simultaneous neighborhood search (CSNS) to solve the proposed 2E-LRP-MS problem. The proposed CSNS considers the probabilistic mechanism and k-means clustering algorithm for facility selection, simultaneous neighborhood search to generate the routing solution, and local searches for optimizing the routing solution. Experimental results highlight the flexibility advantage of 2E-LRP-MS over 2E-LRP models and the searching efficiency of the proposed CSNS over the recent heuristic methods for two-echelon routing problems and commercial solver CPLEX.
Long sequence information remains a challenging problem in deep learning nowadays for predicting remaining useful life (RUL). In this work, we propose a novel deep learning module called attention long short-term memory projected (ALSTMP) for RUL estimation to mitigate the inefficient information of long-term dependencies. The ALSTMP is designed to utilize attention mechanisms in traditional long short-term memory (LSTM) for effectively collecting key features of the dataset. Moreover, the time-window length method is implemented to generate a better feature extraction. The proposed model not only outperforms the traditional LSTM and its extension but also the latest existing approaches with a smaller quantity of parameters compared with recent deep learning approaches.
The self-assembly of tetrarhenium metallacycles [{Re(CO)3}2(μ-dhaq)(μ-N-N)]2 (3a, N-N = 1,3-bis(1-butylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene; 3b, N-N = 1,3-bis(1-octylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene), (H2-dhaq = 1,4-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone) and [{Re(CO)3}2(μ-thaq)(μ-N-N)]2 (4, N-N = 1,3-bis(1-butylbenzimidazol-2-yl)benzene), (H2-thaq = 1,2,4-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone) under solvothermal conditions is described. The metallacycles 3a,b and 4 underwent aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) in THF upon the incremental addition of water. TEM images revealed that metallacycle 3a in a 60% aqueous THF solution formed rectangular aggregates with a wide size distribution, while a 90% aqueous THF solution resulted in the formation of a mixture of nanorods and amorphous aggregates due to rapid and abrupt aggregation. UV-vis and emission spectral profiles supported the formation of nanoaggregates of metallacycles 3a,b and 4 upon the gradual addition of water to a THF solution containing metallacycles. Further studies indicated that these nanoaggregates were excellent probes for the sensitive and selective detection of nitro group containing picric acid (PA) derivatives as well as antibiotics.
Introduction During the COVID-19 pandemic, many employees were encouraged to temporarily work from home as an attempt to decrease social contact with others. However, the employees' quality of life (QoL) may have been threatened by this mode of working. This study, therefore, aims to explore the employees' QoL given the new mode of working from home (WFH) as a result of the pandemic vs. working in the office (WIO), the amount of social contact that they were exposed to, and the ratio of face-to-face contact that they had. Methods A total of 803 WFH employees and 588 WIO employees' QoL was assessed during the same time period using the WHOQOL-BREF, which contains four domains: physical health, psychological health, social relationship, and the environment. We then divided the participants into 16 groups in accordance with the levels of work mode, social contact quantity, and face-to-face contact ratio–forming a case-control study. A differential item functioning (DIF) analysis was used to analyze the responses on the WHOQOL-BREF under the 4-dimensional rating scale model fitting. Results The results indicated that WFH employees' QoL was superior to that of WIO employees. The relationship between the WFH mode and the employees' QoL was specifically moderated by the amount of social contact and the ratio of face-to-face contact that was experienced. The results further demonstrated that the increased amount of non-face-to-face contact was better for WFH employees' QoL than that of WIO employees. Discussion In conclusion, the WFH mode was practical during the COVID-19 pandemic, as our findings indicated that WFH employees' QoL was better than WIO employees' QoL. However, maintaining social connections is equally important as this allows employees to perform better at their jobs and maintain such performance. The employees with a higher number of social support had a better QoL. Additionally, the facets detected as DIF items provided implications for the QoL with regard to the research methodology and insight into factors affecting the employees' QoL.
To re-examine the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs, the present study concerned whether different doses of morphine disparately affect neuronal activity and associations among the subareas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: cingulate cortex 1-Cg1, prelimbic cortex-PrL, infralimbic cortex-IL), the subregions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc; both core and shell), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and conditioned place preference (CPP). All rats were given a 0.1% saccharin solution for 15-min, and they were intraperitoneally injected with saline or 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg morphine to form the aversive CTA learning. Later, half of the rats were tested for CPP (including the CTA and then CPP tests) for 30-min. Finally, the immunohistochemical staining with c-Fos was conducted after the behavioral test. After the CTA test, c-Fos (%) in the Cg1 and PrL (but not the IL) was more in 20–40 mg/kg of the morphine groups; c-Fos (%) in the NAc core, NAc shell, and BLA was more in the 30–40 mg/kg morphine group. After the CPP test, the Cg1, PrL, IL, and BLA showed more c-Fos (%) in 20 mg/kg morphine; the NAc core showed fewer in c-Fos (%) in the 30–40 mg/kg morphine groups. The mPFC subregions (e.g., Cg1, PrL, and IL), NAc subareas (e.g., NAc core and NAc shell), and BLA were involved in the different doses of morphine injections. The correlation analysis showed that a positive correlation was observed between PrL and IL with NAc core with low doses of morphine and with NAc shell with increasing doses of morphine after the CTA test. After the CPP, an association between PrL and NAc core and NAc shell at low doses and between IL and BLA and NAc shell with increasing doses of morphine. Therefore, different neural substrates and the neural connectivity are observed following different doses of morphine and after the CTA and CPP tests. The present data extend the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs.
The Su, Schrieffer, and Heeger (SSH) model, describing the soliton excitations in polyacetylene due to the formation of antiphase domain walls (DW) from the alternating bond pattern, has served as a paradigmatic example of one-dimensional (1D) chiral topological insulators. While the SSH model has been realized in photonic and plasmonic systems, there have been limited analogs in three-dimensional (3D) electronic systems, especially regarding the formation of antiphase DWs. Here, we propose that pristine bulk Bi, in which the dimerization of (111) atomic layers renders alternating covalent and van der Waals bonding within and between successive (111) bilayers, respectively, serves as a 3D analog of the SSH model. First, we confirm that the two dimerized Bi structures belong to different Zak phases of 0 and π by considering the parity eigenvalues and Wannier charge centers, while the previously reported bulk topological phases of Bi remain invariant under the dimerization reversal. Next, we demonstrate the existence of topologically nontrivial (111) and trivial (112¯) DWs in which the number of in-gap DW states (ignoring spin) is odd and even respectively, and show how this controls the interlinking of the Zak phases of the two adjacent domains. Finally, we derive general criteria specifying when a DW of arbitrary orientation exhibits a π Zak phase based on the flip of parity eigenvalues. An experimental realization of dimerization reversal in Bi and the formation of DWs may be achieved via intense femtosecond laser excitations that can alter the interatomic forces and bond lengths.
Background The applicability and therapeutic efficacy of specific personalized immunotherapy for cancer patients is limited by the genetic diversity of the host or the tumor. Side-effects such as immune-related adverse events (IRAEs) derived from the administration of immunotherapy have also been observed. Therefore, regulatory immunotherapy is required for cancer patients and should be developed. Methods The cationic lipo-PEG-PEI complex (LPPC) can stably and irreplaceably adsorb various proteins on its surface without covalent linkage, and the bound proteins maintain their original functions. In this study, LPPC was developed as an immunoregulatory platform for personalized immunotherapy for tumors to address the barriers related to the heterogenetic characteristics of MHC molecules or tumor associated antigens (TAAs) in the patient population. Here, the immune-suppressive and highly metastatic melanoma, B16F10 cells were used to examine the effects of this platform. Adsorption of anti-CD3 antibodies, HLA-A2/peptide, or dendritic cells’ membrane proteins (MP) could flexibly provide pan-T-cell responses, specific Th1 responses, or specific Th1 and Th2 responses, depending on the host needs. Furthermore, with regulatory antibodies, the immuno-LPPC complex properly mediated immune responses by adsorbing positive or negative antibodies, such as anti-CD28 or anti-CTLA4 antibodies. Results The results clearly showed that treatment with LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes activated specific Th1 and Th2 responses, including cytokine release, CTL and prevented T-cell apoptosis. Moreover, LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes could eliminate metastatic B16F10 melanoma cells in the lung more efficiently than LPPC/MP. Interestingly, the melanoma resistance of mice treated with LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes would be reversed to susceptible after administration with LPPC/MP/CTLA4 complexes. NGS data revealed that LPPC/MP/CD28 complexes could enhance the gene expression of cytokine and chemokine pathways to strengthen immune activation than LPPC/MP, and that LPPC/MP/CTLA4 could abolish the LPPC/MP complex-mediated gene expression back to un-treatment. Conclusions Overall, we proved a convenient and flexible immunotherapy platform for developing personalized cancer therapy. Graphical Abstract
In a thin Weyl semimetal, a thickness dependent Weyl-orbit quantum oscillation was proposed to exist, originating from a nonlocal cyclotron orbit via electron tunnelings between top and bottom Fermi-arc surface states. Here, magneto-transport measurements were carried out on untwinned Weyl metal SrRuO3 thin films. In particular, quantum oscillations with a frequency Fs1 ≈ 30 T were identified, corresponding to a small Fermi pocket with a light effective mass. Its oscillation amplitude appears to be at maximum for thicknesses in a range of 10 to 20 nm, and the phase of oscillation exhibits a systematic change with film thickness. The constructed Landau fan diagram shows an unusual concave downward curvature in the 1/μ0Hn-n curve, where n is the Landau level index. From thickness and field-orientation dependence, the Fs1 oscillation is attributed to be of surface origin. Those findings can be understood within the framework of the Weyl-orbit quantum oscillation effect with non-adiabatic corrections.
The aim of this study was to develop an efficient bioinoculant for amelioration of adverse effects from chilling stress (10°C), which are frequently occurred during rice seedling stage. Seed germination bioassay under chilling condition with rice (Oryza sativa L.) cv. Tainan 11 was performed to screen for plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria among 41 chilling-tolerant rice endophytes. And several agronomic traits were used to evaluate the effects of bacterial inoculation on rice seedling, which were experienced for 7-d chilling stress in walk-in growth chamber. The field trials were further used to verify the performance of potential PGP endophytes on rice growth. A total of three endophytes with multiple PGP traits were obtained. It was demonstrated that Pseudomonas sp. CC-LS37 inoculation led to 18% increase of maximal efficiency of Photosystem II (PSII) after 7-d chilling stress and 7% increase of chlorophyll a content, and 64% decline of malondialdehyde content in shoot after 10-d recovery at normal temperature in walk-in growth chamber. In field trial, biopriming of seeds with strain CC-LS37 caused rice plants to increase shoot chlorophyll soil plant analysis development values (by 2.9% and 2.5%, respectively) and tiller number (both by 61%) under natural climate and chilling stress during the end of tillering stage, afterward 30% more grain yield was achieved. In conclusion, strain CC-LS37 exerted its function in increase of tiller number of chilling stress-treated rice seedlings via improvement of photosynthetic characteristics, which in turn increases the rice grain yield. This study also proposed multiple indices used in the screening of potential endophytes for conferring chilling tolerance of rice plants.
Galectin-4, a member of the galectin family of animal glycan-binding proteins (GBPs), is specifically expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells and is known to be able to bind microbes. However, its function in host-gut microbe interactions remains unknown. Here, we show that intracellular galectin-4 in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) coats cytosolic Salmonella enterica serovar Worthington and induces the formation of bacterial chains and aggregates. Galectin-4 enchains bacteria during their growth by binding to the O-antigen of lipopolysaccharides. Furthermore, the binding of galectin-4 to bacterial surfaces restricts intracellular bacterial motility. Galectin-4 enhances caspase-1 activation and mature IL-18 production in infected IECs especially when autophagy is inhibited. Finally, orally administered S. enterica serovar Worthington, which is recognized by human galectin-4 but not mouse galectin-4, translocated from the intestines to mesenteric lymph nodes less effectively in human galectin-4-transgenic mice than in littermate controls. Our results suggest that galectin-4 plays an important role in host-gut microbe interactions and prevents the dissemination of pathogens. The results of the study revealed a novel mechanism of host-microbe interactions that involves the direct binding of cytosolic lectins to glycans on intracellular microbes.
Introduction Soreness is a common complaint in patients who receive lumbar spine surgery (LSS) for degenerative lumbar spine diseases (DLSD). However, soreness is not assessed independently and its impacts on outcomes of LSS remains largely unknown. Sng(pronounced sә-ng, 痠) in Chinese language is the word with the closest meaning to soreness, and Chinese-speaking people naturally use sng to describe their non-pain ‘soreness’ symptom. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence and impacts of soreness or sng on outcome of LSS by introducing Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) of sng on back and leg. Materials and methods This prospective cohort study recruited patients who receive LSS for DLSD. Participants completed the patient-reported outcome measures at 1 week before and 1 years after LSS. The patient-reported outcome measures included (1) VAS for back pain, leg pain, back sng and leg sng, (2) Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and (3) RAND 36-item Short Form Health Survey. The minimal clinical important difference (MCID) of ODI and physical component health-related quality of life (HRQoL) was used. Results A total of 258 consecutive patients were included and 50 dropped out at follow-up. Preoperatively, the prevalence of sng was comparable to pain both on back and leg; postoperatively, the prevalence of sng was higher than pain. Leg and back sng were associated with preoperative and postoperative mental HRQoL, respectively. The reduction of sng on back and leg were significantly less than pain postoperatively. Leg sng was the only symptom independently associated with attaining MCID. Conclusion Soreness or sng should be assessed independently from pain in patients receiving LSS for DLSD because soreness or sng had substantial clinical impacts on the outcome of LSS.
Inhibiting a specific target in cancer cells and reducing unwanted side effects has become a promising strategy in pancreatic cancer treatment. MAP4K4 is associated with pancreatic cancer development and correlates with poor clinical outcomes. By phosphorylating MKK4, proteins associated with cell apoptosis and survival are translated. Therefore, inhibiting MAP4K4 activity in pancreatic tumours is a new therapeutic strategy. Herein, we performed a structure-based virtual screening to identify MAP4K4 inhibitors and discovered the compound F389-0746 with a potent inhibition (IC50 120.7 nM). The results of kinase profiling revealed that F389-0746 was highly selective to MAP4K4 and less likely to cause side effects. Results of in vitro experiments showed that F389-0746 significantly suppressed cancer cell growth and viability. Results of in vivo experiments showed that F389-0746 displayed comparable tumour growth inhibition with the group treated with gemcitabine. These findings suggest that F389-0746 has promising potential to be further developed as a novel pancreatic cancer treatment.
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3,204 members
Jaya Kishore Vandavasi
  • Institute of Chemistry
Wen-Jen Tsay
  • Institute of Economics
Chih-Horng Kuo
  • Institute of Plant and Microbial Biology
Sen-Lin Tang
  • Biodiversity Research Center
Shen-Ju Chou
  • Institute of Cellular and Organismic Biology
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