# Aarhus University

• Aarhus, Denmark
Recent publications
Climatic extremes are becoming increasingly common against a background trend of global warming. In the oceans, marine heatwaves (MHWs)—discrete periods of anomalously warm water—have intensified and become more frequent over the past century, impacting the integrity of marine ecosystems globally. We review and synthesize current understanding of MHW impacts at the individual, population, and community levels. We then examine how these impacts affect broader ecosystem services and discuss the current state of research on biological impacts of MHWs. Finally, we explore current and emergent approaches to predicting the occurrence and impacts of future events, along with adaptation and management approaches. With further increases in intensity and frequency projected for coming decades, MHWs are emerging as pervasive stressors to marine ecosystems globally. A deeper mechanistic understanding of their biological impacts is needed to better predict and adapt to increased MHW activity in the Anthropocene. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Marine Science, Volume 15 is January 2023. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
When it comes to investigating how customers use POS technologies or which factors might promote their adoption, it is important to know which characteristics are particularly relevant from the customers' perspective. Based on three recent approaches to POS technology systematization, this research empirically categorizes POS technologies from the customer's point of view. We investigated POS technologies that are information-oriented and have a certain form of interaction capability. First, we selected seven information-oriented POS technologies for the research. An online study (N = 830) was conducted on POS technologies that were used in a multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis. As a result, three clusters of POS technologies were identified: (A) comprehendible POS technologies, (B) information integration POS technologies, and (C) entertainment-related POS technologies. Our findings yield important insights for retailers with regard to the customers' perception and qualitative evaluation of the POS technologies in each of the identified clusters.
Soil structure plays a central role in many soil processes that are environmentally relevant. Intermittent freezing of the soil over winter is an important abiotic disturbance in temperate climates and its effects on soil structure depend on the soil’s preexistent structural strength and cohesion. Management choices such as tillage and plant cover after harvest strongly influence soil structure, and therefore the soil’s response to freeze-thaw. We examined the effects of 5 freeze-thaw cycles (FT) on the µCT-detectable structure of intact topsoil cores (Ø=100 mm, h=80 mm) from a long-term rotation and tillage experiment in Denmark. The cores were divided among two tillage treatments and two plant cover treatments, corresponding to a gradient of structural strength: CT-B<CT-V<NT-B<NT-V (CT=conventional tillage, NT=no-till, B=bare fallow and V=winter rye volunteers). We classified the µCT-detectable macropore volume in four size ranges (Full Range, <300 µm, 300–1020 µm and >1020 µm) and analyzed the macroporosity (Vt), mean macropore diameter (dm) and mean Euclidian distance to the nearest macropore (EDm). Additionally, we analyzed the effects of tillage and plant cover on several µCT-derived geometric parameters in Full Range. Overall, NT-B and NT-V resulted in lower macroporosity than in CT-B and CT-V. Similarly, we found fewer, less branched macropores with shorter mean branch length in NT compared to CT for both plant cover treatments. However, we propose that µCT-derived geometric parameters might be confounded by the overlapping influence of relatively few, complex and voluminous coarse macropores and the more abundant, less complex very fine macropores. Freeze-thaw, in turn, caused crumbling of soil around coarse macropores, reducing Vt and dm in Full Range and reducing Vt in the > 1020 µm range. Additionally, FT caused significant increases in Vt and reductions in dm and EDm in the < 300 µm range, indicating creation of new very fine macropores and expansion of previously indiscernible macropores. Overall, the effects of FT were reduced in NT (for equal plant cover treatments) and V (for equal tillage treatments), indicating greater resilience against FT in both cases.
The rapid increase of herbicide resistance in some of the most problematic annual weeds, and potential negative impacts of herbicides on human health and the environment have led growers to look for alternative non-chemical weed control. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a non-chemical weed control tactic based on reduction of seed return of primarily annual weed species to the soil seed bank that has been successfully adopted by farmers in Australia. The strategy is to collect and/or destroy the weed seeds in the chaff material during harvest using chaff carts, bale direct system, integrated impact mills, windrow burning, chaff tramlining and chaff lining or other methods of targeting the chaff material containing the weed seeds. Two biological characteristics are exploited with successful HWSC: the level of weed seed retention at crop harvest above crop canopy height and coincidence of weed and crop maturity. Initial research efforts in Europe have found that there are several candidates for HWSC among weed species with a high importance in European cropping systems. The highest potential has been found for weeds such as Galium aparine, Lolium rigidum and Silene noctiflora. However, there are several challenges for the adoption of these systems under European conditions compared to e.g., Australia. The challenges include that crop and weed maturity are not concomitant which results in lower seed retention values at crop harvest. In addition, there has not been a concerted research effort to evaluate HWSC systems in European cropping systems. Until now, research on HWSC in Europe mainly focused on the rate of weed seed retention in specific weed species. For HWSC to contribute to the mitigation of herbicide resistance and add to the toolbox of integrated weed management measures, there is an urgent need to take HWSC research to the next level. Although HWSC is not functionally equivalent to herbicide application, it may help to reduce herbicide inputs in the long-term when used in combination with other tactics. Future research and development should focus on the evaluation of HWSC strategies for the practical adoption of these tactics in European cropping systems.
This nationwide cross-sectional study of the lifetime prevalence and determinants of suicide attempts includes 90% of Greenlandic forensic psychiatric patients. Retrospective data were collected from electronic patient files, court documents, and forensic psychiatric assessments using a coding form from a similar study. We used unpaired t-tests and chi2 or Fisher’s exact test. The lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts was 36% (n = 32), and no difference in prevalence was found between male and female patients (p = 0.95). Patients having attempted suicide had a higher rate of physical abuse in childhood (p = 0.04), family history of substance misuse (p = 0.007), and criminal convictions among family members (p = 0.03) than patients who had never attempted suicide. Women primarily used self-poisoning in their latest suicide attempts (67%), whereas men more often used sharp objects or a firearm (42%). Over a third of Greenlandic forensic patients have attempted suicide at some point in their life, and patients with traumatic childhood experiences are at higher risk of suicidal behaviour. It is not possible to conclude whether the lifetime prevalence of suicide attempts among Greenlandic forensic patients is comparable to that of other high-risk groups in other Arctic regions due to methodological differences among the very few other comparable studies.
The environmental concerns caused by textile waste require technological development to support recycling and re-utilization. Incineration and landfill of textile waste are still widely used, and they lead to soil and water pollution as well as emissions of greenhouse gases. Recently, various research studies on textile waste treatment try to find appropriate technical means to realize environmental protection and sustainable recycling. Here, we summarize and discuss new ways to improve the treatment of textile waste, including its utilization value and transformation ways, to help remediation and lower environmental impacts. This paper comprehensively expounds on the current situation of textile waste treatment and the recycling value of different types of textile waste. This includes recycling composite materials, fillers, energy materials and carbonized adsorption material, which support sustainable development with social and economic benefits. Overall, this shows that textile waste needs to be separated at large scales globally to reduce the carbon footprint, improve socio-economic benefits and mitigate environmental pollution. Otherwise, there is a risk that the global warming and ecosystem transformations, due to pollution and urbanization, could lead to severe adverse effects such as cancer and global pandemics.
Background Whiplash injury is common following road traffic crashes affecting millions worldwide, with up to 50% of the injured developing chronic symptoms and 15% having a reduced working capability due to ongoing disability. Many of these patients receive treatment in primary care settings based upon clinical and diagnostic imaging findings. Despite the identification of different types of injuries in the whiplash patients, clinically significant relationships between injuries and chronic symptoms remains to be fully established. This study investigated the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques including quantitative diffusion weighted imaging and measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow as novel non-invasive biomarkers in a population of healthy volunteers and chronic whiplash patients recruited from a chiropractic clinic for the purpose of improving our understanding of whiplash injury. Methods Twenty chronic whiplash patients and 18 healthy age- and gender matched control subjects were included [mean age ± SD (sex ratio; females/males), case group: 37.8 years ± 9.1 (1.22), control group: 35.1 years ± 9.2 (1.25)]. Data was collected from May 2019 to July 2020. Data from questionnaires pertaining to the car crash, acute and current symptoms were retrieved and findings from clinical examination and MRI including morphologic, diffusion weighted and phase-contrast images were recorded. The apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy were calculated, and measurement and analysis of CSF flow was conducted. Statistical analyses included Fisher’s exact test, Mann Whitney U test and analysis of variance between groups. Results The studied population was described in detail using readily available clinical tools. No statistically significant differences were found between the groups on MRI. Conclusions This study did not show that MRI‐based measures of morphology, spinal cord and nerve root diffusion or cerebrospinal fluid flow are sensitive biomarkers to distinguish between chronic whiplash patients and healthy controls. The detailed description of the chronic whiplash patients using readily available clinical tools may be of great relevance to the clinician. In the context of feasibility, clinical practice-based advanced imaging studies with a technical setup similar to the presented can be expected to have a high likelihood of successful completion.
Background To assess the achieved risk and benefits of inserting temporary epicardial pacemaker electrodes after open-heart surgery for potential treatment of postoperative cardiac arrhythmias, and to investigate the extent of its use in clinical practice. Main text A systematic search was conducted in PubMed and repeated in Embase and Scopus using the PRISMA guidelines. The search identified 905 studies and resulted in 12 included studies, where the type of surgery, study design, total number of included patients, number of patients having temporary pacemaker electrodes inserted, number of patients requiring temporary pacing, primary reason for pacing, significant factors predicting temporary pacing, registered complications and study conclusion were assessed. Eight papers concluded that routine insertion of temporary pacemaker electrodes in all postoperative patients is unnecessary. One paper concluded that they should always be inserted, while three papers concluded that pacing is useful in the postoperative period, but did not recommend a frequency of which they should be inserted. Conclusions The literature suggests that the subgroup of younger otherwise healthy patients without preoperative arrhythmia having isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery or single valve surgery should not routinely have temporary pacemaker electrodes inserted.
The role of the microbiota in human health and disease is well established, including its effects on several cancer types. However, the role of microbial dysbiosis in prostate cancer development, progression, and response to treatment is less well understood. This knowledge gap could perhaps be implicated in the lack of better risk stratification and prognostic tools that incorporate risk factors such as bacterial infections and inflammatory signatures. With over a decade’s research investigating associations between microbiome and prostate carcinogenesis, we are ever closer to finding the crucial biological link between the two. Yet, definitive answers remain elusive, calling for continued research into this field. In this review, we outline the three frequently used NGS based analysis methodologies that are used for microbiome profiling, thereby serving as a quick guide for future microbiome research. We next provide a detailed overview of the current knowledge of the role of the human microbiome in prostate cancer development, progression, and treatment response. Finally, we describe proposed mechanisms of host-microbe interactions that could lead to prostate cancer development, progression or treatment response.
Background Linkage disequilibrium (LD) is commonly measured based on the squared coefficient of correlation $$\left({r}^{2}\right)$$ r 2 between the alleles at two loci that are carried by haplotypes. LD can also be estimated as the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 between unphased genotype dosage at two loci when the allele frequencies and inbreeding coefficients at both loci are identical for the parental lines. Here, we investigated whether $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 for a crossbred population (F1) can be estimated using genotype data. The parental lines of the crossbred (F1) can be purebred or crossbred. Methods We approached this by first showing that inbreeding coefficients for an F1 crossbred population are negative, and typically differ in size between loci. Then, we proved that the expected $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 computed from unphased genotype data is expected to be identical to the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 computed from haplotype data for an F1 crossbred population, regardless of the inbreeding coefficients at the two loci. Finally, we investigated the bias and precision of the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 estimated using unphased genotype versus haplotype data in stochastic simulation. Results Our findings show that estimates of $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 based on haplotype and unphased genotype data are both unbiased for different combinations of allele frequencies, sample sizes (900, 1800, and 2700), and levels of LD. In general, for any allele frequency combination and $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 value scenarios considered, and for both methods to estimate $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 , the precision of the estimates increased, and the bias of the estimates decreased as sample size increased, indicating that both estimators are consistent. For a given scenario, the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 estimates using haplotype data were more precise and less biased using haplotype data than using unphased genotype data. As sample size increased, the difference in precision and biasedness between the $${r}^{2}$$ r 2 estimates using haplotype data and unphased genotype data decreased. Conclusions Our theoretical derivations showed that estimates of LD between loci based on unphased genotypes and haplotypes in F1 crossbreds have identical expectations. Based on our simulation results, we conclude that the LD for an F1 crossbred population can be accurately estimated from unphased genotype data. The results also apply for other crosses (F2, F3, Fn, BC1, BC2, and BCn), as long as (selected) individuals from the two parental lines mate randomly.
Background Remote Ischemic Conditioning (RIC) has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention to circumvent the ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) that is inherent to organ transplantation. Using a porcine kidney transplant model, we aimed to decipher the subclinical molecular effects of a RIC regime, compared to non-RIC controls. Methods Kidney pairs (n = 8 + 8) were extracted from brain dead donor pigs and transplanted in juvenile recipient pigs following a period of cold ischemia. One of the two kidney recipients in each pair was subjected to RIC prior to kidney graft reperfusion, while the other served as non-RIC control. We designed an integrative Omics strategy combining transcriptomics, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics to deduce molecular signatures in kidney tissue that could be attributed to RIC. Results In kidney grafts taken out 10 h after transplantation we detected minimal molecular perturbations following RIC compared to non-RIC at the transcriptome level, which was mirrored at the proteome level. In particular, we noted that RIC resulted in suppression of tissue inflammatory profiles. Furthermore, an accumulation of muscle extracellular matrix assembly proteins in kidney tissues was detected at the protein level, which may be in response to muscle tissue damage and/or fibrosis. However, the majority of these protein changes did not reach significance (p < 0.05). Conclusions Our data identifies subtle molecular phenotypes in porcine kidneys following RIC, and this knowledge could potentially aid optimization of remote ischemic conditioning protocols in renal transplantation.
Background Defacing has become mandatory for anonymization of brain MRI scans; however, concerns regarding data integrity were raised. Thus, we systematically evaluated the effect of different defacing procedures on automated brain atrophy estimation. Methods In total, 268 Alzheimer’s disease patients were included from ADNI, which included unaccelerated ( n = 154), within-session unaccelerated repeat ( n = 67) and accelerated 3D T1 imaging ( n = 114). Atrophy maps were computed using the open-source software veganbagel for every original, unmodified scan and after defacing using afni_refacer, fsl_deface, mri_deface, mri_reface, PyDeface or spm_deface, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between z-scores was calculated. RMSE values derived from unaccelerated and unaccelerated repeat imaging served as a benchmark. Outliers were defined as RMSE > 75th percentile and by using Grubbs’s test. Results Benchmark RMSE was 0.28 ± 0.1 (range 0.12–0.58, 75th percentile 0.33). Outliers were found for unaccelerated and accelerated T1 imaging using the 75th percentile cutoff: afni_refacer (unaccelerated: 18, accelerated: 16), fsl_deface (unaccelerated: 4, accelerated: 18), mri_deface (unaccelerated: 0, accelerated: 15), mri_reface (unaccelerated: 0, accelerated: 2) and spm_deface (unaccelerated: 0, accelerated: 7). PyDeface performed best with no outliers (unaccelerated mean RMSE 0.08 ± 0.05, accelerated mean RMSE 0.07 ± 0.05). The following outliers were found according to Grubbs’s test: afni_refacer (unaccelerated: 16, accelerated: 13), fsl_deface (unaccelerated: 10, accelerated: 21), mri_deface (unaccelerated: 7, accelerated: 20), mri_reface (unaccelerated: 7, accelerated: 6), PyDeface (unaccelerated: 5, accelerated: 8) and spm_deface (unaccelerated: 10, accelerated: 12). Conclusion Most defacing approaches have an impact on atrophy estimation, especially in accelerated 3D T1 imaging. Only PyDeface showed good results with negligible impact on atrophy estimation.
Background In livestock breeding, selection for some traits can be improved with direct selection for crossbred performance. However, genetic analyses with phenotypes from crossbred animals require methods for multibreed relationship matrices; especially when some animals are rotationally crossbred. Multiple methods for multibreed relationship matrices exist, but there is a lack of knowledge on how these methods compare for prediction of breeding values with phenotypes from rotationally crossbred animals. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare models that use different multibreed relationship matrices in terms of ability to predict accurate and unbiased breeding values with phenotypes from two-way rotationally crossbred animals. Methods We compared four methods for multibreed relationship matrices: numerator relationship matrices (NRM), García-Cortés and Toro’s partial relationship matrices (GT), Strandén and Mäntysaari’s approximation to the GT method (SM), and one NRM with metafounders (MF). The methods were compared using simulated data. We simulated two phenotypes; one with and one without dominance effects. Only crossbred animals were phenotyped and only purebred animals were genotyped. Results The MF and GT methods were the most accurate and least biased methods for prediction of breeding values in rotationally crossbred animals. Without genomic information, all methods were almost equally accurate for prediction of breeding values in purebred animals; however, with genomic information, the MF and GT methods were the most accurate. The GT, MF, and SM methods were the least biased methods for prediction of breeding values in purebred animals. Conclusions For prediction of breeding values with phenotypes from rotationally crossbred animals, models using the MF method or the GT method were generally more accurate and less biased than models using the SM method or the NRM method.
This paper investigates how pig housing relates to diversity and circularity of farms and how this influences the capacity of European organic pig producers to cope with economic, legislation, labour and climate-related shocks. It identifies resilience strategies of pig producers in Europe by analysing resilience capacity and attributes to different shocks, namely input and output price shocks, disease outbreaks, climate change, legislation change and labour fluctuations. Based on narratives of 18 pig producers, this paper finds three resilience strategies: an efficiency-based strategy, a nutrient substitution strategy and a farm diversification strategy. Non-resiliency is mostly found among the producers with an all-year outdoor production system following the nutrient substitution strategy related to low feed self-sufficiency. The producers follow an efficiency-based strategy when they cannot accumulate reserves sufficient to cope with shocks. Non-resilience among the farm diversification strategy is related to direct marketing that is labour intensive requires the ability to pay decent wages. To increase the resilience of pig producers in Europe, policies should recognise that these different strategies exist and tailor policies differently for different types of producers.
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