Pain is a minor problem compared with other Huntington Disease (HD) symptoms. Nevertheless, in HD it is poorly recognized and underestimated. So far, no study evaluated the presence of chronic pain in HD. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the presence and features of chronic pain in a cohort of HD gene carriers. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of HD gene carriers compared to not gene carriers (n. 134 HD subjects, n. 74 not gene mutation carriers). A specific pain interview, alongside a neurological, cognitive and behavioural examination, was performed in order to classify the type of pain, subjective intensity. A significant prevalence of ‘no Pain’ in HD was found, which tended to increase with HD progression and a reduced frequency of pain in the last 3 months. A clear difference was found between manifest and premanifest HD in terms of intensity of pain, which did not change significantly with HD progression; however, a tendency emerges to a progressive reduction. No significant group difference was present in analgesic use, type and the site of pain. These findings could support a lower prevalence of chronic pain in manifest HD. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain seem directly influenced by the process of neurodegeneration rather than by an incorrect cognitive and emotional functioning.
Background: Currently, the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol), the most-used quantity to express output dose of computed tomography (CT) patient’s dose, is not related to the real sizes and attenuation properties of each patient. The size—specific dose estimates (SSDE), based on the water—equivalent diameter (DW) overcomes those issues. The proposed methods found in literature do not allow real-time computation of DW and SSDE. Purpose: To develop a software to compute DW and SSDE in a real-time clinical workflow. Method: 430 CT studies and scans of a water-filled funnel phantom were used to compute accuracy and evaluate the times required to compute the DW and SSDE. Two one-side tests (TOST) equivalence tests, Bland-Altman analysis and bootstrap-based confidence intervals estimations were used to evaluate the differences between actual diameter and DW computed automatically, and between DW computed automatically and manually. Results: The mean difference between DW computed automatically and the actual water diameter for each slice is -0.027% with TOST confidence interval equal to [-0.087%, 0.033%]. Bland-Altman bias is -0.009% [-0.016%, -0.001%] with lower limits of agreement (LoA) equal to -0.0010 [-0.094%, -0.068%] and upper LoA equal to 0.064% [0.051%, 0.077%]. The mean difference between DW computed automatically and manually is -0.014% with TOST confidence interval equal to [-0.056%, 0.028%] on phantom and 0.41% with TOST confidence interval equal to [0.358%, 0.462%] on real patients. The mean time to process a single image is 13.99 ms [13.69 ms, 14.30 ms] and the mean time to process an entire study is 11.5 s [10.62 s, 12.63 s]. Conclusion: The system shows that it is possible to have highly accurate DW and SSDE in almost real time, without affecting the clinical workflow of CT examinations.
Background and objectives: Digital pathology and artificial intelligence offer new opportunities for automatic histologic scoring. We applied a deep learning approach to IgA nephropathy biopsy images to develop an automatic histologic prognostic score, assessed against ground truth (kidney failure) among patients with IgA nephropathy who were treated over 39 years. We assessed noninferiority in comparison with the histologic component of currently validated predictive tools. We correlated additional histologic features with our deep learning predictive score to identify potential additional predictive features. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: Training for deep learning was performed with randomly selected, digitalized, cortical Periodic acid-Schiff-stained sections images (363 kidney biopsy specimens) to develop our deep learning predictive score. We estimated noninferiority using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) in a randomly selected group (95 biopsy specimens) against the gold standard Oxford classification (MEST-C) scores used by the International IgA Nephropathy Prediction Tool and the clinical decision supporting system for estimating the risk of kidney failure in IgA nephropathy. We assessed additional potential predictive histologic features against a subset (20 kidney biopsy specimens) with the strongest and weakest deep learning predictive scores. Results: We enrolled 442 patients; the 10-year kidney survival was 78%, and the study median follow-up was 6.7 years. Manual MEST-C showed no prognostic relationship for the endocapillary parameter only. The deep learning predictive score was not inferior to MEST-C applied using the International IgA Nephropathy Prediction Tool and the clinical decision supporting system (AUC of 0.84 versus 0.77 and 0.74, respectively) and confirmed a good correlation with the tubolointerstitial score (r=0.41, P<0.01). We observed no correlations between the deep learning prognostic score and the mesangial, endocapillary, segmental sclerosis, and crescent parameters. Additional potential predictive histopathologic features incorporated by the deep learning predictive score included (1) inflammation within areas of interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy and (2) hyaline casts. Conclusions: The deep learning approach was noninferior to manual histopathologic reporting and considered prognostic features not currently included in MEST-C assessment. Podcast: This article contains a podcast at https://www.asn-online.org/media/podcast/CJASN/2022_07_26_CJN01760222.mp3.
Background: Long-term care facility (LTCF) residents often present asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic features of SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aimed at investigating signs/symptoms, including their clustering on SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality rates associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in LTCF residents. Methods: This is a cohort study of 586 aged ≥ 60 year-old residents at risk of or affected with COVID-19 enrolled in the GeroCovid LTCF network. COVID-19 signs/symptom clusters were identified using cluster analysis. Cluster analyses associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality were evaluated using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Cluster 1 symptoms (delirium, fever, low-grade fever, diarrhea, anorexia, cough, increased respiratory rate, sudden deterioration in health conditions, dyspnea, oxygen saturation, and weakness) affected 39.6% of residents and were associated with PCR swab positivity (OR = 7.21, 95%CI 4.78–10.80; p < 0.001). Cluster 1 symptoms were present in deceased COVID-19 residents. Cluster 2 (increased blood pressure, sphincter incontinence) and cluster 3 (new-onset cognitive impairment) affected 20% and 19.8% of residents, respectively. Cluster 3 symptoms were associated with increased mortality (HR = 5.41, 95%CI 1.56–18.8; p = 0.008), while those of Cluster 2 were not associated with mortality (HR = 0.82, 95%CI 0.26–2.56; p = 730). Conclusions: Our study highlights that delirium, fever, and low-grade fever, alone or in clusters should be considered in identifying and predicting the prognosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection in older LTCF patients.
The toxicity of water samples from water distribution plants needs to be investigated further. Indeed, studies on the pro-oxidant effects driven by tap water are very limited. In this study, the water quality, pro-oxidant effects, and potential health risks driven by exposure to groundwater samples from two water plants (sites A and B) located in Northwestern Italy were investigated in a multi-level system. Physicochemical parameters and the absence of pathogens, cyanotoxins, and endocrine active substances indicated a good water quality for both sites. The 25 metals analyzed were found under the limit of quantification or compliant with the maximum limits set by national legislation. Water samples were concentrated by the solid-phase extraction system in order to assess the aquatic toxicity on Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line. Levels of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, and glutathione reductase were evaluated through the Integrated Biomarkers Response (IBRv2) index. EPC cell line was found a sensible model for assessing the antioxidant responses driven by both water concentrates. A similar antioxidant response was shown by plots and IBRv2 suggesting a muted risk for the two sampling sites.
Objective To better define the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19, the present study aims to characterize the early immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection in household contacts of COVID-19 cases. In particular, innate, T- and B-cell specific responses were evaluated over time. Methods Household contacts of COVID-19 cases screened for SARS−CoV−2 infection by nasopharyngeal swab for surveillance purposes were enrolled (T0, n=42). Of these, 28 subjects returned for a follow-up test (T1). The innate response was assessed by detecting a panel of soluble factors by multiplex-technology in plasma samples. Cell-mediated response was evaluated by measuring interferon (IFN)-γ levels by ELISA in plasma harvested from whole-blood stimulated with SARS−CoV−2 peptide pools, including spike (S), nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins. The serological response was assessed by quantifying anti-Receptor-Binding-Domain (RBD), anti-Nucleocapsid (N), whole virus indirect immunofluorescence, and neutralizing antibodies. Results At T0, higher levels of plasmatic IFN-α, IL-1ra, MCP-1 and IP-10, and lower levels of IL-1β, IL-9, MIP-1β and RANTES were observed in subjects with positive swab compared to individuals with a negative one (p<0.05). Plasmatic IFN-α was the only cytokine detectable in subjects with positive SARS-CoV-2 swabs with high accuracy for swab score positivity (0.93, p<0.0001). Among subjects with positive swabs, significant negative correlations were found among the RT-PCR cycle threshold values reported for genes S and N and IFN-α or IP-10 levels. At T0, the IFN-γ T-cell specific response was detected in 50% (5/10) of subjects with positive swab, while anti-RBD/anti-N antibodies showed a positivity rate of 10% (1/10). At T1, the IFN-γ T-cell specific response was detected in most of the confirmed-infection subjects (77.8%, 7/9), whereas the serological response was still observed in a minority of them (44.4%, 4/9). Overall, the swab test showed a moderate concordance with the T-cell response (78.6%, k=0.467), and a scarce concordance with the serological one (72.9%, k=0.194). Conclusions Plasmatic IFN-α and the IFN-γ T-cell specific response appear early even in the absence of seroconversion, and show a greater positivity rate than the serological response in household contacts with positive swab.
Vitamin C has been shown to play a significant role in suppressing progression of leukemia through epigenetic mechanisms. We aimed to study the role of vitamin C in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) biology and clinical course. To this purpose, the plasma levels of vitamin C at diagnosis in 62 patients with AML (including 5 cases with acute promyelocytic leukemia, APL),7 with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), and in 15 healthy donors (HDs) were studied. As controls, vitamins A and E levels were analysed. Expression of the main vitamin C transporters and of the TET2 enzyme were investigated by a specific RQ-PCR while cytoplasmic vitamin C concentration and its uptake were studied in mononuclear cells (MNCs), lymphocytes and blast cells purified from AML samples, and MNCs isolated from HDs. There were no significant differences in vitamin A and E serum levels between patients and HDs. Conversely, vitamin C concentration was significantly lower in AML as compared to HDs (p<0.0001), inversely correlated with peripheral blast‐counts (p=0.029), significantly increased at the time of complete remission (CR) (p=0.04) and further decreased in resistant disease (p=0.002). Expression of the main vitamin C transporters SLC23A2, SLC2A1 and SLC2A3 was also significantly reduced in AML compared to HDs. In this line, cytoplasmic vitamin C levels were also significantly lower in AML-MNCs versus HDs, and in sorted blasts compared to normal lymphocytes in individual patients. No association was found between vitamin C plasma levels and the mutation profile of AML patients, as well as when considering cytogenetics or 2017 ELN risk stratification groups. Finally, vitamin C levels did not play a predictive role for overall or relapse-free survival. In conclusion, our study shows that vitamin C levels are significantly decreased in patients with AML at the time of initial diagnosis, further decrease during disease progression and return to normal upon achievement of CR. Correspondingly, low intracellular levels may mirror increased vitamin C metabolic consumption in proliferating AML cells.
Pain is a minor problem compared with other Huntington Disease (HD) symptoms. Nevertheless, in HD it is poorly recognized and underestimated. So far, no study evaluated the presence of chronic pain in HD. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the presence and features of chronic pain in a cohort of HD gene carriers. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in a cohort of HD gene carriers compared to not gene carriers (n.134 HD subjects, n.74 not gene mutation carriers). A specific pain interview, alongside a neurological, cognitive and behavioural examination, was performed in order to classify the type of pain, subjective intensity. A significant prevalence of “no Pain” in HD was found, which tended to increase with HD progression and a reduced frequency of pain in the last 3 months. A clear difference was found between manifest and premanifest HD in terms of intensity of pain, which did not change significantly with HD progression; however, a tendency emerges to a progressive reduction. No significant group difference was present in analgesic use, type and the site of pain. These findings could support a lower prevalence of chronic pain in manifest HD. Prevalence and intensity of chronic pain seem directly influenced by the process of neurodegeneration rather than by an incorrect cognitive and emotional functioning.
A 92-year-old female with poorly controlled systemic hypertension presented with bilateral eye redness, lid fullness, conjunctival chemosis, ophthalmoplegia, and ptosis for two days. A neuro-ophthalmic evaluation revealed bilateral proptosis, severe conjunctival chemosis and congestion, and an almost complete bilateral ophthalmoplegia with a complete right superior eyelid ptosis. Computed tomography (CT) scans demonstrated bilateral dilation of the superior ophthalmic veins, and a CT angiography (CTA) showed a direct high-flow carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) with secondary extraocular muscle enlargement. Clinicians should be aware that a typical direct high-flow CCF, although usually occurs after trauma and unilaterally, can present spontaneously without trauma and bilaterally.
Background and Aim The novel coronavirus disease 2019 remains challenging. A large number of hospitalized patients are at a high risk of developing AKI. For this reason, we conducted a nationwide survey to assess the incidence and management of AKI in critically ill patients affected by the SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods This is a multicenter, observational, nationwide online survey, involving the Italian Society of Nephrology and the critical care units in Italy, developed in partnership between the scientific societies such as SIN and SIAARTI. Invitations to participate were distributed through emails and social networks. Data were collected for a period of 1 week during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results A total of 141 responses were collected in the SIN–SIAARTI survey: 54.6% from intensivists and 44.6% from nephrologists. About 19,000 cases of COVID-19 infection have been recorded in hospitalized patients; among these cases, 7.3% had a confirmed acute kidney injury (AKI), of which 82.2% were managed in ICUs. Only 43% of clinicians routinely used the international KDIGO criteria. Renal replacement therapy (RRT) was performed in 628 patients with continuous techniques used most frequently, and oliguria was the most common indication (74.05%). Early initiation was preferred, and RRT was contraindicated in the case of therapeutic withdrawal or in the presence of severe comorbidities or hemodynamic instability. Regional anticoagulation with citrate was the most common choice. About 41.04% of the interviewed physicians never used extracorporeal blood purification therapies (EBPTs) for inflammatory cytokine or endotoxin removal. Moreover, 4.33% of interviewed clinicians used these techniques only in the presence of AKI, whereas 24.63% adopted them even in the absence of AKI. Nephrologists made more use of EBPT, especially in the presence of AKI. HVHF was never used in 58.54% of respondents, but HCO membranes and adsorbents were used in more than 50% of cases. Conclusion This joint SIN–SIAARTI survey at the Italian Society of Nephrology and the critical care units in Italy showed that, during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was an underestimation of AKI based on the “non-use” of common diagnostic criteria, especially by intensivists. Similarly, the use of specific types of RRT and, in particular, blood purification therapies for immune modulation and organ support strongly differed between centers, suggesting the need for the development of standardized clinical guidelines.
Background About 26 million people are living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. The DREAM programme in sub-Saharan Africa provides free healthcare for HIV/AIDS and a range of chronic non-communicable diseases. HIV is a risk factor for neurological non-communicable diseases including stroke and epilepsy, which themselves are associated with headache, and HIV may be a direct risk factor for headache. We investigated the prevalence and burden of headache in a HIV+ population in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods At the DREAM Centre in Blantyre, Malawi, a low-income country with a population of 19 million and 9.2% HIV prevalence, a structured questionnaire was administered by a trained lay interviewer to consecutively attending HIV+ patients aged 6–65 years. All were monitored with regular viral load detection. Results Of 513 eligible patients invited, 498 were included (mean age 34.1 ± 12.8 years; 72% females; 15 declined). All were on antiretroviral treatment, with viral load undetectable in 83.9%. The 1-year prevalence of headache was 80.3% (females 83.6%, males 71.9%); 3.8% had ≥15 headache days/month, 1.4% had probable medication-overuse headache. Mean overall headache frequency was 4.4 ± 5.4 days/month. Those reporting headache lost means of 2.3% of paid workdays and 3.3% of household workdays because of headache. Only one third had sought advice for their headache. Conclusions Headache is very prevalent among HIV+ patients in Malawi, imposing additional burden and costs on individuals and the community. Management of headache disorders should be implemented in HIV centres, as it is for other chronic non-communicable diseases.
Background: Immunotherapy has revolutionized the approach to metastatic triple-negative breast cancers (mTNBC). Atezolizumab was approved for patients with mTNBC whose tumours express PD-L1, determined by SP 142 assay. To assess the availability and practice of SP142 test we administered a survey to all the 15 Pathology Departments of the Lazio Region during a 6-months period. Methods: The survey comprised 12 questions regarding the availability of SP142 in the Pathology Departments, the percentage of positive tests, the difficulties of pathologists in case close to cut-off value and the tested samples. Results: The SP142 assay was available only in 8 Centers. In case of positive result, most Centers (5/8, 62.5%) reported values of PD-L1 expression ranging from > 1 to <= 5%, with values close to the cut-off point (≥ 1% or < 1%) being the greatest challenge. Most of Centers (6/8, 75%) tested material from both their own and other Hospitals. In most Centers, the evaluations were performed either on primary tumors or metastasis, in particular lymph nodes (5/8, 62.5%), followed by lung (3/8, 37.5%) and liver (1/8, 12.5%) metastasis. Conclusion: Our results raise some important issues concerning the evaluation of PD-L1 in the “real-life” setting, providing strategies for its implementation.
There is strong evidence for the existence of a high comorbidity between autism and psychosis with percentages reaching up to 34. 8% and several significant implications for treatment and prognosis of these patients. However, the identification of comorbid psychosis in patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder represents a complex challenge from a psychopathological point of view, in particular in patients with greater deficits in verbal communication. Intercepting the onset of a psychotic breakdown in autism may be very difficult, both disorders in fact occur along a phenotypic continuum of clinical severity and in many cases, psychotic symptoms are present in an attenuated form. In this paper, we reviewed the available scientific literature about comorbidity between psychosis and autism, focusing our attention on four specific dimensions: delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms, and clinical course. The aim of this paper is to provide clinical tools to identify these psychotic phenomena in autistic patients, even when they occur in their attenuated form.
This Italian retrospective study aimed to analyze the pharmaco-utilization of anti-VEGF drugs and health care costs among patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) or other ocular diseases. A retrospective analysis was performed on administrative databases of Italian entities covering approximately six million individuals. Across January 2010-December 2017, patients aged ≥50 years with a prescription of intravitreal anti-VEGFs were included as "wAMD" patients [by wAMD hospitalization or intravitreal injections] or as "other ocular diseases" patients [by hospitalization for other ocular disorders or intravitreal injections, with concomitant diabetes diagnosis or dexamethasone treatment]. The date of first matching of inclusion criteria was index-date. wAMD-cohort. Overall, 3879 patients were included; at index-date, 82.2% were treated with Ranibizumab, 15.8% with Aflibercept, and 2% with Pegaptanib. During the follow-up, the mean/annual anti-VEGF prescription [3.6 (first-year)-0.8 (third-year)] and the total expenditure [5799.84 € (first-year)-3212.84 € (third-year)] decreased. Other ocular diseases-cohort. Overall, 2646 patients were enclosed; 85.9% were treated with Ranibizumab, 13.5% with Aflibercept, and 0.6% with Pegaptanib. During the follow-up, the mean/annual anti-VEGF prescription [3.3 (first-year)-0.5 (third-year)] and the total cost [7196.83 € (first-year)-5162.68 € (third-year)] decreased. This observational study highlighted a decline in anti-VEGF prescriptions over time in both cohorts, suggesting a trend of under-treatment that could worsen the patients' clinical outcomes and increase health care resource consumption.
Microplastics (MPs) pollution is arousing growing attention, yet knowledge about its occurrence in amphibians is scant to date. With this study, we aimed to determine whether plastic (>5000 μm) and MPs (10–5000 μm) could be detected in adult Rana temporaria from a high-mountain ecosystem (the Cottian Alps, northwest Italy). To do this, aquatic compartments and the digestive tract of adult R. temporaria were analyzed. Water, sediment, periphyton, aquatic macroinvertebrates, and tadpoles tested negative for plastic and MPs. Microplastics were detected in all the adult frogs (n = 5); all the identified items (one per specimen) were fibers (size range: 550.91–2355.51 µm). A statistically significant positive correlation between the particle length and frog size was recorded. The predominant fiber color was blue. The chemical composition was polyamide (60%), polyethylene (20%), and polyethylene terephthalate (20%). Since both the biotic and the abiotic freshwater compartments (tadpoles included) revealed the absence of MPs, it can be assumed that adult frogs ingest MPs from the surrounding terrestrial environment.
In recent years, ultrasonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) has been widely used to identify the presence of increased intracranial pressure (ICP). Intracranial hypertension is a life-threatening condition that can be caused by various neurological and non-neurological disorders, and it is associated to poor clinical results. Ultrasonography could be used to qualitatively and efficiently detect ICP increases, but to reach this purpose, clear cut-off values are mandatory. The aim of this review is to provide a wide overview of the most important scientific publications on optic nerve ultrasound normal values assessment published in the last 30 years. A total of 42 articles selected from PubMed medical database was included in this review. Our analysis showed that ocular ultrasonography is considered to be a valuable diagnostic tool, especially when intracranial hypertension is suspected, but unfortunately this research provided conflicting results that could be due to the different ultrasound protocols. This is mainly caused by the use of B scan alone, which presents several limitations. The use of B-scan coupled with the standardized A-scan approach could give more accurate, and reliable ultrasound evaluation, assuring higher data objectivity.
Background: Zygomatic implants have been introduced to rehabilitate edentulous patients with severely atrophic maxillae. Their use has been reported by several studies, describing high overall survival rates at medium-long follow-up. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze if a few patient-related and implant-related features are correlated with implant success or the onset of complications. Materials and methods: Data of patients treated with zygomatic implants between May 2005 and November 2012 at three private clinics were collected and retrospectively analyzed. For each implant, the following data were collected: implant length, insertion path, ridge atrophy and sinus characteristics (width, pneumatization, thickness of mucosae, patency of sinus ostium). General patient characteristics and health status data were also recorded. The outcomes evaluated were implant failure, infective complications, early neurologic complications and overall complications. Results: A total of 33 patients (14 men, 17 women, mean age 59.1) that received 67 zygomatic implants were included in the study. The mean duration of the follow-up was of 141.6 months (min 109; max 198). In this period, a total of 16 (23.88%) implants in 8 (24.24%) patients were removed and 17 (51.51%) patients with 36 (53.73%) implants reported complications. Immediate loading resulted in a significantly lower risk of complications compared with the two-stage prosthetic rehabilitation (OR: 0.04, p = 0.002). A thickness of the sinus mucosa > 3 mm emerged to be correlated with a greater occurrence of infective complications (OR: 3.39, p = 0.019). Severe and extreme pneumatization of the sinus was significantly correlated with the incidence of overall complications (p = 0.037) and implant failure (p = 0.044). A large sinus width was predisposed to a higher risk of neurologic complications, infective complications and implant failure (p = 0.036, p = 0.032, p = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions: zygomatic implants are an alternative procedure for atrophic ridge rehabilitation when a conventional implant placement is not possible. Several clinical and anatomical factors can have a significant role in complication occurrence.
Frailty is a critical intermediate status of the aging process with a multidimensional and multisystem nature and at higher risk for adverse health-related outcomes, including falls, disability, hospitalizations, institutionalization, mortality, dementia, and Alzheimer’s disease. Among different frailty phenotypes, oral frailty has been recently suggested as a novel construct defined as a decrease in oral function with a coexisting decline in cognitive and physical functions. We briefly reviewed existing evidence on operational definitions of oral frailty, assessment and screening tools, and possible relationships among oral frailty, oral microbiota, and Alzheimer’s disease neurodegeneration. Several underlying mechanism may explain the oral health-frailty links including undernutrition, sarcopenia linked to both poor nutrition and frailty, psychosocial factors, and the chronic inflammation typical of oral disease. Oral microbiota may influence Alzheimer’s disease risk through circulatory or neural access to the brain and the interplay with periodontal disease, often causing tooth loss also linked to an increased Alzheimer’s disease risk. On this bases, COR388, a bacterial protease inhibitor targeting Porphyromonas gingivalis implicated in periodontal disease, is now being tested in a double-blind, placebo- controlled Phase II/III study in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. Therefore, oral status may be an important contributor to general health, including Alzheimer’s disease and late- life cognitive disorders, suggesting the central role of preventive strategies targeting the novel oral frailty phenotype and including maintenance and improvement of oral function and nutritional status to reduce the burden of both oral dysfunction and frailty.
The sub-Alpine lakes of Switzerland, Italy and France have long been reported as an endemic area of diphyllobothriosis, a parasitic zoonosis caused by Dibothriocephalus latus. With this study, we explored the hypothesis for a relationship between the prevalence of D. latus in Perca fluviatilis and the Escherichia coli load in lake water. To do this, we identified eleven sampling sites in three areas (north, centre and south) of Lake Iseo (north Italy) to determine E. coli load and the prevalence of D. latus in P. fluviatilis. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval (CI) of D. latus infestation ranged from 0% (95% CI: 0.71–0.0) in Sarnico (southern area) to 20% (95% CI: 33.0–11.2) in Pisogne (northern area). There were significant differences in prevalence between the sites (χ² = 31.12; p-value = .0006) and in E. coli load (Kruskal–Wallis test; p-value = .0005). There was decreasing gradient of E. coli load and prevalence of D. latus infestation from north to south. A significant positive correlation (r = .881; p-value = .003) was found between E. coli load and prevalence of D. latus. Also, linear regression showed a significant relationship between E. coli load and prevalence of infestation (R² = .775). Our findings offer an explanation for the link between E. coli load in water and D. latus prevalence. The potential factors in this link are the efficiency of the local wastewater treatment plant, the bathymetric profile of the lake and the life cycle of D. latus, which is mainly affected by light and water temperature.
Purpose: to study the possible association of CT-derived quantitative Epicardial Adipose Tissue (EAT) and glycemia at the admission, with severe outcomes in patients with COVID-19. Methods: 229 patients consecutively hospitalized for COVID-19 from March 1st to June 30th2020 were studied.Non contrast chest CT scans, to confirm diagnosis of pneumonia, were performed. EAT volume (cm³) and attenuation (Hounsfield units) were measured using a CT post-processing software. The primary outcome was acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) or in-hospital death. Results: The primary outcome occurred in 56,8% patients. Fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in the group ARDS/death than in the group with better prognosis [114 (98-144) vs 101 (91-118) mg/dl, p=0,001]. EAT volume was higher in patients with vs without the primary outcome [103 (69,25;129,75) vs 78,95 (50,7;100,25) cm³, p <0,001] and it was positively correlated with glycemia, PCR, fibrinogen, P/F ratio. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, age and EAT volume were independently associated with ARDS/death. Glycemia and EAT attenuation were risk factor for ARDS/death with a trend of statistical significance. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that both blood glucose and EAT, measurable and modifiable targets, could allow the early identification of subjects at greater risk of developing severe complications.
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