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The structural relationships of the forts, Wall curtain and Vallum are reviewed and a revised sequence of construction for Hadrian's Wall is proposed. The original plan (Stage 1) incorporated much of the earlier Trajanic frontier (the Stanegate) and probably included the Devil's Causeway which ran north-eastwards from Corbridge. Forts were then added to the line of the Wall as a result of three modifications of the plan (Stages 2–4), continuing until late in Hadrian's reign. The Vallum was added in Stage 3. Hadrian probably conceived the original plan for the Wall, but the modifications that followed seem to have been consequences of shifting focuses of loyalty, resistance and outright warfare, beyond and behind the frontier.
The male of Aulacus castiglionii Perioto, Lara, and Turrisi, 2020 is described and illustrated, and new distribution records from Brazil and Argentina are given. Aulacus lucens Smith, new species is described and illustrated from Argentina and Uruguay and separated from similar species. A lectotype is designated for Aulacinus gaullei Kieffer, 1904.
The North American sawflies (Hymenoptera) occurring north of Mexico with larvae feeding on ferns (Polypodiopsida) are reviewed. They include the introduced European stipe borer Heptamelus dahlbomi (Thomson) (Heptamelidae) and 21 external feeders in the tribes Aneugmenini and Strongylogastrini (Tenthredinidae: Selandriinae). Host and distribution records are summarized for each species, and descriptions of larvae are provided where available. The first USA records are given for the introduced Palearctic species Strongylogaster macula (Klug) (previously known from Canada). New host records include: Athyrium asplenioides var. angustum (Willd.) T. Moore (Athyriaceae) for Aneugmenus flavipes (Norton), S. macula, and Thrinax albidopicta (Norton); Onoclea sensibilis L. (Onocleaceae) for S. impressata Provancher; and Osmunda claytoniana L. (Osmundaceae) for S. polita Cresson. A list of fern species and their sawfly associates is provided, including descriptions of unidentified larvae.
Two species of North American sawflies are newly reported to feed on plants in the family Asteraceae, bringing the total to four, all in the genus Macrophya Dahlbom. Larvae of M. phylacida Gibson feed on Verbesina spp. and those of M. senacca Gibson feed on Solidago spp. The larvae of each are described and illustrated.
Although commercial hook and line fisheries pose a well-documented and significant threat to worldwide sea turtle populations, recreational hook and line fisheries remain understudied. This article describes information from sea turtle bycatch reported from interactions in the recreational hook and line fishery, as well as survey results from recreational anglers in Virginia from 2014 through 2018. Reports of interactions increased annually during the study with Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) reported most frequently (n = 162), followed by 45 loggerheads (Caretta caretta), 6 green turtles (Chelonia mydas), and 39 unidentified sea turtles. Commonly encountered bait types were similar between surveyed anglers and bait used during turtle interactions, with significantly more squid bait noted during turtle interactions (51%) than used by surveyed anglers (29%) (2 = 41.32, p < 0.0001). Additionally, bloodworms and artificial bait were encountered comparatively less frequently during turtle interactions. Overall, interactions with the hook and line recreational fishery in Virginia appear opportunistic and involve otherwise healthy animals, presenting limited means for mitigating sea turtle bycatch. In the absence of regulatory oversight of bycaught sea turtles in the recreational fishery, mitigating injury from these interactions through targeted outreach provides a short-term solution to reducing the severity of these inevitable interactions.
My visit to the Stateless Heritage exhibition at the Mosaic Rooms, London, led me to reexamine how the concept of “heritage” is used to create and preserve particular narratives of the state, in this case by proposing Dheisheh Refugee Camp in Palestine as a World Heritage Site. Central to the exhibition was the madafeh , seen as a space of openness and hospitality. I am not a refugee and do not speak for refugees. I interpret the Decolonizing Art and Architecture Research (DAAR) collective’s decolonizing project in the context of attempts to make room for people seeking asylum within “asylum dispersal areas” such as Doncaster, where I live—attempts in which the madafeh could play an important role.
This article describes international educational partnerships developed in the intellectual tradition of John Dewey’s philosophies of pragmatism and progressive education. In his international work in China and Japan, Dewey sought what might be called “collective intelligence” via cross-cultural experiences fostering democracy through international understanding of the multiple “truths” endemic to different cultures. These partnerships provide models for consideration at a time of growing global unease in the wake of contemporary international tensions somewhat reminiscent of what was described in the United States after World War ii as the Cold War. If anything, current tensions are more complex, intractable, and dangerous because they are driven not only by “superpower” rivalries, but also by regional conflicts involving religious ideologies, mass human migrations, urgent environmental problems, and widespread terrorism and violence. Created primarily during the 1970s and 1980s, the described educational partnerships were intended to foster international understanding through exchanges that paralleled the citizen “people to people” movements of the time that provided critical popular support enabling leaders in the United States, Europe, and the Soviet Union to bring an end to the Cold War and, for a time, collaborate in the optimistic expectation of creating a new world order of cooperation, understanding, and stability.
Long Island Sound and the Great Peconic Bay (New York) contain southern barrier lagoons and eastern bays and are known habitats for foraging juvenile populations of sea turtles during summer months. Every year, sea turtles strand throughout these areas due to climate-related cold snaps that typically occur in the late fall and lead to cold-stunning, a physiological temperature shock similar to hypothermia that renders turtles unable to swim and prone to wash up onto beaches. Cold-stunning events in this area tend to last longer than a few weeks and typically affect juvenile Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), juvenile green (Chelonia mydas) and subadult loggerhead (Caretta caretta) sea turtles. The New York Marine Rescue Center, formally known as the Riverhead Foundation for Marine Research and Preservation, is the sole rehabilitation facility for cold-stunned sea turtles in New York and responds to the second-largest number of cold stuns in the Greater Atlantic Region, which encompasses marine ecosystems from Maine to North Carolina. Since 1998, a total of 510 sea turtles have been recovered from New York state waters or beaches between the months of October and February. Of these 510 cases, 5 individuals restranded under similar conditions following rehabilitation and release, resulting in 505 distinct sea turtles stranding due to cold-stunning. These 505 cold-stunned sea turtles were composed of 3 different species: 281 L. kempii (56.0%), 174 C. mydas (31.3%), 48 C. caretta (9.5%), and 2 hybrids (0.4%). Over the course of 22 yrs, stranding frequency varied from 3 to 85 turtles per season, with an average of 23. However, a large increase in stranding numbers began in 2007; average stranding numbers from 1998 to 2006 were 7 per season, increasing to 34 per season from 2007 to 2019. Multiple factors are likely contributing to the increase in stranding/rescue frequency such as the gradual warming of northern waters (which may entice turtles farther north and prevent their timely southern migration), development of a free public outreach program targeted at educating patrons about local sea turtle populations, and implementation of an effective beach patrolling system. More efficient management of patrolling efforts has contributed to the quick response time and resulting increase in live turtle rescues. In addition, modification and enhancement of in-house treatment protocols have contributed to the upward trend of successfully rehabilitated cold-stunned turtles. Understanding historical cold-stun trends will allow local and national organizations to identify needs and allocate funding for conservation initiatives of endangered Atlantic sea turtle populations.
It is an undeniable fact that Visman and Ingamells’s works provide valuable additions to the Theory of Sampling. This paper shows real cases where their approaches gave valuable information to better understand the complex heterogeneity of low content constituents that led to better sampling and subsampling protocols. These case studies are: Cobalt assays in a lateritic ore led to the conclusion that some areas were very low in cobalt content. A closer look at the data using Ingamells’s approach proved that conclusion completely wrong. The estimation of low content iron in high purity ammonium paratungstate using 1-gram subsamples for the analytical method proved to be affected by a severe Poisson Process giving the illusion of a product being within specification when in fact it was a very bad product. It should be emphasized that there are probably thousands of similar cases in many industries, as the result of economists not communicating enough with knowledgeable technical staff.
Prior to 1957 Dr. Pierre Gy knew two objectives needed to be addressed to optimize the sample mass with respect to well defined Data Quality Objectives; these two objectives were: First, determine the appropriate sample mass to represent all fragments size fractions present in the lot to be sampled, being perfectly aware that the size fraction most difficult to sample was the size fraction made of the largest fragments. The logic was that the content of the constituent of interest changes from one size fraction to the next. Second, determine the appropriate sample mass to represent the largest particles of a given constituent of interest in a specific state of comminution. Basically, someone had to make the calculation twice and select the worst outcome as the necessary sample mass. To overcome this difficulty and provide a valid formula for both cases, Dr. Pierre Gy created his famous formula accounting for the size of the largest fragments and taking care of the size of the largest particles of the mineral of interest by introducing the concept of the liberation factor for a given state of comminution. This was at the time a huge academic achievement. However, it is well known that over the years this formula and the determination of the liberation factor led to arguments, controversy, and vast misuse from sampling practitioners. That new revolutionary approach that was suggested by Dr. Pierre Gy turns out to be too complicated for sampling practitioners to resolve their sampling problems effectively, and not be the target of unfair criticism. This paper suggests a wise return to the old strategy making the calculations twice and determine what is the worst scenario to determine the necessary sample mass. The approach is simple, with no necessary determination of a liberation factor, and unlikely to lead to errors due to the inherent complexity of Dr. Pierre Gy’s famous formula.
Aims The aim of the PULsE-AI trial was to assess the effectiveness of a machine learning risk-prediction algorithm in conjunction with diagnostic testing for identifying undiagnosed atrial fibrillation (AF) in primary care in England. Methods and results Eligible participants (aged ≥30 years without AF diagnosis; n = 23,745) from six general practices in England were randomised into intervention and control arms. Intervention arm participants, identified by the algorithm as high risk of undiagnosed AF (n = 944), were invited for diagnostic testing (n = 256 consented); those who did not accept the invitation, and all control arm participants, were managed routinely. The primary endpoint was the proportion of AF, atrial flutter, and fast atrial tachycardia diagnoses during the trial (June 2019 to February 2021) in high-risk participants. AF and related arrhythmias were diagnosed in 5.63% and 4.93% of high-risk participants in intervention and control arms respectively [odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]): 1.15 (0.77-1.73), p = 0.486]. Among intervention arm participants who underwent diagnostic testing (28.1%), 9.41% received AF and related arrhythmia diagnoses [vs 4.93% (control); OR (95% CI): 2.23 (1.31-3.73), p = 0.003]. Conclusions The AF risk-prediction algorithm accurately identified high-risk participants in both arms. Whilst the proportions of AF and related arrhythmia diagnoses were not significantly different between high-risk arms, intervention arm participants who underwent diagnostic testing were twice as likely to receive arrhythmia diagnoses compared to routine care. The algorithm could be a valuable tool to select primary care groups at high risk of undiagnosed AF who may benefit from diagnostic testing.
The upper elevation limit of Cylindropuntia acanthocarpa is often reported as either 1,200 or 1,300 m, despite the type locality being at 1,465 m. We provide 31 herbarium records from over 1,300 m elevation, 23 personal iNaturalist photographic records from 1,700-1,900 m, and evidence that the upper limit of C. acanthocarpa may be 2,000 m.
Objective The purpose of this study is to provide Level-1 objective, real-world outcome data for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis suffering from neurogenic claudication secondary to hypertrophic ligamentum flavum(HLF). Design The MOTION Study is a prospective, multi-center, randomized controlled trial comparing the mild® Procedure as a first-line therapy in combination with non-surgical conventional medical management (CMM) to CMM alone as the active control. Methods Patients in the test group received the mild Procedure at baseline. Both the mild+CMM and the control group were allowed unrestricted access to conventional real-world therapies. Patient reported outcomes included Oswestry Disability Index, Zurich Claudication Questionnaire, and Numeric Pain Rating Scale. A validated Walking Tolerance Test, incidence of subsequent lumbar spine interventions, and occurrence of adverse events were used to measure objective outcomes. Results Sixty-nine patients in each group were analyzed at 1-year follow-up. No device or procedure-related adverse events were reported in either group. Results from all primary and secondary outcome measures showed statistical significance in favor of mild+CMM. Conclusions One-year results of this Level-1 study demonstrated superiority of mild+CMM over the use of CMM-Alone for LSS patients suffering from neurogenic claudication secondary to HLF. Use of the validated Walking Tolerance Test to objectively measure increased ability to walk without severe symptoms provided evidence of statistically-significantly better outcomes for mild+CMM versus CMM-Alone. With no reported device or procedure-related adverse events, the long-standing safety profile of the mild Procedure was reaffirmed. mild is a safe, durable, minimally-invasive procedure that has been shown to be effective as an early interventional therapy for patients suffering from symptomatic LSS.
The offshore Talara Basin is the western extension of the hydrocarbon producing onshore fields since the mid-1800s area of Peru and is also located above the subduction zone of the active continental margin of South America. The offshore portion was evaluated using high quality 3D seismic where mapping horizons are all unconformities within the Eocene as well as the unconformities at the top Paleocene and top Cretaceous. Possible source rocks are the Cretaceous black marine shales of the Campanian Redondo Formation, the limestones of the Albian Muerto Formation, and the marine shales of the Paleogene. The primary target offshore is expected to be deep-water turbidites of Paleocene/Eocene age with a depositional source from the northeast from highlands created by the compressional uplift of the Andes. The main seals offshore are expected to be shales of the upper Eocene Lagunitos Formation and shales in the Chacra Formation, which are also seals in the onshore Litoral field. Thermal maturation modeling shows that two hydrocarbon kitchens exist in the offshore portion of the Talara basin, one in the north and another in the south. The probable Cretaceous source rocks reached the onset of maturity (VR=0.63%) at a depth of 3,250 to 3,285 m (10,663-10,778 ft) between 30 and 39 Ma (Late Eocene to Oligocene). Importantly, the Cretaceous source rocks stay within the oil window once they enter it in the late Eocene. Satellite studies show a large offshore present-day oil seep in the southern part of the basin and 3D seismic shows direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) imaged as flat spots and bottom simulating reflectors (BSR). Basin modeling suggests hydrocarbon migration pathways would have been updip (to the east) into the onshore traps and would therefore have first filled the offshore traps along the migration pathway. We conclude that the Talara Basin offshore offers excellent exploration opportunities in a proven productive area where multiple prospects have been mapped. RESUMEN. Potencial de hidrocarburos de la cuenca Talara costa afuera, Perú. La cuenca Talara costa afuera es la extensión occidental de su parte continental que contiene los campos petroleros productores de hidrocarburos desde mediados del siglo XIX en Perú. Esta se encuentra sobre la zona de subducción en el margen activo de los Andes, donde la placa oceánica de Nazca está subduciendo bajo la continental de América del Sur. La porción marina de la cuenca se evaluó utilizando un relevamiento sísmico 3D de alta calidad donde los horizontes de mapeo interpretados son discordancias dentro del Eoceno, así como del Paleoceno superior y el Cretácico Superior. Las posibles rocas generadoras son las lutitas marinas negras del Cretácico de la Formación Redondo (Campaniano), las calizas de la Formación Muerto (Albiano) y las lutitas marinas del Terciario temprano. Se propone que el objetivo principal de la exploración petrolera en alta mar sean las turbiditas de aguas profundas del Paleoceno/Eoceno originadas por aportes desde las tierras altas del noreste, 2
This work is the first in a series of catalogues on the bryophytes of the oldest National Forest of the USA, the Shoshone National Forest. Bordering Yellowstone National Park and being a part of the Greater Yellowstone System, the Forest has retained a wide spectrum of its pristine representative areas, which support a unique bryophyte flora. Based on over 4600 specimens, the catalogue of the bryophytes of the Wyoming's Beartooth Plateau, the northernmost territories of the Forest, has been produced. This bryoflora is composed of 282 species (45 liverworts and 237 mosses) in the study area, representing approximately 53% of the Wyoming bryophyte flora. The richness of the flora is due to the high diversity of habitats, caused by the geological history of this portion of the Central Rocky Mountains, location of the study area essentially in the subalpine and alpine belts, climatic and hydrologic features, and low anthropogenic disturbance. The high elevations and associated habitat conditions allow for many disjunct arctic-alpine species (approximately 25% in the bryophyte flora). Remarkable extensions of upper elevation limits for 72 taxa are registered. Fifteen species, two subspecies, and two varieties of liverworts, as well as 56 species and eight varieties of mosses have not previously been reported for Wyoming in Flora of North America and Synopsis of Liverwort Flora of North America North of Mexico. Thirty-nine taxa (five species of liverworts and 32 species and two varieties of mosses) are of potential conservation concern in Wyoming, including two rare species with Pacific coastal affinities, Philonotis yezoana Besch. & Cardot and Sphagnum miyabeanum Warnst., and one species of extreme northern habitats, Sciuro-hypnum glaciale (Schimp.) Ignatov & Huttunen, being a novelty for continental North America. Brachythecium erythrorrhizon Schimp. var. alpinum Kosovich-Anderson & Ignatov was recently described, using material collected as part of this study.
Toenail onychomycosis is a common condition that is equally challenging for podiatrists and patients. This case study documents a 26-year-old woman with bilateral total dystrophic onychomycosis of at least 5 years' duration. She had previously failed to respond to treatment with ciclopirox nail lacquer 8% and despite hiding her condition with nail polish, was suffering from embarrassment, distress and low self-esteem. At initial consult, one hundred percent of both great toenails were affected. After discussion of all treatment options, the patient opted for topical efinaconazole 10% solution, once daily for 48 weeks. Significant improvement was noted at the first (4 week) assessment period. This improvement was maintained through each subsequent virtual consult and complete cure was seen at a 30-week follow-up visit. To the author's knowledge this is the first published report on the use of efinaconazole in total dystrophic onychomycosis. It suggests that the product may be effective in patients with even the most severe and treatment recalcitrant disease, who are unwilling or unable to tolerate systemic antifungal therapy.
As a companion to the Thylacine Image Registry (Sleightholme & Campbell, 2021), the authors present the first comprehensive catalogue of the thirteen known motion picture films of the Thylacine or Tasmanian tiger (Thylacinus cynocephalus). The films date from 1911 to 1935, are all black and white, and range from 5 to 59 seconds in duration. The authors provide detail on the content and history behind each of the films, the cinematographers responsible for their creation, the locations in which they were filmed, and the identity, or probable identity, of each of the Thylacines shown.
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