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, the process of making a telephone call A telephone call starts with picking up the phone [step (0) in figure 1] and ends when either side puts the horn down [step (4)]. By picking up the phone a connection is made to the telephone exchange (called the home exchange). In step (1) the caller dials a phone number that is used by the home exchange to determine a route towards the destination; the exchange then attempts to contact the destination exchange (possibly via several intermediate steps). The destination exchange triggers the ring tone of the destination terminal (phone). Step (2) starts when the called party answers the phone. Stepwise the connection is set up starting at the destination along the route determined in step (1) (but in reversed order) to the caller. In step (3) the connection is used: the two parties have their conversation or whatever. In step (4) after the horn is put down at either side, the lines used for the connection are one by one released.  

, the process of making a telephone call A telephone call starts with picking up the phone [step (0) in figure 1] and ends when either side puts the horn down [step (4)]. By picking up the phone a connection is made to the telephone exchange (called the home exchange). In step (1) the caller dials a phone number that is used by the home exchange to determine a route towards the destination; the exchange then attempts to contact the destination exchange (possibly via several intermediate steps). The destination exchange triggers the ring tone of the destination terminal (phone). Step (2) starts when the called party answers the phone. Stepwise the connection is set up starting at the destination along the route determined in step (1) (but in reversed order) to the caller. In step (3) the connection is used: the two parties have their conversation or whatever. In step (4) after the horn is put down at either side, the lines used for the connection are one by one released.  

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Telecommunications services are for long subject to privacy regulations. At stake are traditionally: privacy of the communication and the protection of traffic data. Privacy of the communication is legally founded. Traffic data subsume under the notion of data protection and are central in the discussion. The telecommunications environment is profo...

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Context 1
... reason being that the developments in the EU are rather well documented and moreover it is not in the scope of this paper to investigate regional differences. For an overview of the European regulations, refer to A telephone call starts with picking up the phone [step (0) in figure 1] and ends when either side puts the horn down [step (4)]. By picking up the phone a connection is made to the telephone exchange (called the home exchange). ...
Context 2
... major issue at this very moment is the opening up of the 'local loop 39 ', simply said that is the connection between the private home and the home telephone exchange. Referring to figure 1, the processes on the far left and right hand sides of the diagram use the local loop, while interconnection concerns the middle part indicated by dotted arrows. ...
Context 3
... telecommunications service is usually a two-way point-to-point connection of which the end-points need to be known, otherwise no connection can be set up. For a fixed telephony network this is obvious: before a connection can be established, a route has to be determined from the caller to the receiver so as to make a reservation on the intermediate fixed lines, refer to Figure 1. Since the lines are fixed, the route carries (implicitly) geographical data with it. ...
Context 4
... designs start from the point where the mobile phone is on the network. Referring to Figure 1, step 0 has been made and the network operator is therefore the (legitimate) source of the location data. ...

Citations

... Analyzing churn features from consumer data invades sensitive information from subscribers. Consumer privacy is sacrificed to decipher the 'value' within data to improve digital marketing and in turn the revenue [11]. Furthermore, such data may be shared with third party vendors for recognizing the ever growing interests of consumers. ...
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With miscellaneous information accessible in public depositories, consumer data is the knowledgebase for anticipating client preferences. For instance, subscriber details are inspected in telecommunication sector to ascertain growth, customer engagement and imminent opportunity for advancement of services. Amongst such parameters, churn rate is substantial to scrutinize migrating consumers. However, predicting churn is often accustomed with prevalent risk of invading sensitive information from subscribers. Henceforth, it is worth safeguarding subtle details prior to customer-churn assessment. A dual approach is adopted based on dragonfly and pseudonymizer algorithms to secure lucidity of customer data. This twofold approach ensures sensitive attributes are protected prior to churn analysis. Exactitude of this method is investigated by comparing performances of conventional privacy preserving models against the current model. Furthermore, churn detection is substantiated prior and post data preservation for detecting information loss. It was found that the privacy based feature selection method secured sensitive attributes effectively as compared to traditional approaches. Moreover, information loss estimated prior and post security concealment identified random forest classifier as superlative churn detection model with enhanced accuracy of 94.3% and minimal data forfeiture of 0.32%. Likewise, this approach can be adopted in several domains to shield vulnerable information prior to data modeling.
... Granted that research into ethical implications of other technologies that can be used to track individuals has already been performed (DeCew 2004;Introna 2005;Penders 2004;Van Wel and Royakkers 2004;Zimmer 2005), we believe that each tracking technology has its defining characteristics, which influences the ethical risks and implications in its own individual manner. For instance, GPS is best used outdoors (Guillemette et al. 2008). ...
... We thus postulate that from its very nature, RFID inherently contains some potential ethical issues because the technology was specifically designed as a method of uniquely identifying and tracking objects. In the case of RFID, tracking is not a by-product as can be the case with other technologies that can be used to track individuals such as vehicle safety communications (Zimmer 2005), telecommunications services (Penders 2004) or genetic research (Van Wel and Royakkers 2004). ...
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Academic research into RFID technology has largely neglected ethics. What scarce research was being performed has now dwindled despite having some consumers continue to express their ethical concerns. This article aims at reducing this apparent void by exploring the antecedents that cause the public to react when consumers are targeted by RFID technology. Through the analysis of 11 real RFID implementations used to target consumers, our research indicates that several factors can influence consumer response through the distinct nature of the technology, namely, (1) Customization of communications, (2) Imposition of tag use, (3) Segmentation and targeting, (4) Modified role of the sales representative, (5) Physical distance between the consumer and the tag, and (6) Security of transactions. The article then proposes a construct to determine the risk of raising consumer ethical concerns. The construct of “Connective Proximity” and its three components (physical proximity, exposure time, and information proximity) are defined. Our research highlights the need for further studies on the ethical considerations of tagging humans and specifically tracking consumers when performing marketing activities with RFID technology. Our article aims at invigorating research on this topic, which has a lot to contribute to both society and corporations.
... Since their definition, many new definitions have been proposed. The one presented by the British Committee on privacy and related material covers the known aspects of privacy [37] : "the right of every individual to be protected against any intrusion into his personal life, career or his family by physical means or via a direct disclosure of information. ...
... In [37], the targeted platform for the implementation of these components has been the Micro Edition of the Java 2 platform, with the Connected Device Configuration, the Foundation Profile, and the Personal Profile. Authors have, also, evaluated privacy. ...
Article
This thesis aims at proposing a semantic framework that integrates a meta-model and reasoning tools allowing any ubiquitous system designer to easily implement mechanisms to manage privacy policies. The proposed framework includes a generic middleware architecture that provides components to define, manage and monitor the implementation of privacy policies. Our approach is an hybrid one based on Model-Driven Engineering and a reasoning based on ontologies and inference rules operating on the assumption of the closed world. The proposed meta-model is characterized by a high level of abstraction and expressiveness to define privacy policies management regardless of the domain application and can be adapted to different contexts. It defines, also, a conceptual framework for generic decidable modelling rules to make consistent control decisions on user privacy. These model rules are implemented using the SmartRules language that could implement an adaptive control. The latter is based on a non-monotonic reasoning and representation of instances of concepts according to the unique name assumption. We have validated the proposed semantic framework through a typical scenario that implements support ambient intelligence privacy-aware services for elderly.
... 3) The operator has to make an effort to hide information that can directly identify the user (Penders, 2004) (e.g. user name and phone number) even when providing authorized access to user data for third parties and specific-purpose operator-managed software like our spam detection system. ...
Article
Voice over IP (VoIP) is a cost effective mechanism for telemarketers and criminals to generate bulk spam calls. A challenge in managing a VoIP network is to detect spam calls without user involvement or content analysis. In this paper we present a novel content independent, non-intrusive approach based on caller trust and reputation to block spam callers in a VoIP network. Our approach uses call duration, interaction rate, and caller out-degree distribution to establish a trust network between VoIP users and computes the global reputation of a caller across the network. Our approach uses historical information for automatically determining a global reputation threshold below which a caller is declared as socially non-connected and as a spammer. No VoIP data-set is available for testing the detection mechanism. We verify the accuracy of our approach with synthetic data that we generate by randomly varying the call duration, call rate, and out-degree distributions of spammers and legitimate users. This evaluation shows that our approach can automatically detect spam callers in a network. Our approach achieves a false positive rate of less than 10% and true positive rate of almost 80% in the first two days even in the presence of a significant number of spammers. This increases to a true positive rate of 99% and drops a false positive rate to less than 2% on the third day. In a network with no spammers, our approach achieves a false positive rate of less than 10%. In a network heavily saturated with more than 60% of spam callers, our approach achieves a true positive rate of 98% and no false positives. We compare the performance of our approach with a closely related spam detection approach named Call-Rank. The results show that our approach outperforms Call-Rank in terms of detection accuracy and detection time.
... In Europe, the principle of data confidentiality was defined in article 8 of the European Convention of Human Rights in 1950 [10,13]. The issue we want to emphasize is the possibility that this data get into the hands of third parties, having no connection to medical process, which could use these data or could commercialize them. ...
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The comfort and security are features we want to represent all things we interact with. A fortiori, the challenges go up when our health is at stake. If we add the age or an illness that keeps you down the bed the situation is more critical. The ethical debates are concerned with the abyss existing between the doctor and the patient, when the treatment is excessively intermediated by technologies. The ethical issues deal with the confidentiality, the confidence in the physician, the patient's safety and the developing of social handicaps related to the lack of direct communication. The technologies evolved to such a degree that intelligent flats, aimed at a complete monitoring of the patient and at sending the data to any medical health care providing institution were developed. These lead to a doctor-patient relationship beyond the classical medical office.
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The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from consumers' perspective toward Thai mobile service providers. Based on the survey from 400 mobile customers, the result shows that four dimensions of CSR of Thai mobile service providers consist of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. These four CSR factors have positive impacts on enhancing customer satisfaction except one item of economic responsibility - profitability to shareholders. Ethical dimension has the strongest impact on customer satisfaction. Economic, legal, ethical, philanthropic responsibility and customer satisfaction have major impact on loyalty, whilst philanthropic component mostly affects loyalty.
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Location based services (LBS) are among ICT developments that potentially put the privacy of individuals at risk. LBS technology allows for tracking and tracing the location of mobile phones or other terminal equipment. The increased possibility to know people's whereabouts, both in a geographical and temporal sense, is posing the question of possibility versus desirability with regard to location privacy. The central question that this article aims to answer is how may location privacy needs of cell phone users be balanced with national security needs of society? Through a study of literature and rulings of the European Court of Human Rights a balancing framework was developed. The framework allowed for the assessment of the situation in the Netherlands, Germany and Canada with respect to the location data from mobile devices used by intelligence and security agencies to protect the national security. The research shows that the balancing should account for the totality of the circumstances. As for general interferences with the right to privacy also interferences with location privacy are very contextsensitive. A true balancing should be accomplished on a case-by-case basis. It is not a priori to be determined whether and to what extent location privacy is at stake. In all case studies similar requirements were found that should be taken into account in the decision what means to use in which instances. From the available published data, we expect that the use of these means varied among the case studies significantly, however. A proper balancing strongly builds on the balancing process, especially when balancing is very context-sensitive. This process should be just with adequate safeguards against abuse.
Article
Full-text available
Location based services (LBS) potentially put the privacy of individuals at risk. The increased possibility to know people's whereabouts is posing the question of possibility versus desirability with regard to location privacy. The central question that this article aims to answer is how location privacy needs of cell phone users may be balanced with national security needs of society? Through a study of literature and rulings of the European Court of Human Rights a balancing framework was developed. The framework allowed for the assessment of the situation in the Netherlands, Germany and Canada with respect to the location data from mobile devices used by intelligence and security agencies to protect the national security. The research shows that the balancing should account for the totality of the circumstances. A true balancing should be accomplished on a case-by-case basis. It is not a priori to be determined whether and to what extent location privacy is at stake. A proper balancing strongly builds on the balancing process, especially when balancing is very context-sensitive. This process should be just with adequate safeguards against abuse.
Conference Paper
This paper investigates the current status of Information System Security (ISS) within New South Wales State government agencies in Australia. A 3-year longitudinal survey was used to increase awareness and motivate ISS managers. In addition, the survey was used as a management tool to monitor compliance with ISS standard’s controls (AS/NZS17799:2001). In 2004 an amendment to the standard added critical success factors (CSFs) as being necessary for an agency’s movement to accreditation. An analysis of the CSFs results was undertaken to determine the status of an independently acting agency’s security readiness and they were summarized to then provide an overall measure. This measure provided a ‘benchmark’ for an agency’s security readiness to the standard’s CSFs (AS/NZS17799:2004.AMDT). While the process for improving security based on CSFs is adequate, actual improvement in ISS across government requires further effort. This research contributes to the level of understanding of ISS compliance within e-Government.
Article
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To date, many important threads of information privacy research have developed, but these threads have not been woven together into a cohesive fabric. This paper provides an interdisciplinary review of privacy-related research in order to enable a more cohesive treatment. With a sample of 320 privacy articles and 128 books and book sections, we classify previous literature in two ways: (1) using an ethics-based nomenclature of normative, purely descriptive, and empirically descriptive, and (2) based on their level of analysis: individual, group, organizational, and societal. Based upon our analyses via these two classification approaches, we identify three major areas in which previous research contributions reside: the conceptualization of information privacy, the relationship between information privacy and other constructs, and the contextual nature of these relationships. As we consider these major areas, we draw three overarching conclusions. First, there are many theoretical developments in the body of normative and purely descriptive studies that have not been addressed in empirical research on privacy. Rigorous studies that either trace processes associated with, or test implied assertions from, these value-laden arguments could add great value. Second, some of the levels of analysis have received less attention in certain contexts than have others in the research to date. Future empirical studies — both positivist and interpretive — could profitably be targeted to these under-researched levels of analysis. Third, positivist empirical studies will add the greatest value if they focus on antecedents to privacy concerns and on actual outcomes. In that light, we recommend that researchers be alert to an overarching macro-model that we term APCO (Antecedents -> Privacy -> Concerns -> Outcomes).