TABLE 1 - uploaded by Robert V. Levine
Content may be subject to copyright.

Source publication
Article
Full-text available
This study compared the pace of life in large cities from 31 countries around the world. Three indicators of pace of life were observed: average walking speed in downtown locations, the speed with which postal clerks completed a simple request (work speed), and the accuracy of public clocks. Overall, pace of life was fastest in Japan and the countr...

Context in source publication

Context 1
... ranks and means for each country on each of the pace variables are shown in Table 1. It may be seen that Japan and the Western European coun- tries (more precisely, the non-ex-Soviet bloc countries of Western Europe) had the fastest overall pace of life scores. ...

Citations

... It also takes several inputs for vertiport surface management strategies such as aircraft separation and taxiway blocking during take-off and landing. The parameters of VertiSim used in this study, such as average human walk speed and aircraft ground speed, are determined from the literature and by subject-matter experts [22,23]. ...
... To construct the traversal cost maps, we assume that humans walk at 1.38 m per second on paved surfaces, based on the median value reported in a 31-country study by Levine and Norenzayan (1999). We account for slower travel over different land types based on differences in traversal times relative to paved surfaces for each land cover classification (see Supplementary Section 3 for travel time per LULC type). ...
Article
Full-text available
Modeling how communities benefit from common-property, depletable ecosystem services, such as non-timber forest product (NTFP) extraction, is challenging because it depends on agent proximity to resources and competition among agents. This challenge is greater when agents face complex economic decisions that depend on the state of the landscape and the actions of other agents. We address this complexity by developing an agent-based model, founded on standard economic theory, that defines household production and utility functions for millions of spatially-explicit economic agents. Inter-agent competition is directly modeled by defining how NTFP extraction of one agent changes the extraction efficiency and travel-time of nearby agents, thereby modifying agents’ profit functions and utility maximization. We demonstrate our simulation using Tanzania as a case study. Our application relies on estimates of NTFP stocks, local wages, and traversal times across a landscape network of grid-cells, which we derive using geospatial and household data. The results of our simulation provide spatially explicit and aggregate estimates of NTFP extraction and household profit. Our model provides a methodological advance for studies that require understanding the impacts of conservation policies on households that rely on natural capital from forests. More broadly, our model shows that agent-based approaches to spatial activity can incorporate valuable insights on decision-making from economics without simplifying the underlying theory, making strong assumptions on agent homogeneity, or ignoring spatial heterogeneity.
... The second most prevalent experience in London relates to a fast-pace of life and the large quantity of people in the city. Supporting dwellers' perspective, evidence shows that London possesses characteristics that have been correlated with a faster pace of living, such as high population density (Bornstein, 1979;Bornstein & Bornstein 1976), colder weather, economic vitality and individualism (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). In Levine and Norenzayan's (1999) cross-cultural comparison of pace of life in 31 cities, London was the 6th fastest city. ...
... Supporting dwellers' perspective, evidence shows that London possesses characteristics that have been correlated with a faster pace of living, such as high population density (Bornstein, 1979;Bornstein & Bornstein 1976), colder weather, economic vitality and individualism (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). In Levine and Norenzayan's (1999) cross-cultural comparison of pace of life in 31 cities, London was the 6th fastest city. For ...
... However, further elaboration on the topic showed that for many participants, the fast-paced life had been internalised; some said they were used to it, while others considered it a personal preference. In line with this paradox, evidence shows that fast pace of life is associated with negative health outcomes, such as higher rates of death from coronary heart disease and smoking but at the same time, with increased levels of SWB (Garhammer, 2002;Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). Garhammer (2002) considers different explanations for such findings. ...
Thesis
Subjective wellbeing (SWB) encompasses experiencing positive emotions, the absence of negative emotions and judgments of life satisfaction. One might expect that individuals living in societal conditions that better fulfil predictors of SWB are happier than those living in less favourable conditions. However, levels of SWB in some Latin American countries are similar or even higher than those in some more developed countries in Western Europe, despite the well-documented social challenges faced within the region. This discrepancy highlights an important issue in SWB research: the discounting of diverse cultural factors in the construction of happiness. Bringing together social representations theory and cultural models, this thesis examines SWB in common sense thinking –and its underpinning cultural forces– of people living in London and Mexico City. Two cross-cultural studies were conducted using the Grid Elaboration Method (GEM), a novel free association and interview technique. In the first study, experiences of the city of 24 London and 24 Mexico City dwellers were investigated. Thematic analysis of the data suggested that representations of the self and the other guided participants’ emotional and cognitive experiences associated with living in the city. Moreover, it identified the special relevance that feelings of detachment and relegation from the environment had in London dwellers’ unhappiness and the influence that family had for Mexico City dwellers’ SWB. Building on these results, the second study examines in more depth the representation of family in 24 London dwellers and 24 Mexico City dwellers. Following the same methodology it was found that cultural values underpinned conceptualisations of relatedness and autonomy, which shaped participants’ practices and affective experiences associated with family. This work makes a unique contribution in contextualising the plethora of quantitative SWB data and invites the consideration of socio-cultural factors in the design and implementation of SWB-related interventions and policies.
... Supporting this idea, Darley and Batson [22] demonstrated that people rushed under experiment will be less likely to stop in reaction to confusion and thus arrive at their destination earlier. Concerning measuring the time and speed of walking, Levine and Norenzayan [23] measured the preferred walking speed of pedes-trians in urban areas in 31 countries correlated with several factors and a measure of individualism in society. They revealed that many people walk around 1.4 m per second (5 Km/h; 4.6 Ft/s) and others can walk at speeds of more than 2.5 m/s (9.0 Km/h; 8.2 Ft/s). ...
Article
Full-text available
Space organization and space layout in buildings are complex issues in architectural design. People spend most of their lives in offices, yet office buildings still get little attention. This paper examines the potential role of office space typologies in saving distance and time spent by users communicating between these spaces. The study adopts multiple methodologies to scrutinize users' paths and track their movement. Diversity in methodologies provides a deep understanding of how spatial configurations of these spaces affect users' movement. Three office buildings were selected in Erbil city to represent three different office space typologies. The study revealed the effective role of office space typologies in influencing the level of user satisfaction and comfort, concluding that the most influential factors in providing distances and time are circulation patterns, entry and exit locations that require considering function, organizational and administrative structure of building spaces, and balancing between horizontal and vertical accessibility. Ó 2022 THE AUTHORS. Published by Elsevier BV on behalf of Faculty of Engineering, Ain Shams University. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by-nc-nd/4.0/).
... Gender-and age-stratified WS reference (i.e., normative) values are established for healthy adults from different countries around the world, as summarized in a metaanalytical study (Bohannon & Williams Andrews, 2011). Ethnic background, geographic, socio-economic, and/or environmental factors all affect WS (Al-Obaidi et al., 2003;Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). Within the state of Qatar, more than 50% of the population do not engage in regular PA (Qatar National Physical Activity Guidelines, 2021). ...
... Indeed, 44% of Qatari females achieve <5,000 steps per day (Sayegh et al., 2016); despite the on-going communitybased walking program (i.e., step into health), an intervention to increase PA levels utilizing wearable technologies. Subsequently, as well as the environment affecting PA levels, it may also affect WS (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). Although PWS and MWS have previously been related to factors such as maximal strength of lower extremities (Bohannon, 1997) or obesity (Fernández Menéndez et al., 2019), it is unclear how components of PA influence WS outcome measures in healthy young adults. ...
... However, given that MWS (i.e., step cadence) has been linked to morbidity and mortality, and that >70% of Qatari adults are overweight or obese, it is essential to establish age-and gender-stratified WS across the state of Qatar, as this is the first step to improving the Qatar NPAG, and developing public health interventions. Slower PWS and MWS in the present study and existing data within the Arab region, compared to worldwide data, may be due to geographic, environmental, and/or cultural factors (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999). Cities with the slowest WS were more likely to have warm climates and emphasize collectivistic culture. ...
Article
Full-text available
Walking speed (WS) is considered an important indicator for overall health. Despite this, there is a paucity of data relating to WS values in the Arab region. The present study aims to establish preferred (PWS) and maximal walking speeds (MWS) in young adults in Qatar and examine how gender, body mass index, and physical activity (PA) components influence WS. One hundred ninety-six healthy participants (age: 22 ± 2 years; 60% females) performed a standardized walking test on a flat 10-m pathway, completed the short form of the International PA Questionnaire, and had their height and weight measured. PWS and MWS were normalized for height (rPWS and rMWS). Results. Females demonstrated slower PWS, MWS, and rMWS compared to males. Moreover, MWS and rMWS were lower in obese participants compared to underweight, normal weight and overweight individuals. There was a significant positive relationship only between vigorous PA and rPWS and rMWS. This is the first study to establish reference WS values for healthy young adults in Qatar. Overall, we demonstrated that WS was lower compared to similar adults worldwide. The established healthy walking values can serve as reference for clinical evaluations within Qatar. Future PA guidelines and public health interventions should focus on WS values.
... The width (shoulder width) ranges from 0.24m to 0.67m, while the length ranges from 0.2m to 0.45m. The speed of a pedestrian can range from 4.5km/hr (average walking speed) to 10.5 km/hr (average running speed) [66]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is tremendous global enthusiasm for research, development, and deployment of autonomous vehicles (AVs), e.g., self-driving taxis and trucks from Waymo and Baidu. The current practice for testing AVs uses virtual tests-where AVs are tested in software simulations-since they offer a more efficient and safer alternative compared to field operational tests. Specifically, search-based approaches are used to find particularly critical situations. These approaches provide an opportunity to automatically generate tests; however, systematically creating valid and effective tests for AV software remains a major challenge. To address this challenge, we introduce scenoRITA, a test generation approach for AVs that uses evolutionary algorithms with (1) a novel gene representation that allows obstacles to be fully mutable, hence, resulting in more reported violations, (2) 5 test oracles to determine both safety and motion sickness-inducing violations, and (3) a novel technique to identify and eliminate duplicate tests. Our extensive evaluation shows that scenoRITA can produce effective driving scenarios that expose an ego car to safety critical situations. scenoRITA generated tests that resulted in a total of 1,026 unique violations, increasing the number of reported violations by 23.47% and 24.21% compared to random test generation and state-of-the-art partially-mutable test generation, respectively.
... The Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZPTI) offers a normative understanding of individual and cultural differences in time-orientation. Extensive data collected using ZPTI point to three categories of time perspective: individuals and cultures can be past-oriented, present-oriented, and future-oriented (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999;Sircova et al., 2014). Time perspective influences individuals' sense of duration (i.e., a sense of how much time has passed, how quickly it has passed, or a sense of boredom vs. excitement). ...
... International ZPTI data suggest that post-industrial economies such as Canada, Australia, the United States and much of Western Europe tend to be future-oriented, while nations with more agricultural based economies are more present-oriented (Sircova et al., 2014). Time perspective is closely tied to pace of life (Levine & Norenzayan, 1999), where high levels of industrialization require a futureorientation, leading to a faster pace of life in which people attempt to fit a great deal of productive activity into the day, ranging from commutes, long and high-paced work schedules, and often commercialized leisure. Comparatively slower paced life might include cultural traditions seemingly at odds with productivity, such as the (recently controversial) Spanish siesta (Reilly, 2016). ...
Article
In education, time is a scarce commodity. Through prescriptive policy, and scripted curriculum in some jurisdictions, policy makers attempt to steal local teacher and learner control over what is taught, how it is taught, and what is learned. That theft amounts to a heist. While clock-time cannot (and should not) be disregarded, this paper offers a critique of conventional views on time as it is embedded in neoliberal education policy and practice. In this paper we ask how education can better contribute to more durable learning by taking up alternate conceptions of time. By dispensing with high levels of standardization and prescription and instead focusing on an education of experience, relevant to learners and not bound by chronos, schools might encourage la durée, or durable learning, resulting in education focusing on teaching students how to live well with others in a meaningful .
... Such a situation is similar to the concern of using drones to take images, where the presence of strong winds might affect the camera stability and consequently the image quality, as suggested by Ellenberg et al. [6]. The walking speed is anticipated to be slower than the average walking speed of a typical person, i.e., 1.4 m/s as reported by several studies [21,77,78], due to the weight of the data collection system. The distances from the structural elements has to be kept optimal to acquire high-quality images. ...
Article
This paper presents a framework for automated defect inspection of the concrete structures, made up of data collection, defect detection, scene reconstruction, defect assessment and data integration stages. A mobile data collection system, comprising a 360° camera and a digital Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), is developed to render high flexibility of data acquisition of image and three-dimensional spatial data, while users traverse complex indoor environments. Deep learning algorithms are implemented to efficiently detect defects from the collected images, and a simultaneous localization and mapping algorithm is adopted for site reconstruction with the acquired LiDAR data. Based on the images of detected defects, assessment is conducted to evaluate the defect conditions, complemented with the defect dimensions estimated from the aligned image and LiDAR data. The position of defects could also be identified and mapped to respective structural elements. All the inspection results are finally integrated into existing Building Information Modelling files for better facility management. The proposed workflow was validated using a case study for determining concrete cracks and spalls in a real-world facility, successfully demonstrating the joint application of advanced technologies in facilitating inspection programs of civil infrastructure.
... Walking speed: This test was conducted for all kinds of sensors. Two walking speeds were tested, including a normal walking speed (around 1.4 m/s [72][73][74]) and a fast walking speed (around 2.5 m/s [75]). ...
Article
Full-text available
Occupancy-based control (OBC) in smart buildings provides numerous potentials to improve building energy efficiency. To achieve effective OBC, the occupancy status of a space or a building needs to be well understood in terms of whether the space is occupied and how many people are in the space. Well-designed and selected people counting technologies are cornerstones for OBC. However, the study and application of such technologies in OBC are relatively new. There are few mature people counting sensors available on the market. In addition, there is a lack of standardized guidance to comprehensively test, evaluate and compare the performance of people counting sensors, which further limits the selection and application of them in OBC. Hence, an innovative testing protocol was developed to fill in the gap. This paper introduces the design of the protocol with eight diversities and discusses case studies that evaluated four representative types of people counting sensors following the proposed protocol. It is found that the protocol can effectively guide a comprehensive evaluation of the selected sensors and lead to informative findings on the sensor performance. The test results can provide insights and suggestions not only for sensor developers to improve the sensor hardware and software design but also for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system designers and building managers to select the proper people counting sensors for OBC design. The test results on the sensor accuracy can also support additional evaluations of integrated OBC and building system operation. It is anticipated that the developed methodology can offer guidance on the test and evaluation of other occupancy sensing technologies.
... The impact of this choice on the performance comparison of the analysed strategies was marginal, but it allowed us to reduce the simulation time considerably. We considered a default walking and cycling velocity of 1.4 m/s and 4 m/s, respectively [38,39]. However, since we used straight-line movements, and in order to adjust to more realistic values, we applied a velocity factor of 0.614. ...
Article
Full-text available
Vehicle-sharing systems—such as bike-, car-, or motorcycle-sharing systems—have become increasingly popular in big cities in recent years. On the one hand, they provide a cheaper and environmentally friendlier means of transportation than private cars, and on the other hand, they satisfy the individual mobility demands of citizens better than traditional public transport systems. One of their advantages in this regard is their availability, e.g., the possibility of taking (or leaving) a vehicle almost anywhere in a city. This availability obviously depends on different strategic and operational management decisions and policies, such as the dimension of the fleet or the (re)distribution of vehicles. Agglutination problems—where, due to usage patterns, available vehicles are concentrated in certain areas, whereas no vehicles are available in others—are quite common in such systems, and need to be dealt with. Research has been dedicated to this problem, specifying different techniques to reduce imbalanced situations. In this paper, we present and compare strategies for recommending stations to users who wish to rent or return bikes in station-based bike-sharing systems. Our first contribution is a novel recommendation strategy based on queuing theory that recommends stations based on their utility to the user in terms of lower distance and higher probability of finding a bike or slot. Then, we go one step further, defining a strategy that recommends stations by combining the utility of a particular user with the utility of the global system, measured in terms of the improvement in the distribution of bikes and slots with respect to the expected future demand, with the aim of implicitly avoiding or alleviating balancing problems. We present several experiments to evaluate our proposal with real data from the bike sharing system BiciMAD in Madrid.