shows the correlation matrix found with the symmetrical uncertainty algorithm on the best features. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 26

shows the correlation matrix found with the symmetrical uncertainty algorithm on the best features. Appl. Sci. 2021, 11, x FOR PEER REVIEW 14 of 26

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In recent decades, the use of technological resources such as the eye tracking methodology is providing cognitive researchers with important tools to better understand the learning process. However, the interpretation of the metrics requires the use of supervised and unsupervised learning techniques. The main goal of this study was to analyse the r...

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... Creating features and choosing what to base them on is a tricky job; thus help from specialists in the problem domain is essential. Saiz-Manzanares et al. (2021) used more than 30 features to characterize the eye-tracking data collected for statistical analysis, including counting fixations, saccades, and blinks, such as their frequency, duration, and dispersion. The eye tracker used had a sampling rate of 60Hz. ...
... Although we have to keep straight to our goals, it is relevant to cite that a higher sampling rate (700Hz-1200Hz) would gather more information about the head and eye movements (STEIN et al., 2021), thus opening the way to build more features to represent the time-series. -MANZANARES et al., 2021), and others were based on the distance between the gaze and the task's figure position. This second type tries to reflect the child's performance in terms of the task goals (i.e., follow the figure). ...
... Since we are detecting only fixations and saccades, counting the number of saccades would not be relevant for the CA because it would always be one less than the FC. Nonetheless, information from saccades regarding their duration and amplitude (ASD, ASA, SAMax) can be useful (SAIZ-MANZANARES et al., 2021). ADT takes the average distance from the gaze to the figure, and ADTL/ADTR do it separately, which seems to be an interesting approach since the oculomotor system can have problems with different parts of the visual field (GERSTENBLITH; RABINOWITZ, 2021). ...
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Vision impairments in children are harmful to their learning process, cognitive development, social interaction, and scholar performance. In recent years, new technologies have been applied for vision screening tests, sharpening traditional techniques and enabling the early diagnosis of different kinds of debilitation on the visual system functionality. Eye-tracking is a widely used technique applied for different purposes, and when it comes to vision assessment and training, it is greatly suitable. This work aims to apply feature engineering and cluster analysis techniques within eye-tracking data collected from children performing structured visual tasks. Feature engineering creates meaningful attributes for the recordings in terms of performance and data quality, and the exploratory analysis covers different configurations for the clustering methods and their hyper-parameters. Cluster validation metrics evaluate the clustering results’ quality, and domain expert acknowledgment is essencial for trustful inferences regarding the children’s oculomotor system’s health. In order to streamline the exploratory analysis and facilitate the experiments, we also propose a framework for Cluster Analysis of the eye-tracking data.
... María Consuelo Sáiz-Manzanares et al. [15] analyze the results obtained with the eye tracking methodology by applying statistical tests and supervised and unsupervised machine learning techniques, and to contrast the effectiveness of each one. The parameters of fixations, saccades, blinks and scan path, and the results in a puzzle task were found. ...
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Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of investigation of the mind and intelligence [...]
... Novas formas de aprender foram inegavelmente incorporadas a partir da evolução tecnológica. A conectividade, a possibilidade de decidir o quê e como se aprende, a superação da barreira espaço-tempo para a aprendizagem e a valorização da aprendizagem informal ampliaram as possibilidades de aquisição de conhecimento ao mesmo tempo que propiciaram novas formas de ensinar (González-Sanmamed et al., 2018;Sáiz-Manzanares et al., 2021). A gama de opções disponíveis é tão vasta que permite ao estudante não apenas escolher e personalizar a procura de conteúdos, como também eleger a forma mais agradável ou mais prática de apresentação do tema buscado. ...
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As intensas mudanças ocorridas nas últimas décadas impactaram os indivíduos, as organizações e a sociedade como um todo. Neste contexto, o ensino superior passou a ser entendido como tendo um papel central na compreensão dos processos e desafios de tais mudanças, bem como na busca de soluções para os problemas atuais e futuros. O presente trabalho apresenta uma reflexão sobre os desafios desta etapa da educação em contexto mundial e destaca algumas particularidades da situação brasileira e portuguesa. Mais concretamente, será dada ênfase às questões relacionadas com a expansão do ensino superior, com a incorporação da tecnologia como ferramenta de ensino e de aprendizagem, com as demandas para a formação profissional, com a necessidade de rever conteúdos, metodologias e papéis de estudantes e professores, com os processos de formação de professores e, ainda, com as ações afirmativas. Considerando o contexto atual, reflete-se também acerca das mudanças associadas ao ensino à distância e às estratégias de enfrentamento em resposta à pandemia da Covid-19. Ao resgatar os objetivos e os desafios do ensino superior, procura-se consolidar a importância da própria universidade como espaço privilegiado para a construção dos alicerces de uma sociedade democrática mais justa e igualitária, ao mesmo tempo em que deve se constituir como instância promotora de mudanças efetivas no “aqui e agora” face aos relevantes desafios que a humanidade atravessa.
... Indeed, a well-designed presentation should direct the user's scanning to the desired targets with few interim fixations, which should result in quicker and larger saccades. However, added visual realism induced shorter and slower saccades, which indicates difficulties in extracting visual elements, preceded by longer fixations that indicate a greater processing demand (Negi & Mitra, 2020;Sáiz-Manzanares et al., 2021). Regarding the effect of the level of player expertise, our results revealed, as expected, no interaction between player expertise and visual realism but a significant main effect of player expertise. ...
Article
In this study we aimed to examine the effect of visual realism on soccer players’ memorization of soccer tactics according to their level of expertise and visuospatial abilities. We divided 48 volunteers into novice and expert soccer players and had them first perform a multitask visuospatial abilities (VSA) test and then undergo training with three dynamic soccer scenes, each presented with varied levels of realism (schematic, moderately realistic and highly realistic). We then tested players’ memorization and reproduction of the soccer scenes and measured their visual processing with eye-tracking glasses to identify their cognitive processes during memorization. We found that reducing visual realism improved visual processing and memorization when compared to higher realism (p < .001). Second, both higher (versus lower) player expertise and higher (versus lower) VSA influenced visual processing and enhanced memorization efficiency (p < .001). Third, there were significant interaction effects between visual realism, player expertise, and player VSA (p < .001) such that players with high VSA benefited more from reduced (versus accentuated) visual realism than did players with low-VSA. Thus, increasing visual realism can hinder tactical learning effectiveness, especially for learners who lack domain expertise and visuospatial abilities. Practically speaking, coaches and educators might improve their communications by tailoring tactical instructions to learners’ cognitive skills.
... Feature extraction used morphological analysis [33], frequency distribution [36] and prioritization techniques [33]. Finally, we performed clustering analysis [37], topic modeling analysis [38], analysis by classifications [37], and analysis by regressions [39]. ...
... Feature extraction used morphological analysis [33], frequency distribution [36] and prioritization techniques [33]. Finally, we performed clustering analysis [37], topic modeling analysis [38], analysis by classifications [37], and analysis by regressions [39]. ...
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A jurisprudence search system is a solution that makes available to its users a set of decisions made by public bodies on the recurring understanding as a way of understanding the law. In the similarity of legal decisions, jurisprudence seeks subsidies that provide stability, uniformity, and some predictability in the analysis of a case decided. This paper presents a proposed solution architecture for the jurisprudence search system of the Brazilian Administrative Council for Economic Defense (CADE), with a view to building and expanding the knowledge generated regarding the economic defense of competition to support the agency’s final procedural business activities. We conducted a literature review and a survey to investigate the characteristics and functionalities of the jurisprudence search systems used by Brazilian public administration agencies. Our findings revealed that the prevailing technologies of Brazilian agencies in developing jurisdictional search systems are Java programming language and Apache Solr as the main indexing engine. Around 87% of the jurisprudence search systems use machine learning classification. On the other hand, the systems do not use too many artificial intelligence and morphological construction techniques. No agency participating in the survey claimed to use ontology to treat structured and unstructured data from different sources and formats.
... Because of the difference in electric potentials between the retina and cornea of the eye, the potential increases where the cornea approaches as the eye moves [9]. Eye movements can be measured using optical or infrared cameras [10][11][12][13]. Camera-based methods have higher accuracy than EOG methods but suffer from limitations such as their high cost, complicated setup, and inconsistent recognition rates because of the variability in eyelid/eyelash movements among different individuals and contrast differences depending on the surrounding environment [4]. 2 ...
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Eye writing is a human–computer interaction tool that translates eye movements into characters using automatic recognition by computers. Eye-written characters are similar in form to handwritten ones, but their shapes are often distorted because of the biosignal’s instability or user mistakes. Various conventional methods have been used to overcome these limitations and recognize eye-written characters accurately, but difficulties have been reported as regards decreasing the error rates. This paper proposes a method using a deep neural network with inception modules and an ensemble structure. Preprocessing procedures, which are often used in conventional methods, were minimized using the proposed method. The proposed method was validated in a writer-independent manner using an open dataset of characters eye-written by 18 writers. The method achieved a 97.78% accuracy, and the error rates were reduced by almost a half compared to those of conventional methods, which indicates that the proposed model successfully learned eye-written characters. Remarkably, the accuracy was achieved in a writer-independent manner, which suggests that a deep neural network model trained using the proposed method is would be stable even for new writers.
... Learning new information is another function that can be assessed and analyzed more automatically with gaze-tracking. Using simple measures such as the number of saccades, fixations, and blinks, it was shown that supervised and unsupervised machine-learning classification methods can provide learning profiles across different age groups [31]. Other, more abstract cognitive functions, can be probed with new eye-tracking interfaces. ...
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The emergence of innovative neurotechnologies in global brain projects has accelerated research and clinical applications of BCIs beyond sensory and motor functions. Both invasive and noninvasive sensors are developed to interface with cognitive functions engaged in thinking, communication, or remembering. The detection of eye movements by a camera offers a particularly attractive external sensor for computer interfaces to monitor, assess, and control these higher brain functions without acquiring signals from the brain. Features of gaze position and pupil dilation can be effectively used to track our attention in healthy mental processes, to enable interaction in disorders of consciousness, or to even predict memory performance in various brain diseases. In this perspective article, we propose the term ‘CyberEye’ to encompass emerging cognitive applications of eye-tracking interfaces for neuroscience research, clinical practice, and the biomedical industry. As CyberEye technologies continue to develop, we expect BCIs to become less dependent on brain activities, to be less invasive, and to thus be more applicable.