Table 2 - uploaded by Michel van Wassenhoven
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regulated CaM in different European countries. X: year of legalisation unknown. Y: new law in preparations.

regulated CaM in different European countries. X: year of legalisation unknown. Y: new law in preparations.

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Article
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Paper aims at considering all important aspects of the scientific framework of homeopathic practice, looking at the levels of scientific evidence of each aspect in an objective way, through an extensive review of literature. Levels of evidence considered are: I) existence of meta-analyses and/or systematic positive reviews of literature; IIa) multi...

Citations

... 107 Practitioners of homeopathy portray the dispute between conventional medicine and homeopathy as a war between opposing paradigms, in which the dominant paradigm overlooks the capacity of alternative paradigms to provide competing explanations that are not less legitimate. 108 The risk inherent in this strategy is that the ECH and other homeopathic RSIs (e.g., ECCH, ICH) may isolate themselves from the broad scientific community in a way that can make it difficult for them to cooperate with public health organizations such as the World Health Organization or the British National Health Service (NHS). ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present article is to develop a better understanding of the institutional dynamic of transnational regulatory scientific institutions (RSIs). RSIs play a significant role in the transnational regulatory process by mediating between the scientific community and policy-making bodies. I argue that RSIs have a hybrid structure involving both political-legal and epistemic authority. The hybrid structure of RSIs, their capacity to exert both normative and epistemic authority, constitutes an innovative response to the demand of modern society for scientific certainty and to the scarcity of normative power in the international domain. This hybrid nature has a triple structure, involving three complementary pairs: law~science, law~non-law, and science~pseudoscience. I examine the way in which RSIs cope with the challenge of maintaining their epistemic and legal authority against the tensions generated by their hybrid structure. The discussion of hybrid authority is related to the problem of scientific uncertainty. I examine this theoretical argument drawing on an in-depth analysis of three RSIs that reflect the institutional diversity of the RSI network: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the European Committee of Homeopaths (ECH). I conclude with a discussion of some of the policy issues associated with the institutional design of RSIs. The policy discussion refers first to the risk posed by RSIs' hybrid structure to their internal stability; and second to some potential adverse social impacts which need to be considered alongside RSIs' projected benefits.
... Recent evolution of the Belgian legislation related to the registration of homeopathic remedies as medicines (Royal Decrees of 14/12/2006 and 20/12/2007), prompted the Belgian Royal Academy of Medicine and the Medical Council (Ordre des médecins/Orde van geneesheren) to reaffirm their position towards homeopathy. One year after its publication, the Belgian Royal Academy of Medicine gave an advice on this report called "Scientific framework of Homeopathy: Evidence based homeopathy" 5,13 . Against what the Academy considered as dogmatic conclusions (such as "the facts proposed in this report are indisputable"), she concluded that controversies are not closed but still open at both empirical and rational levels of the homeopathic pharmacology. ...
... During the evaluation of homeopathic medicinal products, the commission for homeopathic medicinal products for human and veterinary use could formulate advice requiring medical prescription for some homeopathic medicinal products taking into account some criteria such as the character of the indication and the need of a medical doctor's supervision. 5 Information on the content of the procedures was provided by personal communication of the FAGG/AFMPS ...
Technical Report
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http://kce.fgov.be/publication/report/homeopathy-state-of-affairs-in-belgium
... In HD phenomena, a remarkable fact is their application in medicine for more than 200 years, with countless reports on positive results [15]. However, it must be stressed that from the standpoint of a general theory of HD, homeopathy is just one application, namely the clinical use of HD; there are further instances of clinical use of HD as, e.g. ...
... The receiver may be a biological system of any kind or level of organization: micro-organisms, cells, tissues, plants, animals, human beings, but also non-biological systems, as, e.g. in the experiments of thermoluminescence [15]. In both cases, however, a basic distinction is needed between the notions of: 1) interpretant, which is the system that receives signs, reacts in a way or another, and is a part of the semiosis that makes HD a sign; and 2) the interpreters of laboratory or clinical researches, which in turn may be of two kinds, instrumental and human. ...
Article
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This article is an attempted sketch for a semiotic perspective about the HD phenomena, from their production, signification and meanings to possible fields of research. On the grounds of classic semiotic notions, it is proposed the model of “iconic transmission” which posits HD signs as icons. As a working hypothesis, it might be useful to explain the anomalous aspects of HD, which fall outside the scope of traditional science grounded on the notion of matter.
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the present article is to develop a better understanding of the institutional dynamic of transnational regulatory scientific institutions (RSIs). RSIs play a significant role in the transnational regulatory process by mediating between the scientific community and policy-making bodies. I argue that RSIs have a hybrid structure involving both political-legal and epistemic authority. The hybrid structure of RSIs – their capacity to exert both normative and epistemic authority – constitutes an innovative response to the demand of modern society for scientific certainty and to the scarcity of normative power in the international domain. This hybrid nature has a triple structure involving three complementary pairs: law~science, law~non-law and science~pseudoscience. I examine the way in which RSIs cope with the challenge of maintaining their epistemic and legal authority against the tensions generated by their hybrid structure. The discussion of hybrid authority is related to the problem of scientific uncertainty. I examine this theoretical argument drawing on an in-depth analysis of three RSIs that reflect the institutional diversity of the RSI network: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the European Committee of Homeopaths. I conclude with a discussion of some of the policy issues associated with the institutional design of RSIs. The policy discussion refers, first, to the risk posed by RSIs’ hybrid structure to their internal stability and, second, to some potential adverse social impacts that need to be considered alongside RSIs’ projected benefits.
Article
The objective of the present article is to develop a better understanding of the institutional dynamic of transnational regulatory scientific institutions (RSIs). RSIs play a significant role in the transnational regulatory process by mediating between the scientific community and policy-making bodies. I argue that RSIs have a hybrid structure involving both political-legal and epistemic authority. The hybrid structure of RSIs, their capacity to exert both normative and epistemic authority, constitutes an innovative response to the demand of modern society for scientific certainty and to the scarcity of normative power in the international domain. This hybrid nature has a triple structure, involving three complementary pairs: law~science, law~non-law, and science~pseudoscience. I examine the way in which RSIs cope with the challenge of maintaining their epistemic and legal authority against the tensions generated by their hybrid structure. The discussion of hybrid authority is related to the problem of scientific uncertainty. I examine this theoretical argument drawing on an in-depth analysis of three RSIs that reflect the institutional diversity of the RSI network: the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), and the European Committee of Homeopaths (ECH). I conclude with a discussion of some of the policy issues associated with the institutional design of RSIs. The policy discussion refers first to the risk posed by RSIs' hybrid structure to their internal stability; and second to some potential adverse social impacts which need to be considered alongside RSIs' projected benefits.
Article
Full-text available
Registration or authorization of homeopathic medicines in Europe requires the presentation of different type of data including scientific research results (HMA - EMA - EUDRALEX). Provings, clinical verifications are the traditional inputs but clinical trials and/or basic research results are also welcome. Today new knowledges about homeopathic dynamization may allow to consider homeopathic medicines as a special case inside nanomedicine.
Article
Full-text available
‘ It has been my rule through life never to accept anything as true, unless it came as near mathematical proof as possible in its domain of science; and, on the other hand, never to reject anything as false, unless there was stronger proof of its falsity’ --- Constantine Hering From its inception, Homoeopathy was formed on pure observation. The experiments which led Hahnemann to develop Homoeopathy were based on the predictions he made following his discovery that the symptoms of poisoning with Cinchona officinalis resembled the disease condition for which it was successfully employed therapeutically. This observation, together with Hahnemann's acquaintance with earlier literature from various authors, who had already hinted at the Similia concept, along with his six years of conducting provings and testing his predictions led him to propose a rational approach to therapeutics. This conceptual approach paved the path for this newly discovered and systematized LAW OF SIMILARS. It should be noted that the Law was moulded as a consequence of inductive reasoning following many years of observation and experimentation. Homoeopathic system of therapeutics has broad scientific parameters like pathogenetic trials, standardization of the drugs, clinical verification to confirm the action of these drugs and clinical research. This article emphasizes on the evidence of Homoeopathic efficacy through clinical research. There are numbers of studies reflecting the cost effectiveness of the homoeopathic treatment over the conventional as well as other alternative systems of medicines. Though this aspect is not highlighted further and the focus remains on the clinical research. Homoeopathic system of medicine is always being criticized by conventional medicine but if we search current literature enough evidence is available to accept Homoeopathy as a complete science.