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pH values of the fresh different meat types during chilled storage at 2 • C.

pH values of the fresh different meat types during chilled storage at 2 • C.

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This paper studies the changes that occur in free amino acid and biogenic amine contents of raw meats (beef, pork, lamb, chicken and turkey) during storage (2 °C, 10 days). The meat cuts samples were harvested from a retail outlet (without getting information on the animals involved) as the following: Beef leg (four muscles), pork leg (five muscles...

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... initial pH levels were significantly higher in pork (6.70) followed by turkey, chicken, lamb and beef (Table 1). This variance could be due to post mortem metabolism difference between species. ...
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... initial values were related to the kind of the cut for each species and its quality according to the rigor's resolution. The pH increased in all meat types during storage, except for pork, and at the end of the storage they were between 6.01 and 7.34 (Table 1). These results agree with previous reports in different types of meats, also during refrigerated storage [30]. ...
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... values are commonly associated with meat spoilage when it reaches levels higher than 6 Log cfu/g [34]. The high levels reported during the experiment were in relation of the high pH levels of the samples (Table 1). ...
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... breast (1 muscle) 74.29 ± 3.60 b4 95.66 ± 2.12 c5 102.63 ± 1.48 d4 62.71 ± 1.37 a4 Beef leg (4 muscles) 13.53 ± 0.61 a1 25.33 ± 0.27 b2 25.09 ± 0.62 b2 37.79 ± 1.07 c2 ...
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... leg (5 muscles) 77.50 ± 4.35 a2 132.94 ± 6.63 b3 229.78 ± 42.86 c3 207.48 ± 0.23 c3 Lamb leg (7 muscles) 86.56 ± 0.10 a3 106.78 ± 0.98 b1 127.48 ± 2.46 c2 147.51 ± 3.50 d1 Turkey leg (4 muscles) 201.33 ± 10.70 a4 267.32 ± 3.10 c4 257.94 ± 1.62 b3 394.50 ± 0.36 d5 Chicken breast (1 muscle) 234.30 ± 10.49 b5 349.56 ± 6.08 c5 415.68 ± 6.08 d4 217.34 ± 5.40 a4 Beef leg (4 muscles) 67.54 ± 0.94 a1 117.96 ± 2.37 b2 119.51 ± 2.12 b1 203.98 ± 0.26 c2 ND: Not Detected. Each value is the mean of three replicates per meat sample and storage day ± standard deviation (SD). ...

Citations

... White meat samples (chicken and turkey) contained a high value of total free amino acids, as compared to red meat (lamb, beef and pork), which was similar to our results. On the other hand, during the storage of both red and white meat, the quantities of free amino acids changed, which is also similar to our results [32]. Gómez-Limia et al. [33] processed European eels using different processing techniques and stored them at different intervals. ...
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: The present study was planned to determine the effect of kale leaf powder and gamma rays on variation in pH, amino acids and fatty acids value of chicken meat at different storage intervals. The significant changes (p≤0.05) were measured in pH, amino acids and fatty acids value of chicken meat on different treatments (KLP (1% and 2%) and gamma ray (3kGy)) at 0, 7 and 14 days of storage. The pH value of the chicken meat sample decreased with the addition of kale leaf powder whereas, the enhancement was found on 3kGy with the passage of time. During different storage intervals, the minimum reduction in amino acids and fatty acid profile of chicken meat samples were measured after gamma irradiation treatment. However, with the addition of KLP, the value of amino acids and fatty acids in chicken meat samples was improved. Conclusively, the pH was observed to be reduced on combined treatment (irradiation + KLP) whereas, the 2% KLP improved the amino acids and fatty acid profile of chicken samples
... The major cause for increase in the tyrosine values might be due to proteolysis brought either by microbial growth or chemical reaction (Kowaleet al., 2005). These results are in agreement with Triki et al., (2018) in meat and in poultry and fish muscles. ...
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Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh, India during 2018-2019.The objective of this study was to assess the keeping quality of aerobically packed functional chicken sausages under refrigeration by using ground vegetable oilseeds on physico-chemical, proximate, microbiological and sensory properties of the product.Low-fat chicken sausages incorporated with three different ground vegetable oilseeds (poppy, sesame and peanut) at 10% level were developed and analyzed for their keeping quality along with high fat control under aerobic packaging conditions kept at chilling (4±1°C) temperature until spoilage. The mean values of FFA, TBARS, Tyrosine, standard, psychrophilic, yeast and moulds plate count for all for sausages were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by formulation and storage period and were increased significantly (p<0.05) throughout storage period irrespective of the formulations, while formulation did not show any significant influence on pH. Regardless of formulation, coli forms, lactobacillus and anaerobic counts could not be detected in all sausages throughout storage period. Sensory attributes showed a significantly (p<0.05) decreasing trend for both control as well as low-fat chicken sausages throughout storage period. Formulation had no significant influence on sensory parameters of chicken sausages throughout the storage period but were significantly (p<0.05) influenced by storage period. Study concluded that all three ground vegetable oil seed are effective in checking the lipid oxidation and microbial growth and preserving sensory quality during the storage period and among them sesame seed paste was proved to be a preferred preservative. ABSTRACT Chicken, functional, keeping quality, refrigeration, sausages, spent breeder KEY WORDS: Open Access
... (a biogenic amine) as one of the toxins (Triki et al. 2018). According to the WHO, more than 200 diseases are transmitted through food and significant part of the population is exposed to food borne diseases during their lifetime. ...
... The following BAs are produced from the following amino acids: histamine from histidine, tyramine from tyrosine, tryptamine from serotonin, phenylethylamine from phenylalanine, putrescine from ornithine, cadaverine from lysine and agmatine from arginine (Pessione and Cirrincione 2016). BAs play important roles in assessing the quality and or acceptability of some foods, and the proper management of these qualities will guarantee and ensure food safety (Triki et al. 2018). They serve as nitrogen source and precursors for the synthesis of alkaloids, nucleic acids, proteins, amino acids, and food aroma components. ...
... BAs are found in all foods containing proteins or free amino acids such as fish and fish products, seafoods, meat and meat products-dry fermented meat, fresh meat, sausage, pork sausages, cheese, dairy nuts, dairy products, wine, beer, vegetables, soybeans and chocolate in varying concentrations (Triki et al. 2018). For instance, in a previous study it has been demonstrated that the histamine poisoning is one of the common forms of intoxication in canned, cooked fish and fish products because of its thermostable properties (Visciano et al. 2014). ...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate biogenic amine production in different types of cooked protein foods. The food samples were incubated at varying temperatures (4, 37 and 55 °C) on different microbiological media for 48, 72 and 180 h. Resulting bacteria were isolated and characterized using cultural, biochemical and molecular methods, further screened for production of biogenic amines in decarboxylase broth media supplemented with 0.4% of histidine, tyrosine, lysine and ornithine. The samples were incubated at 25 °C for 48 h and the biogenic amine concentration in each food sample determined by means of HPLC. There was a high prevalence of the isolates among the food samples. All the isolates except Klebsiella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. were positive for decarboxylase activity indicating 84.6% of the isolates capable of biogenic amine production. The amine concentration varied among the types of food and methods of cooking. Histamine was detected in 41.67% of the inoculated food samples (9.2 ± 1.2-100.95 ± 0.1 µg/g) while putrescine was the least detected (41.67%) in the inoculated food sample (7.7 ± 0.1-8.8 ± 0.2 µg/g). Cadaverine and histamine were detected in 16.4% (2.6 ± 0.2-49.9 ± 0.9 µg/g) and 7.5% (1.4 ± 0.1-20.4 ± 0.3 µg/g) of the foods, respectively. Microbial contamination of the cooked protein foods led to high levels of biogenic amines irrespective of the cooking methodology adopted and type of foods investigated. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13197-022-05576-0.
... The relationship between types of BAs was used to generate a chemical index for tuna decomposition in which, the sum of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine, and tyramine below 50 mg/kg is considered an acceptable sensory characteristic of tuna products [61]. In the case of meat products, the biogenic amine index (BAI) that consists of the sum of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine is instead recommended as a quality indicator [62,63]. In that index, a value below 5 mg/kg is equivalent to good quality (i.e. ...
Article
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Biogenic amines (BAs) are a group of molecules that are naturally present in foods that contain amino acids, peptides, and proteins as well as in biological systems. In foods, their concentrations typically increase during processing and storage because of exposure to microorganisms that catalyze their formation by releasing amino acid decarboxylases. The concentrations of BAs above certain values are indicative of unsafe foods due associate neuronal toxicity, allergenic reactions, and increase risks of cardiovascular diseases. There are therefore various strategies that focus on the control of BAs in foods mostly through elimination, inactivation, or inhibition of the growth of microorganisms. Increasingly, there are works on bioactive compounds that can decrease the concentration of BAs through their antimicrobial activity as well as inhibition of decarboxylating enzymes that control the formation in foods or amine oxidases and N-acetyltransferase that control the degradation in vivo. This review focusses on the role of food-derived bioactive compounds and the mechanism by which they regulate the concentration of BAs. The findings are that most active molecules belong to polyphenols, one of the largest groups of plant secondary metabolites, additionally useful other compounds are present in extracts of different herbs and spices. Different mechanisms have been proposed for the effects of polyphenols depending on the model system. Studies on the effects in vivo are limited and there is a lack of bioavailability and transport data which are important to assess the importance the bioactive molecules.
... BAI is the sum of histamine, putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine, and QI is the ratio of (histamine + putrescine + cadaverine) and (1 + spermidine + spermine). Individual BA or a combination of various amines, have likewise been used as a quality index [71][72][73]. In foods such as meat, fish, and wines BA have been frequently employed as quality indexes to signal foods degree of freshness or deterioration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogenic amines are decarboxylation products of amino acids and naturally they occur in living organisms and are involved in various biological processes. Nitrogenous compounds such as histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine are called biogenic amines and are found in raw and processed foods. Besides its role in physiological activity in human health, high quantities in food may be hazardous. Consumption of biogenic amines beyond its maximum permissible level could result in nausea, respiratory distress, hot flush, sweating, heart palpitations, headache, bright red rash, burning sensations in the mouth and alterations in blood pressure. In addition to its toxicity, in foods containing abundant amount of protein, the high concentrations of these diamines are indicative for hygienic deficiencies in the postharvest unit operations of agricultural products. Therefore, it is crucial to control the formation of biogenic amines during food processing
... Rabbit meat is often popular with consumers mainly for its high-quality protein, which shows a higher digestibility value compared to other meats such as beef or pork [7,8]. The quality of meat proteins is affected by various factors and complex interactions among the biological traits of an animal [9,10]. The main factors influencing the characteristics of rabbit meat proteins, particularly an intrinsic AA composition, are breed [8], genotype [11], carcass part [12] and age [8]. ...
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The aim of the study was to assess the effects of the sire genotype, sex and carcass part on the composition of the meat of rabbits, which were fattened under conditions where no synthetic drugs were used. As for carcass parts, the higher content of both total amino acids (AA) and all essential AA (EAA) monitored was found in the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscle as compared to hind leg meat (p ˂ 0.001). Significant effects of the rabbit sire genotype and the genotype x sex interaction on proportions of some AA in meat were found (p ˂ 0.001). Crossbreeding of the Mecklenburger Schecke (MS) sires with a commercial dam line of HYLA rabbits resulted in a lower proportion of the total AA and all EAA monitored in meats of MS sired males as compared to MS sired females and HYLA rabbits (p ˂ 0.05). The sex-related effect on AA profile was not so noticeable in final commercial crossbreds of HYLA rabbits when compared to MS sired progeny. These findings point to a possible risk of alterations in the nutritional quality of meat proteins when using different rabbit sire genotypes than those originally intended for the specific commercial crossbreeding scheme. However, on the contrary, higher contents of magnesium (p ˂ 0.05), manganese (p ˂ 0.001) and zinc (p ˂ 0.05) were found in meats of MS sired progeny as compared to HYLA rabbits.
... BAI is often used as a chemical indicator of meat freshness because biogenic amine formed during storage is closely related to spoilage (Triki et al., 2018). The detection of BAI with HSI is relatively new and has been tested only in fresh pork and processed beef products. ...
Article
Full-text available
Meat products are particularly plagued by safety problems because of their complicated structure, various production processes and complex supply chains. Rapid and non-invasive analytical methods to evaluate meat quality have become a priority for the industry over the conventional chemical methods. To achieve rapid analysis of safety and quality parameters of meat products, hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is now widely applied in research studies for detecting the various components of different meat products, but its application in meat production and supply chain integrity as a quality control (QC) solution is still ambiguous. This review presents the fresh look at the current states of HSI research as both the scope and the applicability of the HSI in the meat quality evaluation expanded. The future application scenarios of HSI in the supply chain and the future development of HSI hardware and software are also discussed, by which HSI technology has the potential to enable large scale meat product testing. With a fully adapted for factory setting HSI, the inspection coverage can reliably identify the chemical properties of meat products. With the introduction of Food Industry 4.0, HSI advances can change the meat industry to become from reactive to predictive when facing meat safety issues.
... The level of amines naturally present in grapes are an important quality and safety parameter in wines. The quantity of BA in the wine is closely related to the microbiota that the amino acid composition of the wine, and the metabolism of yeast and bacteria [73,75]. During secondary fermentation, BA in wines is significantly increased by lactic acid bacteria. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biogenic amines are decarboxylation products of amino acids and naturally they occur in living organisms and are involved in various biological processes. Nitrogenous compounds such as histamine, tyramine, putrescine, cadaverine, agmatine, spermidine and spermine are called biogenic amines and are found in raw and processed foods. Besides its role in physiological activity in human health, high quantities in food may be hazardous. Consumption of biogenic amines beyond its maximum permissible level could result in nausea, respiratory distress, hot flush, sweating, heart palpitations, headache, bright red rash, burning sensations in the mouth and alterations in blood pressure. In addition to its toxicity, in foods containing abundant amount of protein, the high concentrations of these diamines are indicative for hygienic deficiencies in the postharvest unit operations of agricultural products. Therefore, it is crucial to control the formation of biogenic amines during food processing.
... Meanwhile, the pH of both CB and WB increased over the 7 d of cold storage (P < 0.05). The increased pH value of chicken breast meat may be associated with the generation of nitrogenous base compounds by microbial spoilage (Triki et al., 2018). ...
... Overall, the free amino acid (alanine, aspartic acid, glutamate, glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine), acetic acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine contents were significantly increased, whereas those of glucose, inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP), NAD + , and uridine monophosphate (UMP) were decreased in both CB and WB with increase in the number of storage days (P < 0.05, Table 4). Fresh meat can be spoiled by proteolysis and microbial growth during refrigeration, and various peptides and free amino acids are produced by protein degradation (Triki et al., 2018). Moreover, acetic acid can be produced during meat fermentation by lactic acid bacteria, and glucose can be utilized by microorganisms in chicken meat for their growth (Shukla et al., 2015;Mansur et al., 2019). ...
Article
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The objective of the present study was to compare the breast meat quality and metabolomic characteristics from broilers that were raised in conventional (conventional farm reared-broilers; CB, n = 20) and legally-approved animal welfare farms (welfare farm reared-broilers; WB, n = 20) in aerobic cold storage (1, 3, 5, and 7 days). Compared to CB chickens, the WB chickens had a larger floor size as well as lower stocking density, atmospheric ammonia, and nipple-shared chicken counts. The results demonstrated significantly higher pH, L*- and b*-value and lower shear force in CB compared to WB during cold storage. Using ¹H NMR analysis, 25 compounds were identified in the chicken breast meat. Partial least square-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed based on the identified metabolites. The content of 15 metabolites (1 di-peptide, 9 free amino acids, 2 glycolytic potential-related products, 2 nucleotide-related products, and 1 organic acid) were significantly different due to the rearing environment (CB vs WB). Among them, all free amino acids were higher in CB than in WB. Six free amino acids (glycine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, valine, and β-alanine) had variable importance in projection (VIP) score >1, regardless of the number of cold storage days. Therefore, these compounds in the breast meat may be used as potential markers to determine the rearing environment of broilers. Also, this result might be an indication of stress-related meat quality changes in broilers.
... Many genera (i.e., Escherichia, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Proteus, Shigella, Meat and meat products are particularly subjected to BAs production due to their high protein and amino acid content, and the proteolytic activity can arise as a consequence of a prolonged storage or in association with the production process. The first BAs naturally occurring in fresh meat are SPM and SPD, which can be found at levels between 20 and 60 mg/kg and about 10 mg/kg, respectively [12]. During storage, the amounts of other BAs (i.e., HIS, CAD, PUT, and TYR) can also increase by the proteolysis of proteins to large peptides, which are then degraded to oligopeptides and free amino acids [4]. ...
... Although meat fermentation promotes preservation against various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, BAs accumulation in fermented meat products has also been reported [15]. Due to the importance of their adverse health effects and specific concerns in food hygiene, BAs individually or in combined forms can be used as important indicators of freshness, quality, and spoilage in meat and meat products [12]. Firstly, a Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) calculated from the sum (mg/kg) of PUT, CAD, TYR, and HIS, was proposed for cooked meat products allowing a four-scale classification. ...
... Alessandroni et al. [70] highlighted that poultry, and in particular chicken, is more susceptible to Bas accumulation, due to the specific protein composition and a softer texture in comparison with pork and beef. Triki et al. [12] evaluated different cuts of meat over time. Beef, lamb, and pork meat demonstrated a slower qualitative decay caused by Bas compared to chicken meat, characterized by the highest level of free amino acids. ...
Article
Biogenic amines (BAs) can be found in a wide range of meat and meat products, where they are important as an index for product stability and quality, but also for their impact on public health. This review analyzes the scientific evidence gathered so far on the presence and role of biogenic amines in meat and meat products, also considering the effect of technological conditions on BAs accumulation or decrease. The data provided can be useful for developing solutions to control BAs formation during the shelf-life, for example by novel starters for dry cured products, as well as by packaging technologies and materials for fresh meats. Further research, whose trends are reviewed in this paper, will fill the knowledge gaps, and allow us to protect such perishable products along the distribution chain and in the home environment.