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pH values of hot dog samples during chilled storage (2 AE 1 C). Data expressed as mean AE SD. (n ¼ 6). 

pH values of hot dog samples during chilled storage (2 AE 1 C). Data expressed as mean AE SD. (n ¼ 6). 

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Article
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The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a complete nitrite replacement strategy using celery, carmine, sodium lactate and orange dietary fibre combined with vitamins C and E, on the quality characteristics (technological, sensorial and safety properties) of hot dog sausages (five samples) during chilled storage (2 ± 1℃ 60 days). Nitrite r...

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... In this context, non-structured descriptive scales with fixed extremes have been employed in the elaboration of low-fat sodium reduced fresh merguez sausage, observing that the reduction of salt did not undesirably affected the sensory evaluation [57]. Moreover, sensory analysis has also been incorporated in the formulation of healthier meat products such as hot dog without nitrites, and the panellists considered all products acceptable [61,62]. [59]; (b) fresh sausages (adapted from Pintado et al., [58]; (c) cooked sausages, frankfurter type (adapted from Pintado et al. [54]). ...
Article
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This review summarises the main sensory methods (traditional techniques and the most recent ones) together with consumer research as a key part in the development of new products, particularly meat products. Different types of sensory analyses (analytical and affective), from conventional methods (Quantitative Descriptive Analysis) to new rapid sensory techniques (Check All That Apply, Napping, Flash Profile, Temporal Dominance of Sensations, etc.) have been used as crucial techniques in new product development to assess the quality and marketable feasibility of the novel products. Moreover, an important part of these new developments is analysing consumer attitudes, behaviours, and emotions, in order to understand the complex consumer–product interaction. In addition to implicit and explicit methodologies to measure consumers’ emotions, the analysis of physiological responses can also provide information of the emotional state a food product can generate. Virtual reality is being used as an instrument to take sensory analysis out of traditional booths and configure conditions that are more realistic. This review will help to better understand these techniques and to facilitate the choice of the most appropriate at the time of its application at the different stages of the new product development, particularly on meat products.
... Regarding storage time, the pH value of sausages showed a significant decrease from 28 to 42 days, where no significant difference was observed between formulations. This decrease in pH values indicates that lactic acid was produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), whose growth is a common deterioration mechanism during storage of processed meat products (Eim, Simal, Rosselló, & Femenia, 2008;Hugo & Hugo, 2015;Ruiz-Capillas et al., 2014). This observation is supported by the microbial levels observed at 42 days of storage of sausages (Table S7). ...
... The closer texture values (hardness, cohesiveness, and chewiness) of FCP to the control than CCP formulation observed at time 0 day, could be attributed to the higher content of CHA and lignin present in the FCP ingredient. It has been reported that IDF, such as lignin, improves the texture due to their water and fat-binding properties, which results in harder meat products (Biswas et al., 2011;Mehta et al., 2013;Pintado et al., 2016;Ruiz-Capillas et al., 2014;Todd, Cunningham, Claus, & Schwenke, 1989;Viuda-Martos, Ruiz-Navajas, Fernández-López, & Pérez-Álvarez, 2010). Likewise, as earlier discussed, phenolic compounds, such as CHA, prevent oxidative degradation of muscle proteins, which can also explain the higher hardness value observed in FCP formulation as compared with CCP formulation (Ganhão, Morcuende, & Estévez, 2010). ...
... No clear pattern was shown for chewiness and springiness, but the hardness parameter in all formulations increased during storage time, while cohesiveness slightly decreased (Table 7). Increases in hardness during storage of sausages is associated with water loss (Capitani et al., 2013;Feng et al., 2017;Fernández-Ginés et al., 2003;Pintado et al., 2016;Ruiz-Capillas et al., 2014). At the end of the shelf-life study, FCP and control formulations showed similar hardness values, whereas lower values were detected in CCP formulation. ...
Article
In this study, a functional carrot powder (FCP) ingredient was obtained by applying wounding stress to carrot (shredding and storing for 48 hr at 15 °C) prior to dehydration (60 °C) and milling. Likewise, FCP was incorporated into sausage formulations, which were further characterized. The application of wounding stress in carrots resulted in a FCP with higher fiber (30.1%) and chlorogenic acid (798.4%) content as compared with control carrot powder (CCP). Likewise, FCP showed higher water (19%) and oil (3.9%) absorption capacity as compared with CCP. Sausage formulation with 4% (w/w) of FCP was characterized, further evaluated during storage (42 days, 4 °C), and compared with a formulation added with 4% (w/w) CCP. FCP and CCP formulations increased fiber of sausages by 72.7%, and fortified them with carotenoids, providing 30% to 40% of vitamin A daily requirements per portion (62.5 g). FCP did not affect purge loss, and sausages contained 270% and 377% more total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content as compared with CCP sausages. FCP formulation presented adequate sensory acceptability and its carotenoid and phenolic content remained stable during storage. Results indicated that FCP could be used as an ingredient in sausage formulation to increase the content of nutraceuticals without affecting its shelf‐life. Practical Application Wounding stress (by shredding) was applied to carrots prior to dehydration and milling to obtain a carrot powder with higher fiber and phenolic compounds as compared with control carrot powder (CCP). FCP showed higher water and oil absorption capacity than CCP. FCP addition to sausage formulations at 4% didn't affect purge loss, and resulted in sausages with higher phenolic compounds and dietary fiber. Furthermore, FCP formulations presented adequate sensory acceptability and its carotenoid and phenolic content remained stable during storage. FCP could be used as an ingredient in sausage formulation to increase the content of nutraceuticals without affecting its shelf‐life.
... Natural antimicrobial agents (Domenech, Jimenez-Belenguer, Perez, Ferrus, & Escriche, 2015) and antimicrobial peptides (Miao, Peng, Liu, Chen, Chen, & Cao, 2015) have been recently developed as food preservatives of meat products. Several compounds are reported to exhibit antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, thereby inhibiting lipid oxidation (Ruiz-Capillas et al., 2014;Sojic et al., 2015). In the present study, stilbenes extracted from peanuts possess antioxidant properties, including DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, and total antioxidant activity. ...
... In recent decades the meat industry has modified its technologies so as to reduce the use of additives, including nitrates and nitrites, during meat production to achieve safer and healthier products [3]. Various ingredients have been used to replace added nitrites and ensure that their functions are performed in the end product while maintaining quality [2,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. To that end our group [15] recently examined the effect of total replacement of added nitrite on the quality characteristics (technological, sensory and microbiological properties) of hot dog sausages during chilled storage. ...
... Various ingredients have been used to replace added nitrites and ensure that their functions are performed in the end product while maintaining quality [2,[9][10][11][12][13][14][15]. To that end our group [15] recently examined the effect of total replacement of added nitrite on the quality characteristics (technological, sensory and microbiological properties) of hot dog sausages during chilled storage. Different combinations of celery, carmine, sodium lactate, orange dietary fiber and vitamins C and E were used as nitrite replacers. ...
... However, that study [15] did not address an important additional safety-related aspect, namely the formation of biogenic amines (BAs) in new products reformu- ...
... In meat and poultry products, several ingredients of plant origin such as spices (rosemary, oregano, etc.), fruits (plums, pomegranate, blueberry, etc.) and food industry wastes have been evaluated as potential food additives (2,3). The plant extracts are mainly used in an att empt to prevent lipid and protein oxidation and/or to inhibit the bacterial and yeast growth, therefore providing protection against deterioration and spoilage (4,5). ...
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Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.
Article
Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study was to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. At first, the phenolic content and antioxidant potency of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In a next step, the antioxidative and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/ kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assays demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total Viable Count revealed significant differences at the fifth day of storage with the leaf extract exposing the better microbial inhibition. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of display of fresh traditional pork sausages.