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pH values of fruit juices and fruit peel extracts ±S.D (n=3).

pH values of fruit juices and fruit peel extracts ±S.D (n=3).

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In this study, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities in citrus fruits and their peels were determined, and their stimulatory roles on some lactic acid bacteria were investigated. Phenolic compounds in citrus fruits such as mandarin, lemon, orange and grapefruit were determined either in the juices or in the peel extracts. Total phenolic con...

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... to the pH analysis of the citrus fruit juice and fruit peel extracts, the lowest pH values were ob- tained from the lemon and grapefruit juices, and the highest pH values from the peel extracts of orange and mandarin (Table 1). ...

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... Therefore, this waste can be used to cover most of the agricultural soils after proper treatment. In another study, pH was recorded at 5.24 in eggplant peels [43], 5.99 in potato peels [44], 6.59 in banana peels [45], 6.62 ± 2.2 in orange peels [46], 6.59 in eggshells [47], 6.2 in meat bone [48], and 5.4 in fish sludge [48], which was similar to the present study. As the pH of the waste is less than 7, it can easily be used on almost all agricultural soils, especially calcareous soil [49]. ...
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Food waste is a matter of deep concern as it is creating multidimensional threats to the environment. Though these are potential sources of plant nutrients, a detailed investigation has not yet been conducted. Hence, a physico-chemical characterization of non-edible food waste such as brinjal waste, potato peels, banana peels, orange peels, eggshells, cow bones, chicken bones, fish bones, and their combined waste was accomplished using FTIR, TGA, XGT-5000, CHN corder, etc. The present study revealed that plant waste samples had lower ash contents (1.36-7.79%) but higher volatile matter (72.33-80.04%), and the reverse was true in animal waste. In addition, animal waste, except eggshells (22.48%), had lower fixed carbon (1.01-2.83%). On the other hand, fruit waste was documented with higher fixed carbon (11.33-14.27%). Results also indicated that animal waste and their combined samples, except eggshells, contained more nitrogen (3.82-5.06%). The concentration of P was statistically significant in the combined fruit sample (28.21% ± 8.451), followed by banana peels (24.96% ± 11.644). Vegetable waste contained a significantly higher amount of K (24.90% ± 28.311-37.92% ± 24.833) than other waste. Maximum Ca (68.82% ± 10.778) and Mg (15.37% ± 29.88) were recorded in eggshell and fish bone waste, respectively. Except for Zn and Mn in eggshells, the waste studied contained a significant amount of micronutrients. FTIR demonstrated the presence of different functional groups such as alcoholic group (OH), aliphatic chain (C-H), aromatic chain (C-H), alkyl aryl ether (C-O), carbonyl group (C=O), alkene (C=C), thiocyanate (S-CN), isothiocyanate (N=C=S), allene (C=C=C), sulphate (S=O), amine (N-H), and NO stretching band, which varied with the waste used. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that plant waste degraded more quickly than animal waste. Eggshells were found to be less degradable by increased temperature, followed by cow bones > fish bones > chicken bones. The waste material used in the study was slightly acidic (6.67-6.82) in nature. Correlation analysis of the nutrients showed mainly positive relations in all samples for macro and micronutrients. Therefore, non-edible food waste can be a possible source of plant nutrients.
... The ratio of Na /K in any food is an important factor in hypertension arteriosclerosis prevention, with K depressing and Na enhancing blood pressure as was recorded by Abdelwahab and Abouelyazeed, (2018). Data show pH values of FLPE and DLPE with the same line reported by Irkin, et al. (2015). Food products made from plant sources commonly contain phenols and polyphenolic substances like flavonoids, which are greatly variable in different citrus fruit segments (Van Acker, et al., 1996, Mehmood, et al., 2018. ...
... According to research by Min et al. (2014), low-fat, whole, and skimmed milk may benefit from using the acid hydrolysis extract from Citrus unshiu peel as a natural antibacterial. Irkin, et al. (2015) reported that citrus fruit juices and their peels can be used in the production of functional foods and probiotics, for sustaining and developing vitality in probiotic microorganisms, and for enriching products in terms of phenolic constituents. This finding is in line with the data. ...
... However, E. coioides fed with enriched diets with higher percentages of katuk extract (2.5 and 5%) presented lower growth (Samad et al. 2014). Weak or neutral effects of herbal extracts on fish growth, which are mostly observed at higher inclusion levels, seem to be in terms of high concentrations of antinutrients, toxic compounds, and allergic reactions (Irkin et al. 2015;Yilmaz and Ergün 2018). These results indicate the importance of the appropriate dose to obtain the desired effects, and therefore the need for further studies to chemically identify the extracts to quantify the active molecules and create sufficient doses in diets. ...
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Medicinal plants are powerful antioxidants which can improve well-being and suppress oxidative stress caused by environmental toxins in aquatic animals. In this regard, the present research was designed to show the potential effects of psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed extract (PSE) on the growth, and immune responses of common carp Cyprinus carpio exposed to acute ammonia toxicity. To perform the study, fish were fed with diets containing 0 (T0), 0.25 (T1), 0.5 (T2), and 1% (T3) PSE for 60 days, and then exposed to ammonia (0.5 mg L⁻¹) for 3 h. The findings showed that fish given the T1 diet outperformed the T3 and control groups in terms of ultimate weight, weight increase, and food conversion ratio. Additionally, the T1 group showed a significantly higher level of total protein and serum lysozyme activity than the other treatment groups. Moreover, the highest serum total immunoglobulin values were recorded in T1 and T2 groups. The results showed that PSE, especially at moderate levels, could successfully upregulate the transcription of immune-related genes (IFN-γ, Hsp70, TNF-ɑ, IL-1ß, IL-10, and IgE) compared to the control group after exposure to ammonia. Furthermore, improving ammonia-induced down regulations of antioxidant-related gene expressions (CYP1A, SOD, and GPX) was observed in fish fed with PSE-included diets compared to the control one. However, PSE-supplemented diets did not affect the mRNA expression level of CAT. Regarding tight junction-associated genes, the higher mRNA expression level of occludin was observed in the T1 group, whereas the downregulation of CLD3 gene occurred in all experimental groups. Conversely, significant upregulation of osmoregulation-associated gene (NKA) was recorded in all experimental groups compared to the control one. Therefore, the administration of PSE (0.25% of the diet) for 60 days is recommended to increase growth performance, improve health, and increase the resistance of common carp to oxidative stress caused by ammonia. Graphical abstract
... pH value increased simultaneously as much as the higher weight ratio of citrus peel in the tea formulation. According to Irkin et al. (2015) citrus peel extract pH value was around 6,62 ± 2,2 16 . The increment of pH value of tea might be due to the citrus peel's pH, which affects the pH of teathe citrus peel's pH and the tea's overall pH.Vitamin C value decreased simultaneously as much as the higher weight ratio of citrus peel in the formulation of the tea. ...
... pH value increased simultaneously as much as the higher weight ratio of citrus peel in the tea formulation. According to Irkin et al. (2015) citrus peel extract pH value was around 6,62 ± 2,2 16 . The increment of pH value of tea might be due to the citrus peel's pH, which affects the pH of teathe citrus peel's pH and the tea's overall pH.Vitamin C value decreased simultaneously as much as the higher weight ratio of citrus peel in the formulation of the tea. ...
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The purpose of this study was to obtain the mass ratio substitution of citrus peel in the rich-antioxidant of liang tea formulation which produced the best physicochemical characteristics. The ingredients for making rich-antioxidant of liang tea are dried herbal plant ingredients consisting of muje leaves (D. chinensis), nanas kerang leaves (Tradescantia spathacea Sw.), origanum leaves (Origanum vulgare Wilder), pandan leaves (Pandanus amaryllifolius), stem bark from Secang wood (Caesalpinia sappan), midrib skin from Lidah Buaya (Aloe vera chinensis) and jeruk sambal peels (Citrus amblycarpa) with mass ratios according to treatment. The treatment was in the form of mass ratio of liang tea and citrus amblycarpa peel (100:0; 90:10; 80:20; 70:30; 60:40; 50:50 and 40:60). Parameters to observed are physical characters include color, pH and chemical characters include qualitative phytochemical testing, vitamin C content, total phenol content, total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity with DPPH inhibitory activity. The results showed that the formulation of the mass ratio of liang tea: citrus peel 70:30 had the highest total phenol content, total flavonoid and antioxidant activity (63,82 ± 3,70 mg GAE/g ext, 47,73 ± 4,34 mg QE/g ext and 83,28 ± 1,99 % respectively). The formulation liang tea and citrus peel with mass ration 60:40 showed the highest pH value (6,89 ± 0,04. The colour of tea formulation of liang tea and citur peel with mass ratio 70:30 showed colour characteristics
... In these cases, the TPC ranged from 9 to 11 GAE/g OPW. These values resulted similar for the ones reported by Irkin et al. who obtained 11.08 GAE/g OPW (Irkin et al., 2015). The higher extraction of UAE is due to caviation phenomenon that cause high shear forces in the medium (Cui and Zhu, 2021). ...
Article
This study proposed an efficient valorization of orange peel waste (OPW) thorugh a multi-product cascade biorefinery approach. In a first step, polyphenolic-rich bioactive extract was obtained using 100% ethanol after a suitability study of different solvent systems. Its use in ultrasound-assisted extraction at 80 °C also allowed obtaining bioactive extracts with higher characteristics and reducing the extraction time (30 min) compared to conventional extraction (5 h). The extractives free-OPW was then used to obtain nanocellulose with high yield (>70%), solely by subjecting the fiber to a high-pressure homogenization treatment without the need for additional pretreatments, highlighting the efficiency of the process. The different components obtained were used separately and together on poly(vinyl alcohol)-based (PVA) films to study the isolated and synergistic effect they contributed to the properties of the films. The optimum cellulose nanofibers (CNF) content was found to be 5%, at higher contents a tendency to clustering of the nanofibers in the matrix was observed. The addition of polyphenol-rich extracts conferred interesting bioactive properties of special interest for food packaging. The antioxidant properties of the films increased as the extract content in the formulation increased, reaching almost 100% for an extract content of 30%. Also, UV-light blocking capacity was increased reaching values of 100% for extract contents above 20%. The synergistic effect of the joint addition of CNF and polyphenols resulted in bioactive films with high UV-blocking capacity that maintained the structural and mechanical properties of pure PVA films. Regarding the antioxidant capacity, a more controlled release action is observed. These results evidenced that the synergistic effect between bioactive extracts and CNF could be an excellent enhancer of the active packaging.
... Additionally, MPP can be used as a source of synthetic antioxidants that are used to extend the shelf life of foods containing fats and oils, imparting health benefits to the consumer [17] . Also, the consumption of citrus fruits and peels with foods containing high antioxidant activities and the stimulating effects of lactic acid bacteria will contribute to the regulation of metabolism by intestinal microflora [18] . The production of processed cheese with essential dietary nutrients from mandarin peel powder was done [19] . ...
... In addition, these data exposed that the used MPP affects the viability of Lb. helveticus CNRZ 32 in Labneh during storage period the interactions among probiotic bacteria and citrus fibers in probiotic products. These results agreement with those results recorded by [18] reported that, citrus fruit juices and their peels could be used in the production of functional foods and probiotics, for sustaining and developing vitality of probiotic microorganisms and for enriching products in terms of phenolic constituents. also, [43] found that citrus fibers enhanced Lb. acidophilus CECT 903 and Lb. ...
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This study was planned to use mandarin peel powder (MPP) as a natural source of bioactive components for the manufacturing of functional Labneh. To achieve this proposal, four batches were inoculated with 2% of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus CNRZ 32 (1:1). The first batch (control) was manufactured without MPP and the other batches, P1, P2 and P3, were fortified with MPP at the levels of 1.5, 3 and 5%, respectively. The highest components found in mandarin peel oil (MPO) were limonene, beta-pinene, and beta-myrcene, at percentages of 94.56, 1.53, and 1.46%, respectively. The sotal solids, carbohydrate and ash content were significantly increased with increasing the concentration of MPP, while it had no significant (p<0.05) influence on protein and fat content. Significant differences were noticed in pH values among all the Lanbeh samples. The P3 fortified with 5% MPP showed a significantly higher level of chemical analysis compared with the other treatments. The counts of S. thermophilus and Lb. helveticus CNRZ 32 increased in the first week of storage to range between 9.64 and 9.95 log CFU/g respectively, and were still above 108CFU/g until the end of the storage period. Finally, the addition of MPP at 3% resulted in the highly accepted organoleptic properties of functional Labneh without any defects.
... In the case of pH, mean values differs significantly (p < 0.01) among the extracts of the varieties of clemenvilla (5.99 ± 0.20), nadorcott (6.20 ± 0.17) and ortanique (5.72 ± 0.20). A higher pH value of 6.58 in mandarin peel extract was obtained by Irkin et al. (2015) in extract made by a conventional method. ...
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Samples of tree hybrid mandarins (´Clemenvilla`, ´Ortanique` and ´Nadorcott`) were employed to determine the physicochemical properties (increase of conductivity, brix° and pH), bioactive compounds (total phenolic, flavonoid, ascorbic acid and carotenoids content) and antioxidant capacity (DPPH and TEAC) of peels. Mandarin peel extracts were prepared employing ultrasound assisted extraction (400 W, 80% v/v duty cycle, 40ºC). The results were compared to the values of control extraction method. Aqueous ethanol solution (50%, v/v) was used as solvent in solid-liquid ratio of 1:10 (w/v). A 5, 15 and 30 min were applied in both methods to stablish the most effective extraction time. The increase of conductivity enhances with the extraction during 30 min. No significant differences were observed in ºBrix values; in case of pH, these differences were observed according to the varieties analyzed. The total phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids and ascorbic acid content enhance as the extraction time increased until 30 min with significant differences according to the mandarin variety. ´Clemenvilla` peels treated by 30 min had the highest amounts of total flavonoids (76.7 mg CE/100g) and ascorbic acid content (136 mg AA/100g). ´Ortanique` and ´Nadorcott` peels had the highest values of total phenolic content (1230 GAE/100g) and total carotenoids (8173 μg β-carotene/100g), respectively. Antioxidant capacity values were stronger influenced by flavonoids and ascorbic acid content in both assays applied (DPPH and TEAC). Results indicated that ´Clemenvilla` and ´Ortanique` peel extracts by USN were the samples with highest values by DPPH and TEAC assays respectively (average of 12.2 and 25.7 mmol TE/100g, respectively).
... Sarmast, Fallah, Habibian Dehkordi, and Rafieian-Kopaei (2019) reported that using chitosan-gelatin with lemon peel essential oil, reduced the growth of LAB in rainbow trout fillets. The in vitro inhibitory effect of lemon and orange peel extract on LAB has been confirmed in other studies (Irkin, Dogan, Degirmenioglu, Diken, & Guldas, 2015;Radman, Min, Tiwari, & Reddy, 2015). ...
Article
Assessment of edible tragacanth gum (TG) coating enriched with Persian lime peel (Citrus latifolia) extract (LPE) on the quality, and shelf life of cold stored Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Therefore, shrimps were divided into 5 groups and were immersed in distilled water (control), TG (1.5%), TG (1.5%) contained 1.25 % sodium metabisulfite (SMS), and TG (1.5%) contained 1 or 2 % of LPE, respectively, and were kept at 4 °C for ten days. The microbial (aerobic plate counts, psychrophilic bacteria count, lactic acid bacteria, H2S producing bacteria, and Pseudomonas spp.), physical and biochemical (pH, TVB-N, TMA-N, TBARS, color, and texture), and sensory (appearance, odor, texture) assessment were intermittently measured and analyzed. The results indicated that the TG coating improved the quality characteristics of shrimp, slightly, while its combination with LPE, increased the microbial shelf life of shrimp up to four days. Adding LPE to TG not only reduced the melanosis (p < 0.05), but also improved the physico-chemical, and sensory properties of shrimp. Therefore, its use for the improvement of shrimp quality, without sulfite residue hazard, during cold storage is recommended.
... Also, cidra harbors strains belonging to four genera (the highest number of genera among our ANF), possibly because low pH is a favorable condition for yeast growth. The range of pH of citrus fruits tends to be between 2.3 and 3.6 (Irkin et al. 2015). Ungurahui is employed for medicinal and cosmetic purposes, and to prepare a milk-like alcoholic beverage called chicha (Montúfar et al. 2010). ...
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Yeasts, commonly present on the surface of fruits, are of industrial interest for the production of enzymes, flavorings, and bioactive compounds, and have many other scientific uses. The Amazonian rainforest may be a good source of new species or strains of yeasts, but their presence on Amazonian fruits is unknown. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize yeasts isolated from Amazonian native fruits using molecular and phenotypic methods. In total, 81 yeast isolates were obtained from 10 fruits species. Rep-PCR showed 29 strain profiles. Using a combination of restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the 5.8S-ITS region and D1/D2 sequencing of the 26S rRNA gene, 16 species were identified belonging to genera Candida, Debaryomyces, Hanseniaspora, Kodamaea, Martiniozyma, and Meyerozyma. The most dominant species were Candida tropicalis, Debaryomyces hansenii, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, and Hanseniaspora thailandica. H. opuntiae and H. thailandica showed the highest number of the strain profiles. Phenotypic profiles were variable between species, and even among strains. Screening for hydrolases showed lipolytic activity in only one isolate, while proteolytic, cellulolytic and amylolytic capabilities were not detected. Yeast presence among fruits varied, with cidra (Citrus medica) and ungurahui (Oenocarpus bataua) having the highest number of species associated. This investigation broadens the understanding and possible biotechnological uses of yeast strains obtained from Amazonian native fruits.
... However, grapefruit and lime peel were previously found to be abundant in polymethoxylated flavones, phenolic acids, and flavanones including naringin and neohesperidin [26]. Previously, similar trends but with higher TPC values were detected in different fruit juices, including grapefruit (657.65 ± 69.20 mg GAE/g), lime (579.41 ± 91.14 mg GAE/g) and orange (523.44 ± 87.20 mg GAE/g) [27]. Nurliyana, et al. [28] also found that dragon peel has a high phenolic content, most likely due to the abundance of betacyanins (pigments) rather than polyphenols, which increased the TPC values [29]. ...
Article
Fruit peels have a diverse range of phytochemicals including carotenoids, vitamins, dietary fibres, and phenolic compounds, some with remarkable antioxidant properties. Nevertheless, the comprehensive screening and characterization of the complex array of phenolic compounds in different fruit peels is limited. This study aimed to determine the polyphenol content and their antioxidant potential in twenty different fruit peel samples in an ethanolic extraction, including their comprehensive characterization and quantification using the LC-MS/MS and HPLC. The obtained results showed that the mango peel exhibited the highest phenolic content for TPC (27.51 ± 0.63 mg GAE/g) and TFC (1.75 ± 0.08 mg QE/g), while the TTC (9.01 ± 0.20 mg CE/g) was slightly higher in the avocado peel than mango peel (8.99 ± 0.13 mg CE/g). In terms of antioxidant potential, the grapefruit peel had the highest radical scavenging capacities for the DPPH (9.17 ± 0.19 mg AAE/g), ABTS (10.79 ± 0.56 mg AAE/g), ferric reducing capacity in FRAB (9.22 ± 0.25 mg AA/g), and total antioxidant capacity, TAC (8.77 ± 0.34 mg AAE/g) compared to other fruit peel samples. The application of LC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS tentatively identified and characterized a total of 176 phenolics, including phenolic acids (49), flavonoids (86), lignans (11), stilbene (5) and other polyphenols (25) in all twenty peel samples. From HPLC-PDA quantification, the mango peel sample showed significantly higher phenolic content, particularly for phenolic acids (gallic acid, 14.5 ± 0.4 mg/g) and flavonoids (quercetin, 11.9 ± 0.4 mg/g), as compared to other fruit peel samples. These results highlight the importance of fruit peels as a potential source of polyphenols. This study provides supportive information for the utilization of different phenolic rich fruit peels as ingredients in food, feed, and nutraceutical products.