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pH values of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.  

pH values of buffalo, cow, sheep and goat milk samples.  

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This study was conducted to evaluate the yield and quality of cottage cheese prepared from cow, buffalo, sheep and goat milk. Cottage cheese prepared from these milk sources was evaluated for physicochemical and sensory attributes. Initial study showed that solid not fat (SNF), fat, protein, lactose, ash content, pH and moisture content of these mi...

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... It is a soft fresh cheese, white in color, with a mild flavor, unripened, particulate, made by coagulating skim milk by the addition of lactic acid. It is usually mixed with a cream dressing to increases its smoothness (Rasheed et al., 2016). Moreover, cream dressing is used to adjust the final fat content from 1 to 4%, and comprises cream, whole milk, stabilizers (gums, starches, emulsifiers, and phosphates), cultured milk, and salt (Rasheed et al., 2016). ...
... It is usually mixed with a cream dressing to increases its smoothness (Rasheed et al., 2016). Moreover, cream dressing is used to adjust the final fat content from 1 to 4%, and comprises cream, whole milk, stabilizers (gums, starches, emulsifiers, and phosphates), cultured milk, and salt (Rasheed et al., 2016). ...
... Milk fat content was determined by Gerber method (Kleyn et al., 2001). The milk was heated to 85 ºC and lactic acid was added as coagulant (Rasheed et al., 2016). Thereafter, the mass was allowed to stand for 30 minutes and the curd was washed three times, with water at 20 ºC, 10 ºC and 5 ºC for 20 min each, and drained through a fine cheese cloth. ...
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Abstract The present study aimed to produce a new cheese added with pequi (Caryocar coriaceum) pulp oil. In total, 11 formulations, prepared according to the Central Composite Rotatable Design, with two independent variables (pequi pulp oil and emulsifier) and two levels (7 and 13%; 1 and 2%) were assessed for moisture, protein, lipids, pH, acidity, color, and texture. In conclusion, pequi pulp oil and emulsifier improved the texture and body of the cheese by decreasing its cohesiveness, hardness, gumminess, springiness, and chewiness.
... The percentage of milk fat varies in different animals. Total fat % in the milk of cow, water buffalo, sheep, and goats are 3.55, 6.2, 6.91, and 3.03%, respectively (Rasheed et al. 2016). In general, lipid composition in cow milk varies between 3 and 4%. ...
Chapter
Mammary gland (MG) biology has attracted researchers’ attention in every mammalian species. Apart from the natural curiosity to understand the mammalian biology wherein newborns are nourished by milk, the incidence of benign and metastatic breast tumor further instigated the scientific community to understand the detailed cellular and molecular events so that the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention could be implemented. The mouse MG has served as the closest MG model to understand the anatomy and physiology despite several differences in the endocrine and reproductive systems of mice and humans. In bovine, the very immediate interest has been to improve milk production from dairy animals. Globally, the average milk yield from dairy animals has so far remained forwardly progressive. Nevertheless, disease like mastitis and the existence of low milk-yielding cows in population have necessitated accelerated research on understanding bovine mammary gland biology, host–pathogen relationship, cyclic changes in molecular and cellular physiology during puberty, pregnancy, lactation, and involution. Proteomics deals with studying many proteins together, thus deriving comprehensive information on cellular physiology. Along with antibodies, the application of mass spectrometry in the study of proteins has revolutionized the investigation method as never before. The complexity in tissue architecture of MG comprises many cell types, and their continuous turnover in the lifetime of an animal constantly challenged our mind and approach to discern cell identity correctly. It will not have been possible without the knowledge of cell type-specific marker proteins, which again owes a lot to proteomics. This chapter selectively discusses the application of mass spectrometry-based proteomics for mammary epithelial cells and mammary stem cells in MG in the context of cell-specific biomarkers, functional differentiation, and diseases.
... Cottage cheese, a coagulated milk product widely consumed since time immemorial, is produced domestically and industrially through boiling and acidification of milk in the presence of an edible form of food grade vinegar (containing 5% acetic acid), that lead to coagulation of milk proteins (Bintsis & Papademas, 2017;Kapoor, Singh, Vatankhah, Deshwal, & Ramaswamy, 2021). It contains lactose (4.78%), fat (27%), proteins (30% β-casein, 41.36% α-caseins, 21.25% κ-casein), and 1.5-2% minerals (Ahmed, 2016;Brunner, 1981). With these underlying backgrounds, we hypothesize that the extensive heating and acidification of milk during cottage cheese production, which is analogous to the in vitro conditions frequently used to prepare milk-protein amyloids (Zou et al., 2013), might lead to the formation of amyloid or amyloidlike structures. ...
Article
Cottage cheese, extensively consumed worldwide, contains coagulated milk protein (casein), produced through boiling and acidification of milk. Casein forms amyloid or amyloid-like structures at high temperatures and low pH. Due to the similarities in the preparation of casein amyloids and cottage cheese, we hypothesized the presence of amyloid or amyloid-like protein aggregates in cottage cheese. To examine this hypothesis, cottage cheese was prepared from cow (Bos indicus) milk and isolated amyloids through a water extraction method. The isolated protein aggregates displayed typical characteristics of amyloids, such as a bathochromic shift in the wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax) of Congo red (CR), high thioflavin T (ThT) binding, increased surface hydrophobicity, and high β-sheet structure. However, they did not show antibacterial activity and toxic properties against erythrocytes. Our study revealed that the heat-treatment and subsequent acidification during cottage cheese preparation lead to the formation of non-toxic amyloid-like aggregates.
... Cottage cheese was standardized after heating the milk at 85 °C for 10 minutes and cooling at 70 °C with some deviations from the standard protocol of Rasheed et al. (2016). After manufacturing cottage cheese was stored in vaccum bags in refrigerated conditions for the period of 28 days. ...
... Protein is also an important factor and its quality and quantity mainly and highly depends upon the quality and quantity of protein in raw milk. The milk with high protein will yield cheese with high protein percentage (Rasheed et al., 2016). Fat and protein ration in milk also affects the quantity of protein in cheeses (Fox et al., 2017). ...
... The cheese produced from skim milk has low protein increase during storage as compared to cheese with full fat or added oil during production because the removal of moisture is unable to fill the gaps in curd and thus low fat cheese has less protein increase during storage and vice versa. The highest protein quantity (20.81 ± 1.4) during the study was found for C 3 at 28 th day and lowest quantity of protein (18.50 ± 1.1%) was found for T 0 on day 0. The results of this study are in harmony with the studies of both Rasheed et al. (2016) and Hamad & Ismail (2012). The average mean values for fat content were in rang from 22.06 ± 1.4% to 23.59 ± 0.6%. ...
Article
Abstract Milk is an excellent source of nutrients. It is a balanced diet. Cheeses are fermented milk product. There are hunderds of cheese types. Cottage cheese is fermented dairy product made by the coagulation of milk. It is nutritionally most suitable diet for lactose intolerant people. It contains all essential nutrients. Recently cottage cheese was made with the use of tatri and lemon juice. The use of tatri and lemon do not produce good quality end product. This project was aimed to standardize cottage cheese using food grade coagulants. Cottage cheese was analyzed for physicochemical, textural, functional and sensorial analysis. The use of food grade organic acids produced strong results. The increase in acid level increases the yield but it is not remains good organolaptically. Sensory results reveals that the use of acetic acid has a bitter aftertaste. The use of citric acid at the level of 0.4% was found best on all aspects.
... Lowest score (25.00) was found in cheese sample A. The result found for body and texture is in the line showed by Rana et al. (2017b) who reported body and texture score from 23 to 27.33 in cottage cheese. The result revealed by Rasheed et al. (2016) also supports our findings of body and texture of cottage cheese. ...
... They also reported that fat is the principal element that expound body, texture and flavor of cheese. Our results coincide with Rasheed et al. (2016) who observed 23.6% fat in cottage cheese. Our results also supported by Rana et al. (2017b) who found 16.0 to 23.0% fat in cottage cheese prepared with papaya latex. ...
... In another study Rana et al. (2017a) reported ash content (2.75-3.79%) in cottage chasse which is inconsistent with the finding of this study. Rasheed et al. (2016) also found 2.79% ash in cottage cheese which is in line with our findings. ...
... Cheese is one of the most widely consumed fermented dairy products with a growing consumer demand. Cheese is a fresh or matured product obtained by the drainage of liquid after the coagulation of milk, cream, skimmed or partly skimmed milk, butter milk or a combination them (Sadia et al., 2016). Provolone is a typical semi-hard drawn-curd cheese and it became popular around the end of the 19 th century when it began to be produced in the southern regions of Italy (Ministero Agricoltura e Foreste, 1992). ...
... The lower pH in T16 may be due to the production of acid resulting from bacterial growth and multiplication in the milk samples (O'Connor, 1995). Sadia et al. (2016) reported that, lower pH of milk could be because of milk composition and amount of normal flora in the milk during transportation and storage. The pH of milk samples used for the development of pre ripened provolone cheeses in the current study were within the normal range (Walstra, 2006). ...
... This result was comparable with the finding of Hanna, (2015). On the other hand, Sadia et al., (2016) observed that the lower fat content of cow milk compared to the current study. In the present study, fat content of different blended milk samples was lower than the finding of Pandya and Ghodke (2007) who observed that fat content of different types of milk varied from 3.7% to 7.90%. ...
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Cheese is a product made from the curd obtained from milk by coagulating the casein with the help of rennet in the presence of lactic acid produced by added starter culture. The study was aimed to evaluate the yield and quality of pre ripened provolone cheese prepared from different blends of cow, doe, ewe and camel whole milk. The sources of milk were from Hawassa town, Langano and Kofele areas of Oromiya region. Pre ripened provolone cheeses were made from blends contained ratio between 60-80%, 10-30%, 10-30% and 0-20% for cow, doe, ewe and camel milk, respectively using standard procedure. The whole milk and its pre ripened provolone cheeses were subjected to physicochemical analyses. The physicochemical analyses, selected minerals, bioactive compounds, microbial quality and consumer acceptability of the pre ripened provolone cheese were analyzed. The blending proportion of different milk had significant (P<0.05) effect on the physiochemical property, mineral, bioactive and sensory quality of pre ripened provolone cheese. The physiochemical property of whole milk for manufacture of pre ripened provolone cheeses were in the range between 10.56 to 15.08% for total solids, 3.45 to 5.20% for fat and 3 to 4.19% for crude protein. The chemical composition of pre ripened provolone cheese prepared from different blended milk ranged from 47.32-67.05% for total solids, 24.26-36.81% for fat, 17.78-26.30% for crude protein, 1.09-3.49% for total ash, and 0.75-2.98% for lactose; ascorbic acid (0.49 to 3.08 mg/kg) and total polyphenols (1.00 to 17.50 (mg GAE/g). The fat, protein and total solids recovery of pre ripened provolone cheeses ranged from 64.87% to 95.39%, 54.58% to 84.67% and 41.35% to 59.92% respectively. The yield of pre ripened provolone cheese ranged from 9.22% to 13.47%. Total bacteria count was found to be the predominant micro flora of pre ripened provolone cheeses and reached 5.24 cfu/g in the control cheese. The entire consumer acceptability of the pre ripened provolone cheese was in acceptable range. In conclusion, the pre ripened provolone cheese prepared from T12 (60% cow, 10% doe and 30% ewe) milk gave better cheese yield and had auspicious results in nutritional qualities comparable with that of control cheese and other cheese samples.
... While some studies show that cheese yield is higher in cows than goat (Rasheed et al., 2016), our study and others show the opposite (Hamidi et al., 2018;Mallatou & Pappa, 2005). Different factors might produce this interspecific difference, including those related to the milk composition and quality such as genetic variants of casein, fat and protein (Banks et al., 1981;Fenelon & Guinee, 1999;Verdier-Metz et al., 2001), seasonal variations (Sánchez-Gamboa et al., 2018), microbial counts and diversity (Vladimír et al., 2020) and cheese-processing methodology (Lawrence, 1993). ...
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Abstract “Bouhezza” is an Algerian traditional fermented soft-ripened cheese, found and consumed in the Northeast of Algeria. The objective of this study was to explore the preparation process (traditional making diagram) of “Bouhezza” cheese and to study the effect of the type of raw milk (cow, goat and sheep) on the yield and organoleptic characteristics of the fresh “Bouhezza” cheese. “Bouhezza” cheese was handmade in a traditional way using milk of three species (cow, goat and sheep). The milk used has been the subject of physicochemical and bacteriological analysis. Cheese yield for sheep’s milk is higher (p < 0.05) than cheese yield for cow’s and sheep’s milk. For sensory analysis, score registered for cheese of cow’s milk ≥ 5 suggested higher acceptability for this cheese. Here, we exposed the “Bouhezza” cheese, its history, origin and manufacturing processes. From the physicochemical and bacteriological analysis of milk, results show that all criteria analyzed respond almost to the required standard. The sensory qualities of the three types of cheese show that cow cheese was classified as the most satisfactory cheese for the majority of criteria (taste. color and texture). Finally, and for higher yield, results supported the use of sheep milk as a raw material. Keywords: traditional cheese; “Bouhezza”; bacteriological criteria; physicochemical parameters; sensory evaluation. Practical Application: Algerian “Bouhezza” cheese: his history, origin manufacturing processes and characteristics.
... As shown in Table 4, cheese yield was significantly affected by the type of milk and milk composition (p < 0.05). Cheese yield was significantly higher in buffalo's milk than cow's milk, due to total solids, protein and fat contents are high in buffalo's milk (Rasheed, Qazi, Ahmed, Durrani, & Azmat, 2016). Feeding on the DFO, DSO or DFSO caused a slight increase (p > 0.05) in cheese yield compared with the control diet. ...
Article
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Produce and compare soft cheese with potential benefits of human health from Egyptian buffalo's and cow's milk was studied. Eight Egyptian lactating buffalos and cows were fed a total mixed ration supplemented with either 0% oil (CD), 2% flaxseed oil (DFO), 2% soybean oil (DSO), or 2% of their mixture (1:1, DFSO) according to a double 4 x 4 Latin Square design. Milk yield was similar between buffalo's diets but was higher in cows fed a DFO, DSO or DFSO resulting in 11.15, 8.21% or 8.97% increases compared with the control diet, respectively. Milk composition was not significantly affected in both buffalos and cows fed diets. The DFO, DSO or DFSO displayed decreased short-chain fatty acids, especially DSO and DFSO (3.73 and 3.33%, respectively) when compared to CD for buffalo milk (6.32%). The DSO and DFSO were more effective for increasing unsaturated fatty acids followed by the DFSO in buffalo's milk fat (42.31 and 41.90 %), whereas DFO and DFSO were more effective in cow's milk fat (39.67 and 39.84%), respectively. DFO, DSO or DFSO had no significant effect on the yield, composition and sensory properties of resultant soft cheese compared to the CD for both lactating cows and buffalos. During storage, a diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids enhances protein proteolysis and antioxidant activity of soft cheese during storage compared to the CD especially for soft cheese produced from buffalo's milk.
... Milk is a prehistoric source of food for mankind produced by mammals to feed their infants (Kanwal et al. 2004 in Rasheed et al. 2016). Milk plays essential role in our daily life. ...
... Milk plays essential role in our daily life. It is consumed fresh and also in the form of various products such as yogurt, cheese, butter, etc. (Khan &Masud, 2013 andSameen et al. 2010 in Rasheed et al. 2016). ...
... It is prepared from milk with the help of specific enzymes, starter bacteria and organic acid. Cheese is classified into various categories on the basis of appearance, manufacturing, ripening and chemical composition (Walstra et al. 2006in Rasheed et al. 2016). Natural cheese is normally categorised on the basis of their moisture content or degree of softness or hardness. ...
... This feature is relatively less evident in milk that is stored in good hygienic condition. The intense flavour of goat milk may be due to the release of short-chain fatty acids during the handling of milk [5], and it has a density that ranges between 1.026 and 1.042 with a pH ranging from 6.3 to 6.7 [15]. It is naturally alkaline, unlike cow's milk which is slightly acidic. ...