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Inventory data of the slaughterhouse per functional unit.

Inventory data of the slaughterhouse per functional unit.

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An environmental assessment of the life cycle of broiler chicken production from a cradle-to-slaughterhouse gate perspective was carried out with the aim of identifying the environmental hotspots of the system. To do so, broiler chicken production in Portugal was investigated in detail. Inventory data for the different production stages (chicken fa...

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... data regarding the operation of the slaughterhouse was provided by the company (Table 3) and data for the amount of materials required for packaging was taken from Bengtsson and Seddon (2013). Inventory data related to the production of pack- aging as well as electricity and fuel for heat requirements was taken from the ecoinventÒ database ( Dones et al., 2007;Hischier, 2007). ...

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... Carbon dioxide emissions from biomass combustion were excluded because it was assumed that they were balanced by the CO 2 absorbed during photosynthetic growth of the biomass [43]. Moreover, a previous chicken meat LCA study [20] Foods 2022, 11, 3712 9 of 18 found that CO 2 emission from biomass combustion on poultry farms was relatively small. Electricity use on the farms and in the slaughterhouse was modelled using the Spanish medium voltage electricity grid mix (1-60 kV), available in the GaBi database. ...
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Despite its relatively low environmental impact within the livestock sector, the poultry sector still faces its own environmental challenges that need to be addressed. The present paper uses life cycle assessment to quantify greenhouse gas emissions, from cradle to slaughterhouse gate, of four chicken meat products: whole carcass, wings, breast fillets, and leg quarters. The main contribution of the present study is that it provides a detailed analysis of different chicken meat cuts, testing mass and economic allocation choices and showing that economic allocation better reflects the causality of the cutting process. We recommend that a distinction should be made between whole carcass and meat cuts, as there are significant differences in meat content and climate change results between these two categories. This is not so clear in the literature, nor in the LEAP guideline for the poultry sector. The study was performed by using disaggregated inventory data from Spain, for the first time. Results show that the major contributors to environmental impact are feed production (>70%), electricity use (10.2%), and fossil fuel combustion (8.1%). Packaging did not significantly contribute to the climate change impact of the chicken products evaluated (0.4–3.4% contribution, depending on the type of packaging and product considered).
... These emissions cause various environmental problems such as global warming, eutrophication, acidification, energy use, ozone formation effect, terrestrial toxicity, biotic and abiotic degradation on the natural environment (González-García et al., 2014, Leinonen et al., 2014, Cesari et al., 2017. ...
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... An economic allocation approach was considered to distribute the environmental burdens of agricultural activities among the co-products obtained (manure, electricity, and animal products). In this sense, an allocation factor of 1 % was established for poultry manure based on the poultry farm inventory data (González-García et al., 2014). As for the cow manure (Cortés et al., 2021), an allocation factor of 4.1 % was considered. ...
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Crop rotation represents a potentially sustainable strategy to address environmental problems of intensive agricultural practices, such as soil degradation, biodiversity reduction, and greenhouse gas emissions. This manuscript assesses the environmental and economic implications of introducing lupin cultivation into winter wheat-based rotation systems under an organic regime in Galicia, Spain. Life Cycle Assessment methodology was used to determine the environmental impacts of three rotation systems over a six-year period: lupin → wheat → rapeseed (OA1), lupin → potato → wheat (OA2), and lupin → wheat → rapeseed ‖ maize (OA3). For a robust assessment, three functional units were applied: land management (ha), economic indicator (gross margin in euros) and protein content (1 kg of protein-corrected grain). Moreover, the environmental profiles were compared with rotation systems without lupin crop in a conventional regime. In terms of Global Warming, impacts of about 2214, 3119 and 766 kg CO2eq·ha⁻¹ were obtained for OA1, OA2 and OA3, respectively. Moreover, OA1 is the best rotation in terms of land and protein. Meanwhile, OA2 rotation is the best choice in the economic function, as it obtained the highest level of gross margin (5708 €·ha⁻¹). Furthermore, with the exception of acidification, organic systems are less impactful than conventional systems. Ammonia emissions from the use of manure are the reason for these higher impacts. Organic rotations OA1 and OA2 have about 6 % or 15 % less gross margin than their conventional counterparts, respectively, however, an increase of 28 % was obtained for rotation OA3. This study helps decision-makers to implement environmentally and economically viable strategies.
... Therefore, the agriculture sector needs to enhance its efficiency to feed the population (Crosson et al. 2011). However, consumers have shown an important evolution towards highquality food produced in environment-friendly conditions (de Boer 2003;Gonzalez-Garcia et al. 2014;Iribarren et al. 2011;Sala et al. 2017). ...
... Breeding industries are being consistently improved worldwide because of the increasing demand for beef, veal, pork, and poultry in developing countries (Gonzalez-Garcia et al. 2014). However, previous studies on pigs (McAuliffe et al. 2016;Reckmann et al. 2012), beef (Asem-Hiablie et al. 2019;Beauchemin et al. 2010;Bragaglio 2018), rabbit (Cesari et al. 2018;Da et al. 2014;Zened et al. 2013), and poultry (Bengtsson and Seddon 2013;Bo et al. 2008;Boggia et al. 2010;Katajajuuri 2007;Leinonen et al. 2012;M Da et al. 2014;Nunez et al. 2005;Rocchi et al. 2019;Schenck and Huizenga 2020;Silva et al. 2012;Williams et al. 2020) were mainly conducted in the farm stage, and only a few studies have been performed in the slaughtering stage. ...
... However, previous studies on pigs (McAuliffe et al. 2016;Reckmann et al. 2012), beef (Asem-Hiablie et al. 2019;Beauchemin et al. 2010;Bragaglio 2018), rabbit (Cesari et al. 2018;Da et al. 2014;Zened et al. 2013), and poultry (Bengtsson and Seddon 2013;Bo et al. 2008;Boggia et al. 2010;Katajajuuri 2007;Leinonen et al. 2012;M Da et al. 2014;Nunez et al. 2005;Rocchi et al. 2019;Schenck and Huizenga 2020;Silva et al. 2012;Williams et al. 2020) were mainly conducted in the farm stage, and only a few studies have been performed in the slaughtering stage. Analysis from a cradle-to-grave perspective to obtain comprehensive information on the whole industry chain (including breeding, slaughter, and waste material treatment) has rarely been performed (Bo et al. 2008;Gonzalez-Garcia et al. 2014;Josue Lopez-Andres et al. 2018;Skunca et al. 2018), and there is limited research on the rabbit breeding industry. ...
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... Chickens turn many forms of feed into protein food more efficiently than other animal species, also broiler chicken production more preferable in comparison to other types of meat like pork, beef and fish. So consumer demand trends reveal a raise in white meat consumption and a decrease in red meat [González-García et al., 2014 andNkukwana, 2018]. ...
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... Therefore, the decision-maker can reduce the environmental impact when proposing improvement actions in those stages of the process that account for the highest shares of impacts in the environmental profile. This tool not only makes it possible to determine the environmental consequences associated with greater efficiency in processes, services, and products (González-García et al. 2014), but can also guide the adoption of more sustainable processes and lifestyles (Severis et al. 2019). ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this document is to carry out a critical review of the existing literature by specifically addressing the following: (i) the integration of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost assessment from the perspective of research topics, category and scope of study, authors, institutions, countries, and journals working on or publishing related studies, and (ii) the main aids, challenges, opportunities, methodological difficulties, and current research efforts on the integrated approach of both tools. Methods: A systematic review was conducted to identify studies with an integrated use of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost in several areas. An analysis of the main aspects of the studies identified, such as bibliographic reference, year of publication, institution where the research was conducted, country, area of application, category of study, journal of publication, impact factor, and number of citations was conducted. After a search in the Science Direct, Scopus, and Web of Science databases, 349 documents were identified. After a series of filters (excluding gray literature, reading titles and keywords, reading abstracts, and reading full-texts), which helped ruling out articles that did not contribute to investigating the integration of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost assessment, 90 documents were selected for a detailed analysis. Results and discussion: The leading role of the USA and European countries in this issue should be highlighted. The integration of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost seems to be most advanced in the areas of building design and civil construction. Different strategies for the integration of the methodologies are also found, being mathematical modelling and programming for optimization, and multi-criteria decision-making the most recurrent methods. Moreover, there seems to be more challenges than opportunities in said integration. The challenges include the monetization of environmental impacts, higher volatility of economic data compared to environmental data, and differences in environmental and economic background data. These challenges can be turned into opportunities in the development of more comprehensive methodological approaches. Conclusion: Challenges (e.g., time-, resource-and knowledge-intensive, different scopes) and opportunities (e.g., common system boundaries, benefitting from LCA structure to conduct LCC) for the integration of life cycle assessment and life cycle cost were identified. This combined approach allows projects, products, and services to reduce environmental and economic impacts, which can be quantified and compared through improved assessment of potential trade-offs.
... To this end, the economic data provided by the farmers involved were managed. Consequently, a factor of 1.0% was established for poultry manure considering the inventory data of the poultry farm of Gonzalez-Garcia et al. (2014). Concerning the dairy farm, an allocation factor of 4.1% was estimated for the cow manure considering inventory data from Cortés et al. (2020). ...
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Climate change poses a remarkable challenge to global food security, for which wheat is one of the main staple agricultural commodities. The cultivation of different varieties of winter wheat in Galicia (commercial and native) under rotation systems with potato, maize and oilseed rape was evaluated from an environmental point of view. The general approach of this study included the gathering of the inventory data of the different crops, the quantification of their environmental impacts and economic benefits, to identify the best land management system. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was used as environmental tool. The environmental profiles of each rotation system were reported in terms of nine impact categories. Crop rotations were analysed both per hectare and per € of gross margin, so that the information can be relevant to land-management decisions. Preference ranks were established based on an environmental normalized score for both units. The results suggest that arable operations contribute decisively to the environmental profile of the rotations. The avoided mineral fertilization processes, the carbon storage in the soil when returning straw to the field, as well as the electricity production clearly influence the environmental impact of the rotations. Scenarios that include native wheat under organic management are always the environmentally preferred ones while the preferred alternate crop depends on the reference unit. Concerning the margin gross, scenarios including the native variety report the highest profits, being the potato the preferred alternate crop. Further assessment needs to be undertaken to identify differences in the results of different ways of conducting LCA, i.e. attributional vs consequential approaches.
... Alguns autores realizaram estudos de sensibilidade considerando cenários prospectivos para identificação dos parâmetros com melhor resposta em função das categorias de impacto consideradas. González-García et al. (2014) compararam a destinação dos resíduos da cama e excretas. Putman et al. (2017) avaliaram a influência nos impactos ambientais quando a cama era tratada de diferentes formas (coproduto, material residual, resíduo). ...
... Manure, water consumption, electricity consumption, fossil fuel, diesel fuel consumption, dead animal, emissions from feed consumption, solid and liquid wastes, dust, and particulate matter business structure that occur outside the livestock barns during the livestock production process. These emissions cause global warming, eutrophication, acidification, energy use, ozone depletion potential effect, terrestrial toxicity, biotic and abiotic degradation by livestock barns (González-García et al. 2014, Leinonen et al. 2014, Cesari et al. 2017. ...
... The products, by-products, and wastes required as a result of production constitute the production process's output. Every activity to be carried out during the life cycle of chicken meat production and the greenhouse gas emissions from the resulting products and wastes will harm global warming (Da Silva et al. 2014, González-García 2014, Leinonen 2014). ...
... Manure, water consumption, electricity consumption, fossil fuel, diesel fuel consumption, dead animal, emissions from feed consumption, solid and liquid wastes, dust, and particulate matter business structure that occur outside the livestock barns during the livestock production process. These emissions cause global warming, eutrophication, acidification, energy use, ozone depletion potential effect, terrestrial toxicity, biotic and abiotic degradation by livestock barns (González-García et al. 2014, Leinonen et al. 2014, Cesari et al. 2017. ...
... The products, by-products, and wastes required as a result of production constitute the production process's output. Every activity to be carried out during the life cycle of chicken meat production and the greenhouse gas emissions from the resulting products and wastes will harm global warming (Da Silva et al. 2014, González-García 2014, Leinonen 2014). ...
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