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Introduction and colonization history of Chinook salmon in Chile and Argentina (based on Correa and Gross 2008). The three panels indicate different time periods since the first introduction to Chile. Black symbol in panels a and b designate per site stockings from a different geographic source: Vancouver area in British Columbia (Va, square), Puget Sound area in Washington State (Pu, 

Introduction and colonization history of Chinook salmon in Chile and Argentina (based on Correa and Gross 2008). The three panels indicate different time periods since the first introduction to Chile. Black symbol in panels a and b designate per site stockings from a different geographic source: Vancouver area in British Columbia (Va, square), Puget Sound area in Washington State (Pu, 

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The Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, which was introduced deliberately in Chile four decades ago for sport fishing and aquaculture, represents a rare example of a successful translocation of an anadromous Pacific salmon into the southern Hemisphere, offering a unique opportunity to examine the role of introduction history and genetic variab...

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... works of Basulto (2003) and Correa and Gross (2008) were used to obtain Chinook salmon introduction data into Chile and Argentina. We also reviewed unpub- lished base-line data collected from two National Fisheries Administration Offices from Chile: Subpesca (Subsec- retaría de Pesca, http://www.subpesca.cl/), and Sernapesca (Servicio Nacional de Pesca, http://www.sernapesca.cl/). These records indicated the earliest attempts to introduce Chinook salmon in Chile dated back to 1886 from Paris, France (from individuals native to California), and 1924 and 1930, from California, but the efforts were unsuccess- ful. Additional imports were not reported for at least half a century. However, with the onset of the commercial salmon industry during the 1980s, salmon imports increased con- siderably. Chinook salmon from the Cowlitz River, a tributary of the lower Columbia River basin in Washington State, USA, and one stock derived from the Kalama River, also a tributary of the lower Columbia River basin from the University of Washington Hatchery, were introduced on several occasions for ocean ranching in the Chiloé area near Puerto Montt, Chile (Fig. 1a). From 1982From to 1988, male and female gametes from these returns along with Chinook eggs from the University of Washington were used to run a ranching program in the southern channels of Chile's XII Region (49°-56°S), first based at the Santa María (54°S), and later at the Prat (51°S) River (Fig. 1a). Following 1987, additional Chinook salmon from the Oregon coast, Puget Sound in Washington State, and the Vancouver area in British Columbia (Canada) were imported to the X Region (39°-44°S) for experimental net pen rearing. By 1991, Chilean aquaculture converted entirely to ocean net pens and was performed almost exclusively in northern localities along the X and XI Regions (44°-49°S), which imported and reared stocks derived from the Vancouver and Puget Sound areas. Additional strains from commercial stocks were introduced and from New Zealand (of California ori- gins) (Fig. 1b). Chinook salmon imports into Chile ceased during the ...
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... works of Basulto (2003) and Correa and Gross (2008) were used to obtain Chinook salmon introduction data into Chile and Argentina. We also reviewed unpub- lished base-line data collected from two National Fisheries Administration Offices from Chile: Subpesca (Subsec- retaría de Pesca, http://www.subpesca.cl/), and Sernapesca (Servicio Nacional de Pesca, http://www.sernapesca.cl/). These records indicated the earliest attempts to introduce Chinook salmon in Chile dated back to 1886 from Paris, France (from individuals native to California), and 1924 and 1930, from California, but the efforts were unsuccess- ful. Additional imports were not reported for at least half a century. However, with the onset of the commercial salmon industry during the 1980s, salmon imports increased con- siderably. Chinook salmon from the Cowlitz River, a tributary of the lower Columbia River basin in Washington State, USA, and one stock derived from the Kalama River, also a tributary of the lower Columbia River basin from the University of Washington Hatchery, were introduced on several occasions for ocean ranching in the Chiloé area near Puerto Montt, Chile (Fig. 1a). From 1982From to 1988, male and female gametes from these returns along with Chinook eggs from the University of Washington were used to run a ranching program in the southern channels of Chile's XII Region (49°-56°S), first based at the Santa María (54°S), and later at the Prat (51°S) River (Fig. 1a). Following 1987, additional Chinook salmon from the Oregon coast, Puget Sound in Washington State, and the Vancouver area in British Columbia (Canada) were imported to the X Region (39°-44°S) for experimental net pen rearing. By 1991, Chilean aquaculture converted entirely to ocean net pens and was performed almost exclusively in northern localities along the X and XI Regions (44°-49°S), which imported and reared stocks derived from the Vancouver and Puget Sound areas. Additional strains from commercial stocks were introduced and from New Zealand (of California ori- gins) (Fig. 1b). Chinook salmon imports into Chile ceased during the ...
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... works of Basulto (2003) and Correa and Gross (2008) were used to obtain Chinook salmon introduction data into Chile and Argentina. We also reviewed unpub- lished base-line data collected from two National Fisheries Administration Offices from Chile: Subpesca (Subsec- retaría de Pesca, http://www.subpesca.cl/), and Sernapesca (Servicio Nacional de Pesca, http://www.sernapesca.cl/). These records indicated the earliest attempts to introduce Chinook salmon in Chile dated back to 1886 from Paris, France (from individuals native to California), and 1924 and 1930, from California, but the efforts were unsuccess- ful. Additional imports were not reported for at least half a century. However, with the onset of the commercial salmon industry during the 1980s, salmon imports increased con- siderably. Chinook salmon from the Cowlitz River, a tributary of the lower Columbia River basin in Washington State, USA, and one stock derived from the Kalama River, also a tributary of the lower Columbia River basin from the University of Washington Hatchery, were introduced on several occasions for ocean ranching in the Chiloé area near Puerto Montt, Chile (Fig. 1a). From 1982From to 1988, male and female gametes from these returns along with Chinook eggs from the University of Washington were used to run a ranching program in the southern channels of Chile's XII Region (49°-56°S), first based at the Santa María (54°S), and later at the Prat (51°S) River (Fig. 1a). Following 1987, additional Chinook salmon from the Oregon coast, Puget Sound in Washington State, and the Vancouver area in British Columbia (Canada) were imported to the X Region (39°-44°S) for experimental net pen rearing. By 1991, Chilean aquaculture converted entirely to ocean net pens and was performed almost exclusively in northern localities along the X and XI Regions (44°-49°S), which imported and reared stocks derived from the Vancouver and Puget Sound areas. Additional strains from commercial stocks were introduced and from New Zealand (of California ori- gins) (Fig. 1b). Chinook salmon imports into Chile ceased during the ...
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... in the early 1980s, free-ranging Chinook sal- mon were recorded in several Pacific basins in proximity to the X and XII Regions, the primary introduction sites (Correa and Gross 2008). The species was also reported in the headwaters of two Pacific basins in Argentina: the Corco- vado and Futaleufú Rivers (Grosman 1992) (Fig. 1a). Con- currently, stray fish returns were recorded in the Caterina River (50°S), a small river at the Santa Cruz River head- waters, which drains into the Atlantic Ocean ( Ciancio et al. 2005;Becker et al. 2007). During the 1990s, salmon pro- duction increased as a result of net pen farming. Reports of Chinook salmon originating from aquaculture facilities continued, with strays occurring into several Pacific outlet rivers in Chile and Argentina from 40°S to 45°S (Basulto 2003;Soto et al. 2007;Correa and Gross 2008;Di Prinzio and Pascual 2008) (Fig. 1b). Documentation of Chinook salmon strays rapidly intensified through the end of the 20th into the beginning of the 21st centuries, including Chilean Tolten (39°S) and Valdivia (40°S) Basin Rivers to the north, the Baker (47°S), Pascua (48°S), and Serrano (51°S) Rivers south of 45°S ( Correa and Gross 2008), and the Beagle Channel Rivers (54°S) in Tierra del Fuego (Fernández et al. 2010). Most recently, local fishermen have reported Chinook salmon in the Grande (53°S) and Gallegos Rivers (51°S), two Atlantic basins famous for world-class sport fishery of sea- run brown trout, and in the De las Vueltas River (49°S) in the headwaters of the Santa Cruz River (Fig. 1). Genetica (2012) 140:439-453 441 Sampling and DNA techniques Chinook salmon populations were sampled between Janu- ary and March 2005 through 2009 from seven major Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia basins, including two original introduction sites: the Cobarde, a tributary of the Simpson (44°S) and Prat (51°S) Rivers in Chile, and five colonized rivers, including the Vargas, a tributary of the Baker (47°S) and Serrano (51°S) Rivers in Chile, and Corcovado (43°S), a tributary of the Palena River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean, Caterina River (50°S) flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ovando River (54°S) emptying into the Beagle Channel in Argentina (Fig. 2c). Gillnetting, carcass collection, and angling were used in several stations along the watershed to obtain samples. Tissue samples were also collected from 25 fish from a small hatchery located at Pichicolo, near Puerto Mont in the X Region (42°S), which maintains a local Chinook salmon broodstock originally developed from Washington State stocks. Tissue samples were preserved in 95 % ethanol and DNA was extracted following standard protocols (Sambrook and Russell 2001). PCR was performed to amplify a highly variable segment of the mtDNA (D-loop) control region using the following two primers: T07 (5 0 - CTTAACTCCCAAAGCTA-3 0 ) (designed by C. Riva Rossi and E. Lessa, Universidad de la República, Monte- video, Uruguay), and P2 (5 0 -TGTTAAACCCCTAAAC- CAG-3 0 , Nielsen et al. 1994). PCR followed the protocol in Nielsen et al. (1994). Amplification yielded 954 base pairs (bp) of high quality sequences from 141 individuals. Amplified DNA templates were purified with the GENE- CLEAN Purification Kit (Q BIOgene, Carlsbad, CA), and 20 ng of purified PCR product was used in cycle sequencing reactions following ABI PRISM BigDye Ter- minator protocols (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Forward and reverse sequences were visualized on an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer at the Centro Nacional Patagonico DNA Sequencing Laboratory and aligned with the MEGA v.5 software ( Tamura et al. 2011). Sequences were imported into DNASP version 5 (Librado and Rozas 2009) to identify unique haplotypes and subsequently deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers shown in Table 1. In this study, our 954-bp haplotypes were designated on the basis of homology to published sequences. The standardized nomenclature for short hap- lotypes (170-bp) in Chinook salmon followed the TSAX format (where X is any integer designating the specific haplotype), and longer haplotypes (414-bp) included the name of short haplotypes that comprised the long haplo- type, plus a haplotype-specific suffix (e.g., TSA1A is a long haplotype that includes the short TSA1 haplotype). Reported sequences from our study included an additional haplotype-specific suffix determined by observation order (e.g., longer haplotypes TSA10.1 to TSA10.3 comprise the published TSA10 haplotype, Table ...
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... in the early 1980s, free-ranging Chinook sal- mon were recorded in several Pacific basins in proximity to the X and XII Regions, the primary introduction sites (Correa and Gross 2008). The species was also reported in the headwaters of two Pacific basins in Argentina: the Corco- vado and Futaleufú Rivers (Grosman 1992) (Fig. 1a). Con- currently, stray fish returns were recorded in the Caterina River (50°S), a small river at the Santa Cruz River head- waters, which drains into the Atlantic Ocean ( Ciancio et al. 2005;Becker et al. 2007). During the 1990s, salmon pro- duction increased as a result of net pen farming. Reports of Chinook salmon originating from aquaculture facilities continued, with strays occurring into several Pacific outlet rivers in Chile and Argentina from 40°S to 45°S (Basulto 2003;Soto et al. 2007;Correa and Gross 2008;Di Prinzio and Pascual 2008) (Fig. 1b). Documentation of Chinook salmon strays rapidly intensified through the end of the 20th into the beginning of the 21st centuries, including Chilean Tolten (39°S) and Valdivia (40°S) Basin Rivers to the north, the Baker (47°S), Pascua (48°S), and Serrano (51°S) Rivers south of 45°S ( Correa and Gross 2008), and the Beagle Channel Rivers (54°S) in Tierra del Fuego (Fernández et al. 2010). Most recently, local fishermen have reported Chinook salmon in the Grande (53°S) and Gallegos Rivers (51°S), two Atlantic basins famous for world-class sport fishery of sea- run brown trout, and in the De las Vueltas River (49°S) in the headwaters of the Santa Cruz River (Fig. 1). Genetica (2012) 140:439-453 441 Sampling and DNA techniques Chinook salmon populations were sampled between Janu- ary and March 2005 through 2009 from seven major Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia basins, including two original introduction sites: the Cobarde, a tributary of the Simpson (44°S) and Prat (51°S) Rivers in Chile, and five colonized rivers, including the Vargas, a tributary of the Baker (47°S) and Serrano (51°S) Rivers in Chile, and Corcovado (43°S), a tributary of the Palena River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean, Caterina River (50°S) flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ovando River (54°S) emptying into the Beagle Channel in Argentina (Fig. 2c). Gillnetting, carcass collection, and angling were used in several stations along the watershed to obtain samples. Tissue samples were also collected from 25 fish from a small hatchery located at Pichicolo, near Puerto Mont in the X Region (42°S), which maintains a local Chinook salmon broodstock originally developed from Washington State stocks. Tissue samples were preserved in 95 % ethanol and DNA was extracted following standard protocols (Sambrook and Russell 2001). PCR was performed to amplify a highly variable segment of the mtDNA (D-loop) control region using the following two primers: T07 (5 0 - CTTAACTCCCAAAGCTA-3 0 ) (designed by C. Riva Rossi and E. Lessa, Universidad de la República, Monte- video, Uruguay), and P2 (5 0 -TGTTAAACCCCTAAAC- CAG-3 0 , Nielsen et al. 1994). PCR followed the protocol in Nielsen et al. (1994). Amplification yielded 954 base pairs (bp) of high quality sequences from 141 individuals. Amplified DNA templates were purified with the GENE- CLEAN Purification Kit (Q BIOgene, Carlsbad, CA), and 20 ng of purified PCR product was used in cycle sequencing reactions following ABI PRISM BigDye Ter- minator protocols (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Forward and reverse sequences were visualized on an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer at the Centro Nacional Patagonico DNA Sequencing Laboratory and aligned with the MEGA v.5 software ( Tamura et al. 2011). Sequences were imported into DNASP version 5 (Librado and Rozas 2009) to identify unique haplotypes and subsequently deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers shown in Table 1. In this study, our 954-bp haplotypes were designated on the basis of homology to published sequences. The standardized nomenclature for short hap- lotypes (170-bp) in Chinook salmon followed the TSAX format (where X is any integer designating the specific haplotype), and longer haplotypes (414-bp) included the name of short haplotypes that comprised the long haplo- type, plus a haplotype-specific suffix (e.g., TSA1A is a long haplotype that includes the short TSA1 haplotype). Reported sequences from our study included an additional haplotype-specific suffix determined by observation order (e.g., longer haplotypes TSA10.1 to TSA10.3 comprise the published TSA10 haplotype, Table ...
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... in the early 1980s, free-ranging Chinook sal- mon were recorded in several Pacific basins in proximity to the X and XII Regions, the primary introduction sites (Correa and Gross 2008). The species was also reported in the headwaters of two Pacific basins in Argentina: the Corco- vado and Futaleufú Rivers (Grosman 1992) (Fig. 1a). Con- currently, stray fish returns were recorded in the Caterina River (50°S), a small river at the Santa Cruz River head- waters, which drains into the Atlantic Ocean ( Ciancio et al. 2005;Becker et al. 2007). During the 1990s, salmon pro- duction increased as a result of net pen farming. Reports of Chinook salmon originating from aquaculture facilities continued, with strays occurring into several Pacific outlet rivers in Chile and Argentina from 40°S to 45°S (Basulto 2003;Soto et al. 2007;Correa and Gross 2008;Di Prinzio and Pascual 2008) (Fig. 1b). Documentation of Chinook salmon strays rapidly intensified through the end of the 20th into the beginning of the 21st centuries, including Chilean Tolten (39°S) and Valdivia (40°S) Basin Rivers to the north, the Baker (47°S), Pascua (48°S), and Serrano (51°S) Rivers south of 45°S ( Correa and Gross 2008), and the Beagle Channel Rivers (54°S) in Tierra del Fuego (Fernández et al. 2010). Most recently, local fishermen have reported Chinook salmon in the Grande (53°S) and Gallegos Rivers (51°S), two Atlantic basins famous for world-class sport fishery of sea- run brown trout, and in the De las Vueltas River (49°S) in the headwaters of the Santa Cruz River (Fig. 1). Genetica (2012) 140:439-453 441 Sampling and DNA techniques Chinook salmon populations were sampled between Janu- ary and March 2005 through 2009 from seven major Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia basins, including two original introduction sites: the Cobarde, a tributary of the Simpson (44°S) and Prat (51°S) Rivers in Chile, and five colonized rivers, including the Vargas, a tributary of the Baker (47°S) and Serrano (51°S) Rivers in Chile, and Corcovado (43°S), a tributary of the Palena River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean, Caterina River (50°S) flowing into the Atlantic Ocean, and the Ovando River (54°S) emptying into the Beagle Channel in Argentina (Fig. 2c). Gillnetting, carcass collection, and angling were used in several stations along the watershed to obtain samples. Tissue samples were also collected from 25 fish from a small hatchery located at Pichicolo, near Puerto Mont in the X Region (42°S), which maintains a local Chinook salmon broodstock originally developed from Washington State stocks. Tissue samples were preserved in 95 % ethanol and DNA was extracted following standard protocols (Sambrook and Russell 2001). PCR was performed to amplify a highly variable segment of the mtDNA (D-loop) control region using the following two primers: T07 (5 0 - CTTAACTCCCAAAGCTA-3 0 ) (designed by C. Riva Rossi and E. Lessa, Universidad de la República, Monte- video, Uruguay), and P2 (5 0 -TGTTAAACCCCTAAAC- CAG-3 0 , Nielsen et al. 1994). PCR followed the protocol in Nielsen et al. (1994). Amplification yielded 954 base pairs (bp) of high quality sequences from 141 individuals. Amplified DNA templates were purified with the GENE- CLEAN Purification Kit (Q BIOgene, Carlsbad, CA), and 20 ng of purified PCR product was used in cycle sequencing reactions following ABI PRISM BigDye Ter- minator protocols (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA). Forward and reverse sequences were visualized on an ABI PRISM 3130 automated sequencer at the Centro Nacional Patagonico DNA Sequencing Laboratory and aligned with the MEGA v.5 software ( Tamura et al. 2011). Sequences were imported into DNASP version 5 (Librado and Rozas 2009) to identify unique haplotypes and subsequently deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers shown in Table 1. In this study, our 954-bp haplotypes were designated on the basis of homology to published sequences. The standardized nomenclature for short hap- lotypes (170-bp) in Chinook salmon followed the TSAX format (where X is any integer designating the specific haplotype), and longer haplotypes (414-bp) included the name of short haplotypes that comprised the long haplo- type, plus a haplotype-specific suffix (e.g., TSA1A is a long haplotype that includes the short TSA1 haplotype). Reported sequences from our study included an additional haplotype-specific suffix determined by observation order (e.g., longer haplotypes TSA10.1 to TSA10.3 comprise the published TSA10 haplotype, Table ...
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... MDS analysis based on haplotype frequencies indicated the presence of three main distinct clusters (Fig. 4). Among native range populations, Chinook salmon from Russia and Alaska were placed close to Washington populations. The populations from California formed a fairly compact cluster together with naturalized popula- tions from New Zealand and were well separated from the remaining native populations. (Fig. 5). Native species populations consisted of a relatively large number of clo- sely related haplotypes. The four most common (TSA 17, TSA 1B, TSA 1A, and TSA10) were detected in the central geographic region of the native range. Two of these hap- lotypes (TSA 1A and TSA 10) were not identified in the northern region of the range, and the other two haplotypes (TSA 17 and TSA 1B) were not detected from the southern geographic area. Additional haplotypes were found exclu- sively in the northern (TSA 20 and TSA 21), central (TSA11, 12, 13, 16), or southern regions (TSA 2A and TSA 15) ( Martin et al. 2010). Introduced populations exhibited fewer haplotypes than native populations (five vs. 12 for the shorter fragment, respectively) and were dis- tributed in different sectors of the network, with haplotypes identified in different geographic regions within the native ...

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... farmed species during the past 20 years 25 there are no reports of selfsustaining populations; some authors have argued that this species could be less adapted to colonize environments in the Southern Hemisphere. Comparison has been made with the invasion success of Chinook salmon in southern Chile and Argentina which, interestingly has not been generated by massive escapes, but rather by several sparse events and thus the successful colonization has been probably due to the ability of the species to colonize new habitats.8,74,75 Nevertheless, there is no guarantee that continuing escapees of Atlantic salmon,F I G U R E 4 (a) Sensitivity index per relevant water body (RWB; n = 20) for Atlantic salmon. ...
Article
Here, we review extensive information to estimate environmental risks from escaped non‐native salmonids based on the assessments of hazard, sensitivity and exposure of discrete water bodies in Chile. In 2020, the country harvested about 1 million tons salmonids from net pens located along 1500 km of highly biodiverse coastline. We base our analysis on existing scientific information and authors' expert opinions including an assessment of knowledge gaps and uncertainties. Risks of environmental impacts differed by salmon species, being lowest for Atlantic salmon due to its estimated lower survival, lower ability to feed after escaping and lower reproductive capacity in the wild compared to coho salmon and rainbow trout. Overall risks due to escapes of any of the species were highest in areas of both high farming intensity and low capacity of mitigating escapes (by wild predators and fishers) such as Aysén District. At same time, risk was higher in the most farmed areas that also presented suitable habitats to support reproduction and juvenile salmonid rearing. However, the risk estimation certainty differed among species being lowest for Atlantic salmon due to insufficient monitoring of their fate in the wild. Monitoring the fate and impacts of escaped salmonids, specially in higher risk areas is recommended to improve risk projections and to prevent and mitigate further impacts. Since Atlantic and coho salmon are not yet successful invaders in Chile, research attention is urgently needed to assess the environmental consequences of escapes of these species. The present approach can be applied to any aquaculture system given the availability of information on farmed species and receiving ecosystems.
... Chinook salmon and rainbow trout were successfully introduced and established naturalized populations across Patagonia (Arismendi et al., 2014;Correa and Gross, 2008;Riva-Rossi et al., 2012). Both species have contributed to local economies due to their value for recreational fisheries (Arismendi and Nahuelhual, 2007), and more recently, artisanal fisheries in the case of Chinook salmon (Sanguinetti et al., 2021). ...
... We assert that implementing fatty acid analyses is an appropriate methodological tool for assessing ecological interactions, in our case, transfer of key MDN from anadromous to resident invasive salmonids, and thus contributing to holistic management and decision-making strategies on multiple invaders. Because our results emanate from a study on one basin, we encourage future studies to consider multiple sites across the range of invaded ecosystems and basins draining to both Pacific Ocean (Arismendi et al., 2014;Correa and Gross, 2008;Musleh et al., 2020) and Atlantic Ocean (Fernández et al., 2010;Nardi et al., 2019;Riva-Rossi et al., 2012) in South America. ...
Article
Full-text available
Marine derived nutrients (MDN) contained in gametes (mature eggs and sperm), carcasses and metabolic wastes from anadromous migratory salmon can transfer energy and materials to fresh water, thereby affecting the structure and function of stream ecosystems. This is crucial among ecosystems where humans have mediated biological invasions by propagating non-native species. Previous studies have demonstrated that consumption of MDN from salmon can benefit both native and invasive resident fishes. Yet, a more detailed understanding of the transfer of biomolecules with important physiological functions such as ω-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) have received less attention among researchers. Here we demonstrate that consumption of MDN contained in invasive Chinook salmon eggs transfers ω-3 HUFAs (e.g., EPA and DHA) to resident invasive rainbow trout in a river food web. We conducted a field study in river sections previously identified as spawning areas for Chinook salmon in the Cisnes River, Patagonia. Rainbow trout were sampled around salmon spawning areas before, during, and after the salmon spawning season. Additionally, we collected tissue from different food resources and components of different origin (e.g., primary producers, aquatic and terrestrial items) from Cisnes River system. Analyses of stomach contents of trout were performed in conjunction with analyses of both lipid content and fatty acid profiles of trout tissue and food web components. Chinook salmon eggs showed higher content of ω-3 HUFAs, especially EPA (31.08 ± 23.08 mg g DW-1) and DHA (27.50 ± 14.11 mg g DW-1) than either freshwater or terrestrial components (0-6.10 mg g DW-1 both EPA and DHA). We measured marked shifts in the fatty acid profile (~six-fold increase in EPA and DHA) of trout following consumption of Chinook salmon eggs. Our findings suggest that MDN via consumption of salmon eggs by resident rainbow trout may positively influence resident trout and likely contribute to gauge synergistic interactions between invaders on receiving ecosystems of Patagonia region.
... Otro de los impactos negativos en los ecosistemas de la región derivado de esta industria ha sido el escape de salmones desde las granjas al medio natural, donde alteran los ecosistemas naturales al depredar especies nativas y competir por alimento con ellas . Prácticamente no hay lugar en la Patagonia que se encuentre a salvo de la colonización futura de estas especies, ya que en años recientes se ha documentado un continuo incremento en su distribución en la región (Figura 18); (Becker et al ., 2007;Fernández et al ., 2010;Riva Rossi et al ., 2012) . La dieta de los salmones escapados incluye peces, crustáceos, insectos y moluscos (Soto et al . ...
... The clear fishery potential of Chinook salmon triggered government-sponsored and private initiatives to propagate it throughout Pacific Ocean watersheds in South America during 1978-1990(Correa and Gross 2008, with donor (native) populations spanning multiple geographic regions from North America (Correa and Moran 2017;Gomez-Uchida et al. 2018;Riva Rossi et al. 2012). These introduction efforts failed to yield a sustainable commercial activity, but resulted in the naturalization of multiple populations. ...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive species with migratory behavior and complex life cycles represent a challenge for evaluating natal sites among individuals. Private and government-sponsored initiatives resulted in the successful introduction and naturalization of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) throughout northern and southern Patagonia in South America. Migratory populations of Chinook salmon breed in fresh water, but spend most of their life feeding at sea, forming abundant populations in several watersheds draining into the southeast Pacific Ocean. We used single nucleotide polymorphisms combined with genetic structure and mixed-stock analyses to evaluate natal sites of Chinook salmon at sea caught in one estuary and two coastal locations compared to reference populations from breeding sites in fresh water. Firstly, Bayesian individual-assignment analyses revealed no genetic structure among adults caught off the coast of the Toltén River and migrating (maturing) adults caught in Toltén River estuary, suggesting they likely belong to a single population. Secondly, mixed-stock genetic analyses revealed that most Chinook salmon caught in one estuary and two coastal locations likely originated from spawners from the nearest river (86–96%). Contributions from distant watersheds to mixtures at sea decreased with increasing geographic distance. Our combined genetic evidence points strongly to homing among non-native Chinook salmon, whereby most adults return to breed to their natal river amid potentially long-distance migrations through the coast. Mixed-stock genetic analyses provide considerable potential to identify the population of origin of Chinook salmon mixtures caught off the coast. They also seem an appropriate proof of concept to assess homing versus dispersal and infer invasion pathways via long-distance migration.
... In this study we recovered high genetic divergence between Geotria west and east to the Andes, meanwhile in Argentina, populations spanning across the extra-Andean Patagonian steppe were almost monomorphic, with negligible levels of genetic structuring, a pattern concordant with the phylogeographic patterns documented in several freshwater species of Patagonia [71,[75][76][77][78]. Several South American freshwater fish species display deep phylogeographical differences that likely represent the split of Atlantic and Pacific lineages and have been associated with the uplift of the southern Andes (beginning 23 million years ago) and the Table 2. Results of ABGD analyses with the Jukes-Cantor (JC69), Kimura (K80), and the uncorrected p-distance (SD) models for the two data sets. ...
... However, on the east side of the Andes, fish species from Atlantic drainages exhibit low phylogeographic structure and divergence [71,[75][76][77][78]. This is consistent with our results indicating that populations of Geotria from Argentina spanning across the extra-Andean Patagonian steppe were almost monomorphic, with negligible levels of genetic structuring. ...
... Such movements are favored by the cold waters of the eastward flowing West Wind Drift and southward by the Cape Horn Current and the Antarctic Circumpolar Current to continue eastward and northward converging into the Malvinas (Falkland) Current (Fig 8). This facilitates southward salmon dispersal from Chilean locations into the Antarctic convergence and into the Patagonian Shelf in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean [74,75]. ...
Article
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Background The Argentinian pouched lamprey, classified as Petromyzon macrostomus Burmeister, 1868 was first described in 1867 in De La Plata River, in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and subsequently recorded in several rivers from Patagonia. Since its original description, the validity of P. macrostomus was questioned by several ichthyologists and 36 years after its original discovery it was considered a junior synonym of Geotria australis Gray, 1851. For a long time, the taxonomic status of G. australis has been uncertain, largely due to the misinterpretations of the morphological alterations that occur during sexual maturation, including the arrangement of teeth, size and position of fins and cloaca, and the development of an exceptionally large gular pouch in males. In this study, the taxonomic status of Geotria from across the “species” range was evaluated using both molecular analysis and examination of morphological characteristics. Methodology/principal findings Phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses based on mitochondrial DNA sequences of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) and Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI) genes, along with morphological analysis of diagnostic characters reported in the original descriptions of the species were used to assess genetic and morphological variation within Geotria and to determine the specific status of the Argentinian lamprey. These analyses revealed that Geotria from Argentina constitutes a well differentiated lineage from Chilean and Australasian populations. The position of the cloaca and the distance between the second dorsal and caudal fins in sub-adult individuals, and at previous life stages, can be used to distinguish between the two species. In addition, the genetic distance between G. macrostoma and G. australis for the COI and Cyt b mitochondrial genes is higher than both intra- and inter-specific distances reported for other Petromyzontiformes. Conclusions/significance Our results indicate that the Argentinian pouched lamprey, found along a broad latitudinal gradient on the south-west Atlantic coast of South America, should be named as Geotria macrostoma (Burmeister, 1868) and not as G. australis Gray 1851, returning to its earliest valid designation in Argentina. Geotria macrostoma can now be considered as the single lamprey species inhabiting Argentinian Patagonia, with distinct local adaptations and evolutionary potential. It is essential that this distinctiveness is recognized in order to guide future conservation and management actions against imminent threats posed by human actions in the major basins of Patagonia.
... In southern South America (SSA), multiple Chinook salmon propagations since the late 1800s have contributed to selfsustaining runs first documented in Chile in the 1990s (Soto et al. 2006(Soto et al. , 2007. These naturalized populations are genetically diverse from multiple propagations and hybridization (Astorga et al. 2008;Riva Rossi et al. 2012;Correa and Moran 2017;Gomez-Uchida et al. 2018), resulting in high variation in population structure, abundance, and behavioral traits (Soto et al. 2007;Arismendi et al. 2014). Thus, Chinook salmon in SSA can be considered a unique natural experiment for the evolution of an introduced species to widespread environmental and geographic conditions. ...
... Salmonids introduced to SSA face similar environmental conditions as in North America, including streamflow conditions, fluctuating thermal regimes in fresh and salt water, and suitable stream substrate for spawning (Healey 1991;Groot and Margolis 1991;Correa and Gross 2008;Arismendi et al. 2014;Quinn 2018). Chinook salmon distribution in SSA ranges from the Toltén River in the middle Central Valley region (northernmost range, 39°S) to Tierra del Fuego (southernmost range, 55°S), including basins that drain into the Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean (Soto et al. 2001;Ciancio et al. 2005;Soto et al. 2007;Riva Rossi et al. 2012). ...
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Chinook salmon are widely distributed across the globe with native stocks in the North Pacific Ocean and self-sustained populations in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. In their native range, Chinook salmon face many conservation and management challenges including depleted stocks, loss of genetic diversity, and hatchery influences, whereas naturalized range expansion poses a threat to novel ecosystems. Therefore, ways to improve stock discrimination would be a useful tool for fishery managers. Here, we evaluated otolith shape variation in Chinook salmon as a potential tool for stock discrimination using Wavelet coefficients and Fourier harmonics in three case studies at multiple spatial scales. We adopted a simple Classification Tree model that used otolith shape variation to separate Chinook salmon groups. We found best performance of the model occurring between hemispheres, followed by Oregon basins, within-watershed Elk River, Oregon, and lastly among South American basins. Otolith shape analysis is a promising tool for stock discrimination if used in conjunction with other methods to better understand plasticity of anadromous species that use pan-environmental systems.
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... It has been recorded from rivers of pacific drainages: Carrenleufú, Futaleufú and Pico rivers (Grosman, 1991;Soto et al., 2007;Di Prinzio & Pascual, 2008), all of them in Chubut province. Later, populations were established in patagonian rivers of Atlantic drainages in the provinces of Tierra del Fuego: Ovando-Lapataia river (Fernández et al., 2010) and Grande river (Riva Rossi et al., 2012), and Santa Cruz: Gallegos river (Riva Rossi et al., 2012) and diverse sites in Santa Cruz river (Ciancio et al., 2005;Riva Rossi et al., 2017). According to Arismendi et al. (2014) one of the reasons for establishment includes the species life cycle with short freshwater residency which allows rapid use and expansion in the marine environment. ...
... It has been recorded from rivers of pacific drainages: Carrenleufú, Futaleufú and Pico rivers (Grosman, 1991;Soto et al., 2007;Di Prinzio & Pascual, 2008), all of them in Chubut province. Later, populations were established in patagonian rivers of Atlantic drainages in the provinces of Tierra del Fuego: Ovando-Lapataia river (Fernández et al., 2010) and Grande river (Riva Rossi et al., 2012), and Santa Cruz: Gallegos river (Riva Rossi et al., 2012) and diverse sites in Santa Cruz river (Ciancio et al., 2005;Riva Rossi et al., 2017). According to Arismendi et al. (2014) one of the reasons for establishment includes the species life cycle with short freshwater residency which allows rapid use and expansion in the marine environment. ...
... This long distance falls into the known migration range of Chinook salmon, which can migrate up more than 4.500 km (Browning, 1980). In South American populations, Riva- Rossi et al. (2012) detected events of long distance dispersal (> 1.100km, from Northern to Southern Chile) following the ocean circulation patterns around Southern South America; recently, Gómez-Uchida et al. (2018) founded evidence for long-distance dispersal between Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean basin, and vice versa. ...
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... The consequences of these escapements and the success in the establishment of these three species have been very dissimilar. So far, no feral self-sustaining populations of anadromous Atlantic salmon have been reported in Patagonia; meanwhile, Chinook salmon have dispersed into several Patagonian basins (Becker et al. 2007;Correa and Gross 2008;Riva Rossi et al. 2012;Nardi et al. 2019). Regarding coho salmon establish-ment, there is only one recent report of a self-sustaining population in Los Cipreses Lake (51°S), Chile (Górski et al. 2016), and practically no evidence of establishment of this species in other areas of Patagonia. ...
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... comm.), while in the Argentinian part of Patagonia the first reports of wild spawning Chinook salmon date back to 1986 (Di Prinzio & Pascual, 2008). These runs have been attributed to escapees from Chilean salmon farms (Soto et al., 2001(Soto et al., , 2007Astorga et al., 2008), however, evidence from molecular markers suggests that the population of the nearby Futaleufú Basin corresponds to an admixture between Chinook salmon originated by the ranching programmes and escapees from salmon farming (Riva-Rossi et al., 2012;Di Prinzio et al., 2015). ...
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Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were recorded in two extensive areas during a survey conducted between February 2012 and June 2013 to obtain information regarding the seasonal distribution and population structure of a self-sustained salmonid population inhabiting the Palena River. A total of 83 Chinook salmon were captured, which corresponded to 8.3% of the total salmonids collected in both areas. Juveniles of less than 15 cm were recorded in the upstream section of the river, from which fry-parr were less than 5 cm, and pre-smolt ranged between 5 and 10 cm aged 0+. Smolts displaying the characteristic silver coloration with an absence of parr-markings ranged between 10 and 15 cm and were aged 1+. The diet of the juvenile salmon was composed mainly of aquatic insects. Mature salmon returning from the ocean were collected in the middle section of the river, with weights ranging between 4.6 and 28 kg and their age ranged from 4+ to 6+ years in the ocean, plus 1+ year’s growth in freshwater (stream type ecotype). All the adult salmon were devoid of food. Immature adults, with ages between 3+ and 4+, were collected from a small lake (Claro Solar), displayed a piscivorous diet mainly based on native Galaxid species. Adult salmon returning from the ocean were infested with the cestode Hepatoxylon trichuri, attached to the pyloric caeca.