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Initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment (lifestyle changes and medication) at different initial office blood pressure levels. BP = blood pressure; CAD = coronary artery disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HMOD = hypertension-mediated organ damage.

Initiation of blood pressure-lowering treatment (lifestyle changes and medication) at different initial office blood pressure levels. BP = blood pressure; CAD = coronary artery disease; CVD = cardiovascular disease; HMOD = hypertension-mediated organ damage.

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Use of intima-media thickness in the assessment of the development of preclinical atherosclerosis R.N.N. Najafov

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... patients with grade 1 hypertension at high risk or with HMOD, drug treatment should also be initiated simultaneously with lifestyle interventions. In lower-risk patients with grade 1 hyper- tension, BP-lowering drug treatment should be initiated after 3-6 months if BP is not controlled by lifestyle interventions alone ( Figure 3). Recommended BP thresholds for the initiation of antihy- pertensive drug treatment are shown in Table 19. ...

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AIM OF THE STUDY To explore the distribution by cardiovascular risk groups according to the classification promoted by the ESC (European Society of Cardiology) of subjects with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes cared for by Italian diabetologists and to describe the quality indicators of care, with particular regard to cardiovascular risk fact...

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... In clinical practice, the treatment for hypertensive crisis focuses on preventing or minimising acute hypertension-mediated organ damage (HMOD) by appropriately controlling blood pressure (BP) [2][3][4]. This presupposes that appropriate screening and preemptive management of individuals at risk for acute HMOD could improve the clinical outcomes of these patient groups. ...
... Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was defined as LVMI > 95 g/m 2 in females and > 115 g/m 2 in males [15]. ...
... Based on LVMI and RWT, we distinguished the following variants of LV remodeling: [15]. ...
... According to the American Heart Association recommendations for CBP [14], and the European Society of Cardiology Guidelines for Arterial Hypertension (AH) [15], the aortal systolic blood pressure values more accurately indicate the LV load and better characterize the increased blood pressure damaging effect on the target organs (heart, kidneys) compared to the peripheral arterial pressure values, measured with a brachial tonometer. In this regard, the CBP is considered a more significant CVC and outcome prognostic factor than peripheral blood pressure [14,15]. ...
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Background In chronic kidney disease (CKD) cardiovascular remodeling (CVR) is very frequent compared with general population and, as suppose, may be associated with «new» renal risk factors. The aim of study was to estimate association of new serum biomarkers (FGF-23, Klotho) and traditional biomarker of cardiac damage—serum Troponin I (sTr-I) with signs of CVR. Methods One hundred thirty CKD G1-5D patients without cardiovascular disease (CVD) clinical manifestation were included. We measured serum FGF-23, Klotho and sTr-I. The instrumental methods were: echocardiography, SphygmoCor test [Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV), Central (aortic) Blood Pressure (CBP), Subendocardial Blood Supply (SBS)]. Results FGF-23 level correlated with: sTr-I (r = 0.512; p < 0.01), eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy, LVH (r = 0.543; p < 0.01), SBS (r = − 0.499; p < 0.05). There were no differences of FGF-23 level in patients with normal and high CBP. Klotho correlated with concentric LVH (r = − 0.451; p < 0.01), PWV (r = − 0.667; p < 0.001), Cardiac Calcification Score, CCS (r = − 0.581; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis revealed positive independent association of FGF-23 with eccentric LVH (OR = 1.036, 95% CI (1.004–1.068); p = 0.038). Klotho was a negative determinant for concentric LVH (OR = 0.990, 95% CI 0.987—0.994; p < 0.001), increased PWV (OR = 0.984, 95% CI (0.977–0.991); p < 0.001) and CCS (OR = 0.991, 95% CI (0.988–0.995); p < 0.001). In addition, multivariate analysis revealed a relationship between serum Klotho (OR = 0.980, 95% CI (0.964–0.996); p = 0.016), FGF-23 (OR = 3.145, 95% CI (1.020–9.695); p = 0.046) and troponin I level. Conclusion In CKD patients without CVD clinical manifestation increased serum FGF-23 level and decreased Klotho are associated with CVR: FGF-23 with eccentric LVH (independently of CBP), Klotho determinate concentric LVH, PWV and CCS. Moderately elevated sTr-I levels may be a manifestation of FGF-23/Klotho imbalance in CKD.
... Penyakit tekanan darah tinggi atau bisa kita sebut hipertensi didiagnosis jika nilai tekanan sistolik sama atau lebih besar daripada 140 mmHh [3] serta untuk tekanan diastolik lebih besar atau sama dengan 90 mmHg [4]. Hipertensi menjadi salah satu faktor penting penyebab beberapa penyakit seperti stroke, gagal jantung, infark miokard, atrial fibrilasi, penyakit arteri perifer hingga diseksi aorta [5]. ...
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... The activation of RAAS is responsible for the CV remodeling and maintenance of BP and extracellular fluid volume [11]. Upregulation of RAAS activity results in many pathologic conditions, including AH, which lead to direct damage on cardiac, vascular and renal tissues [20]. AH has been recognized as a significant risk factor for the development of symptomatic HF. ...
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... Both the guidelines for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of high blood pressure in adults issued by the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (2017) recommend the hearthealthy DASH diet with a high intake of vegetables, whole grains, some low-fat dairy products, and a low intake of red meat, sugar, and trans hydrogenated fats [80,81]. Guidelines for the management of hypertension issued by the European Society of Cardiology/European Society of Hypertension (2018) support the suggestion of a low-salt diet similar to the Mediterranean diet-a healthy balanced diet that includes vegetables, legumes, fresh fruit, low-fat dairy products, whole grains, fish, and unsaturated fatty acids (especially olive oil); low intake of red meat and saturated fatty acids [80,82,83]. ...
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... In WhHT patients blood pressure is increased in office, but normal during out-of office measurements. In masked hypertension home results are elevated, while in the office, blood pressure is normal [8]. In ResHT blood pressure is above 140/90 mmHg in the office in spite of the use of 3 antihypertensive drugs of different classes including a diuretic. ...
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Background Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular mortality. Mood disorders represent a growing public health problem worldwide. A complex relationship is present between mood disorders and cardiovascular diseases. However, less data is available about the level of depression and anxiety in different hypertension phenotypes. The aim of our study was to evaluate psychometric parameters in healthy controls (Cont), in patients with white-coat hypertension (WhHT), with chronic, non-resistant hypertension (non-ResHT), and with chronic, treatment-resistant hypertension (ResHT). Methods In a cross-sectional study setup 363 patients were included with the following distribution: 82 Cont, 44 WhHT, 200 non-ResHT and 37 ResHT. The patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A). Results BDI points were higher in WhHT (7 (3–11)) and ResHT (6 (3–11.5)) compared with Cont (3 (1–6), p < 0.05). Similarly, HAM-A points were higher in WhHT (8 (5–15)) and ResHT (10.5 (5.25–18.75)) compared with Cont (4 (1–7), p < 0.05) and also compared with non-ResHT (5 (2–10), p < 0.05). ResHT was independently associated with HAM-A scale equal or above 3 points (Beta = 3.804, 95%CI 1.204–12.015). WhHT was independently associated with HAM-A scale equal or above 2 points (Beta = 7.701, 95%CI 1.165–18.973) and BDI scale equal or above 5 points (Beta = 2.888, 95%CI 1.170–7.126). Conclusions Our results suggest psychopathological similarities between white-coat hypertension and resistant hypertension. As recently it was demonstrated that white-coat hypertension is not a benign condition, our findings can have relevance for future interventional purposes to improve the outcome of these patients.
... had achieved good control as reported by different studies [54,56,57,59]. Although treatment guidelines recommend using combinations of antihypertensive medications to achieve the control target [60], only 18.5-31.7% received 2 or more antihypertensive medications, and calcium channel blockers were the most frequently prescribed class of medications [56,59]. ...
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... We used the current guidelines to evaluate and define comorbidities, such as arterial hypertension [6], heart failure [7], chronic kidney disease [8,9], and diabetes [10]. The laboratory testing consisted of lipid profile, serum glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and the results were presented according to the International System of Units. ...
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... Three BP readings were recorded separately in the supine position after at least two-minute resting by trained nurses at baseline, and the average of the three measurements was 3 Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity regarded as the admission BP. Admission SBP was then classified into three categories based on the 2018 European Society of Hypertension as <140 mmHg, 140-180 mmHg, and ≥180 mmHg [21]. ...
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Limited data were available about the combined impact of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) prognosis. The objective of this study is to explore whether the relationship between LDL-C and ICH outcomes was modified by SBP levels in a Chinese population. From August 1, 2015, to July 31, 2019, 75,443 ICH patients enrolled from the Chinese Stroke Center Alliance program were included in our study. Patients were divided into LDL-C levels of <70 mg/dL, 70-100 mg/dL, and ≥100 mmol/L. SBP was stratified as <140 mmHg, 140-180 mmHg, and ≥180 mmHg. The primary outcome was the occurrence of hematoma expansion (HE), and the second outcome was in-hospital mortality. Correlation between LDL-C levels and SBP on ICH outcomes were assessed by logistic regression. 6,116 (8.1%) and 1,576 (2.1%) patients suffered HE and in-hospital mortality. Compared with the ≥100 mg/dL group, patients with LDL-C concentrations under 70 mg/dL had a 19% and 24% increase in the relative risk of HE (crude OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.11-1.28) and in-hospital mortality (crude OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.08-1.42). When SBP was added as a stratification variable, the above-mentioned association was attenuated in patients under a threshold SBP of 140 mmHg ( P > 0.05 ). However, no statistical interaction was detected between SBP and LDL-C levels. Lower LDL-C levels (<70 mg/dL) are related to a higher risk of HE and in-hospital mortality confined to ICH patients with elevated SBP (≥140 mmHg).
... Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m 2 . High blood pressure (HBP) was defined as current BP lowering treatment, prior diagnosis of HBP, resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) greater than 140 or resting diastolic blood pressure (DBP) greater than 90 mmHg [50]. Diabetes was defined as current antidiabetic treatment, previous diabetes diagnosis, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL on two separate occasions or a value for glycosylated hemoglobin ≥6.5% [51][52][53]. ...
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Background and Objectives: Functional capacity (FC) assessed via cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a novel, independent prognostic marker for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are two readily available predictors of systemic inflammation and cardiovascular event risk, which could be used as cost-effective predictors of poor FC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of NLR and PLR in predicting poor FC in patients with CAD and recent elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Materials and Methods: Our cross-sectional retrospective analysis included 80 patients with stable CAD and recent elective PCI (mean age 55.51 ± 11.83 years, 71.3% male) who were referred to a cardiovascular rehabilitation center from January 2020 to June 2021. All patients underwent clinical examination, cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer, transthoracic echocardiography and standard blood analysis. Results: Patients were classified according to percent predicted oxygen uptake (% VO2 max) in two groups—poor FC (≤70%, n = 35) and preserved FC (>70%, n = 45). There was no significant difference between groups regarding age, gender ratio, presence of associated comorbidities, left ventricular ejection fraction and NLR. PLR was higher in patients with poor FC (169.8 ± 59.3 vs. 137.4 ± 35.9, p = 0.003). A PLR cut-off point of 139 had 74% sensitivity and 60% specificity in predicting poor FC. After multivariate analysis, PLR remained a significant predictor of poor functional status. Conclusions: Although CPET is the gold standard test for assessing FC prior to cardiovascular rehabilitation, its availability remains limited. PLR, a cheap and simple test, could predict poor FC in patients with stable CAD and recent elective PCI and help prioritize referral for cardiovascular rehabilitation in high-risk patients.