Source publication
Article
Full-text available
In 1915 the Danish psychologist Edgar Rubin describes in his famous work on figure-ground perception, the phenomenon that when you look attentively at a picture, a second, virtual ego arises, breaking away from the viewer-ego to wander around in the picture along the contours of the depicted. In 1982, German Gestalt psychologist Edwin Rausch expand...

Citations

... On this basis, a multiple-field approach for grasping and understanding essential processes and for appropriate action in the psychotherapeutic situation can also be developed, as I have proposed (Stemberger 2009(Stemberger , 2018. In many psychotherapy methods, although without the theoretical and conceptual embedding elaborated here, techniques and forms of intervention are used that are suitable to stimulate, in one way or another, the segregation of a second total field in clients. ...
Chapter
Mind-wandering is often seen as the result of a certain attention behavior or even an attention deficit. However, Gestalt psychological research points to other explanations: The phenomena referred to as “mind-wandering” can be understood as a reorganization of the total phenomenal field of perception and experience as a result of experiencing serious discrepancies in this field (“non-Prägnanz” or “Imprägnanzen” in Gestalt psychological terminology). If the “non-Prägnanz” in the field is strong enough, the related facts and events are experienced as not being compatible in a single common field. As a consequence, the field of perception and experience is split into two or more fields, each comprising its own phenomenal ego with its own phenomenal world. This approach allows the identification of certain rules for the occurrence of these phenomena and an informed handling of them. The paper introduces this Gestalt psychological multiple-field approach and discusses its conditions, implications, and potential applications. Examples from Gestalt theoretical psychotherapy, in the context of which this approach was developed in a differentiated way, and from other areas of application, serve as illustrations.KeywordsPerceptionOrganization of the phenomenal field“Gestalt laws,” Multiple-field approachPhenomenal field segregationGestalt psychologyGestalt theoretical psychotherapy
... "Struktur und Inhalt der beiden teil-Überlappende Situationen können eine Vorstufe zur Ausbildung einer Mehrzahl von psychologischen Situationen sein, die jeweils über ein eigenes Ich und damit über eine eigene Person/Umwelt-Gliederung verfügen. Damit befasst sich der Mehr-Felder-Ansatz, den Stemberger aufbauend auf Untersuchungen von EdwinRausch (1982) vorgeschlagen hat (vgl.Stemberger 2009Stemberger , 2018). Auch hier trifft zu, dass die einzelnen Situationen jeweils zur gegebenen Zeit ein bestimmtes relatives Gewicht hinsichtlich ihrer Bedeutung für das Erleben und Verhalten der Person im Ganzen besitzen. ...
Article
Full-text available
Summary (article is in German): The encyclopedia entry deals with the concept of the "psychological situation". In Kurt Lewin's field theory, this refers to the just given structural and dynamic condition of the living space, i.e. of the person and his environment, in its meaning for the person concerned. It is to be strictly distinguished from the sociological ("objective") situation of the person insofar as it only encompasses what exists for the person himself as a habitat at the moment and what meaning these conditions have for him in terms of content. Zusammenfassung: Der Lexikon-Eintrag befasst sich mit dem Begriff der "Psychologischen Situation", Dieser bezeichnet in der Feldtheorie Kurt Lewins die gerade gegebene strukturelle und dynamische Beschaffenheit des Lebensraums, also der Person und ihrer Umwelt, in ihrer inhaltlichen Bedeutung für die betroffene Person. Sie ist insofern streng zu unterscheiden von der soziologischen („objektiven“) Situation der Person, als sie nur umfasst, was für die Person selbst gerade als Lebensraum besteht und welche inhaltliche Bedeutung diese Gegebenheiten für sie haben.
... It occurs frequently in the psychotherapeutic situation -whether noticed or unnoticed, whether deliberately induced or spontaneous -on the side of the psychotherapist as well as on the side of the client. If the phenomenon is well understood in its conditions and effects, this may contribute to a better practical and theoretical understanding of the psychotherapeutic situation and the psychotherapeutic process and may also be used deliberately to improve the procedure in diagnosis and therapy (multiple field approach, Stemberger, 2009aStemberger, , 2009bStemberger, , 2018. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics which occur within it. The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation. After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation of both psychoanalytic and Gestalt theory of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those which develop in the course of the subsequent associations. This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this article on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy. The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “MDAC of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.
... Unter entsprechenden Bedingungen können diese beiden Welten bei der Therapeutin als zwei voneinander ausgegliederte, aber in Wechselbeziehung stehende Gesamtfelder wirken, was sie auch selbst herbeiführen bzw. beeinflussen kann (Mehr-Felder-Ansatz: Stemberger 2009, 2018b. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Summary: The paper [in German language] outlines the key concepts of Gestalt Theoretical Psychotherapy, a strictly Gestalt psychology based psychotherapy method. Preprint of the book chapter: Zabransky, Dieter; Eva Wagner-Lukesch; Gerhard Stemberger & Angelika Böhm (2018): Grundlagen der Gestalttheoretischen Psychotherapie. In: M. Hochgerner et al. (Hrsg.), Gestalttherapie. Zweite Auflage. Wien: Facultas, 132-169.
Chapter
Full-text available
While the initial research on the wandering mind usually saw it as a problem, recent research tends to have a more positive view of its adaptive functions. This has also influenced our understanding of meditative practice. While mindfulness techniques have often been argued to reduce mind wandering, it has been suggested that nondirective meditation facilitates mind wandering and default mode network activity. This chapter explores the implications of this for emotional processing. It is based on an fMRI study suggesting that nondirective meditation activates the default mode network and in particular brain areas associated with emotional processing.KeywordsMind-wanderingEmotional processingNondirective meditationDefault mode network
Chapter
We provide an overview of the “lines” and “circles” of knowledge that represent the key to reading this collective volume. The two sections of the book are described, introducing the content of each chapter and their connections, resonances and dialectics. The goal of the book is to present an overview of the many interesting emerging perspectives on mind wandering in human development and education. Through it we recreate a dance of interacting parts: scrolling through the different contributions, one can grasp the rhythm of convergences and interconnections that animates them. The gaze is generative-systemic because we are attentive both to the emergency processes and to the interactions between parts(zigzag).KeywordsMind-wanderingNeurosciencesCultural-historical psychologyGenerativityHigher mental functions
Preprint
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung: Psychotherapie-Klientinnen und-Klienten mit unterschiedlichen klinischen Beschwerdebildern wurde die Möglichkeit von Bildbegegnung und Bilderleben mit Gemälden des belgischen Malers Georges Meurant geboten. Diese Gemälde weisen unter anderem die besondere Qualität auf, dass sich bei eingehender Bildbetrachtung in der Regel der Eindruck eines flüssigen Gestaltwandels einstellt. Die ursprüngliche Sorge, dass diese besondere Qualität von Klientinnen und Klienten in bestimmten Problemlagen ungünstig aufgenommen werden könnte, hat sich in der Untersuchung nicht bestätigt. Die Begegnung mit den Gemälden Meurants erweist sich vielmehr als potentiell unterstützend und bereichernd für diejenigen, die sich auf diese Art des Erlebens einlassen können und wollen und eine Lebenssituation und Stabilität aufweisen, die ihnen eine konstruktive Nutzung solcher Möglichkeiten in einem dafür geeigneten therapeutischen Rahmen erlauben. Die Begegnung mit diesen Gemälden erwies sich zugleich als "ungefährlich" für diejenigen, für die ein Bilderleben überfordernd sein könnte - natürliche Selbstschutzpotentiale lassen in ihrem Fall ein solches Erleben erst gar nicht zu.
Article
Full-text available
The paper presents basic Gestalt theoretical concepts of ego and self. They differ from other concepts in the way that they do not comprehend ego and self as fixed entities or as central controlling instances of the psyche, but as one specific organized unit in a psychological field in dynamic interrelation with the other organized units—the environment units—of this field. On this theme, well-known representatives of Gestalt theory have presented some general and special theories since the early days of this approach that could partly be substantiated experimentally. They illuminate the relationship between ego and world in everyday life as well as in the case of mental disorders. Not only the spatial extension of the phenomenal ego is subject to situational changes, but also its place in the world, its functional fitting in this world, its internal differentiation, its permeability to the environment, and much more. The German Gestalt psychologist Wolfgang Metzger emphasizes the significant functional role that this dynamic plasticity of the phenomenal world and its continuously changing segregation of ego and environment have for human life by designating the phenomenal world as a “Central Steering Mechanism.” In this article, ego and self as part of this field in their interrelation with the total psychological field will be illuminated from the perspective of the thinking of the Gestalt psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler, Kurt Lewin, Wolfgang Metzger, Mary Henle, Edwin Rausch, and Giuseppe Galli.
Article
Full-text available
The present work focuses on the transformations of the psychotherapeutic field through the relationship dynamics that occur within it. The first part of this article starts with a brief outline of the Gestalt psychological understanding of the field concept, also in its application to the psychotherapeutic situation, followed by a brief review of the introduction of the field concept into the psychoanalytic theory formation. After this, the first author first presents the theoretical concept underlying a new approach he has developed for observing the relationship dynamics in psychotherapy. Mirroring a formation both psychoanalytic and gestaltic of the main author, this new approach is based on the combination of psychoanalytic and Gestalt psychological concepts. According to the clinical experience and insights of the author, the phenomenological and relational approach of Gestalt theory fits well with the psychoanalytic approach; on this basis, a criterion for recording the progress of therapy can be developed. This criterion is the phenomenology of the development of the qualities of the relationships of the client, as they become visible in his dream narrations and the subsequent associations in the analysis room, and continue to develop during the session and the further course of therapy. The relationship dynamics in the dream narration is thus compared with those that develop in the course of the subsequent associations. This is demonstrated and further elaborated in the second part of this paper on the basis of a clinical case. The clinical example shows how the relationship dynamics develop in this sense in the individual therapy sessions and over a longer course of therapy. The associated transformations of the therapeutic field give a good indication of the progress of therapy. The main author gained such insights into the transformations of the therapeutic field and the progression of therapy, which are visible in the course of therapy, from the careful application of the criterion “manifest dream/associations comparison of relational dynamics”. In the specific case, there was also a high degree of correspondence between the results of the application of this phenomenological criterion and the empirical evidence of the symptom questionnaire, a self-report measure requested by the patient himself during the course of the therapy.