Context in source publication

Context 1
... next ‘true’ charter is the Egmond forgery of “1083”, that is, if it was really made after the diploma of 1143 (fig. 4). 30 Since its latest edition was published by Koch in 1970, it is commonly agreed that this document, for centuries a hotly debated piece in Dutch medieval history, was written sometime in the second quarter of the twelfth century. I think, however, that it must have been made between 1156 and 1162. The charter, another one of an impressive size, is written in a diplomatic minuscule by a scribe who was definitely more used to this kind of script than his colleague of 1143, even if in this text fragments of book script do occur, and the st - and ct -ligatures are rather clumsily executed. The global impression of the layout and script of the piece, however, is one of control and balance. The scribe seems inspired by the papal bull of 1140: compare in both documents the relatively wide margins, the wide spacing between the lines and, in connection with that, the long ascenders (also in the elongated letters, the litterae elongatae , of the first line). The conspicuous ligatures in the Egmond charter probably are a (not very successful) imitation of those in the papal bull, as are some typical abbreviation signs. The wording of the “1083” charter shows no influence of the papal text, with the exception perhaps of the double structure of the sanctio , in which persons who infringe on the provisions of the deed are threatened with the wrath of God, whereas those who uphold them are promised their reward in the next world. The text of the forgery is a compilation from different sources. In it are recorded the earlier grants of the first counts and their relatives as well as some grants made in 1083. Moreover, in its phrases parts of the so-called Gravenregister (an Egmond text from c. 1125) are found, and fragments of the formulary of the old royal charters for the counts, which were kept in the Egmond archives. There is also some clear borrowing from two other important charters in the Egmond archives: one which the abbey received in 1146 from the archbishop of Cologne and another which was issued in 1156 by the abbot of Echternach for Count Dirk VI . 31 In 1162 two authentic diplomatic texts were again written in Egmond. They are two nearly identical deeds, one of which again has been handed down in its original form (fig. 5). 32 These are charters issued by Count Floris III for the abbey of Egmond, in which a bitter conflict between the count and the convent is brought to an end. Floris was forced to give in. These were important documents for the abbey. Both the wording and, as one can see from the ...