A look at the Nuremberg Code in which the so called “Doctors’ Trial” carried out in 1946—1947 by the American occupation authorities laid down the moral principles of experimental research on humans needs to be updated, since over the past almost seventy five years a layer of factual errors and fictitious assessments has formed around it. This paper offers a critical review of this phenomenon based on more than sixty Russian- and English-language scientific publications, as well as other sources including official court materials content analysis. A historical approach is taken, thanks to which the text of the Nuremberg Code appears as the result of a process that took place under the influence of many factors in the period before and during the trial. The thesis is put forward that the subsequent formation of a contradictory and kaleidoscopic image of the Code leads to its transformation into a historical legend.