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Agile software development represents a new approach for planning and managing software projects. It puts less emphasis on up-front plans and strict control and relies more on informal collaboration, coordination, and learning. This chapter provides a characterization and definition of agile project management based on extensive studies of industri...

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... None of the papers in our sample expressly attend to the development methodology (i.e., agile or waterfall), although we might expect that more recent cases in our sample likely adopted more agile approaches. Existing research into agile development does indicate that agile projects do appear susceptible to escalation situations [30,105], but there is virtually no empirical work in this regard. It is important to note that agile is not a single practice, it is a loose collection of practices that organizations adopt and tailor to their local contexts [16,17,49,83]. ...
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... A second contribution of our study is a framework describing key characteristics of inter-team coordination mechanisms. The TOPS framework, presented in Table 3 and Figures 5 and 8, is inspired from ideas of software engineering as a socio-technical practice which has a long historical context [69]- [71]. We believe the TOPS framework can be used as a guiding lens for research to analyze the coordination mechanisms used in any large-scale setting (i.e., colocated, distributed or a hybrid) to better understand the coordination practices used in the specific organization. ...
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... This is followed by the core section of this paper in which we report on the conducted Action Research cycle, interpret the collected data, and provide the lessons learned. In Section 6, we elaborate on the threats to validity, while in Section 7, we consider the implications of our Accordingly, the retrospective is an opportunity for the team to look back over an iteration and recognize successes and failures; to link the related experience to people, the development process, engineering practices, and tools; and to create a plan for improvements to be enacted during the next iteration (Dybå et al. 2014b;Lehtinen et al. 2015, Lehtinen et al. 2017Dingsøyr et al. 2018;Ilyés 2019). Indeed, the retrospective is one of the most frequently mentioned agile practices in the context of software process improvement (Mas et al. 2018;Küpper et al. 2019). ...
... Due to the tayloristic past, project managers tend to stick with traditional viewpoints on hierarchy in terms of reporting, resource allocation, decision-making, etc. and are reluctant to grant leadership roles to the teams (Moe et al. 2012;Spiegler et al. 2021). However, agile methods require a shift from command-andcontrol project management to shared decision-making and self-management teams, where project managers are facilitators who coordinate collaborative efforts and create a supportive organizational context (Nerur et al. 2005;Dybå et al. 2014b;Theobald et al. 2020). Therefore, in order to enjoy the full benefits of Scrum, agile values and principles must be adopted not only at the team level but also at the organizational level. ...
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... Suggested reading: Dybå et al. [95] present an overview of agile project management practices and provide practical tips on how to organize project management in uncertain and changing environments. ...
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