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An understanding of plant biology is essential to solving many long-standing global challenges, including sustainable and secure food production and the generation of renewable fuel sources. Nanosensor platforms, sensors with a characteristic dimension that is nanometer in scale, have emerged as important tools for monitoring plant signaling pathwa...

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... our lab demonstrated the use of CoPhMoRe-based Bombolitin II nanosensors (B- SWNTs) implanted within the leaf tissues of wild-type spinach plants (175). By interfacing nanosensors with living spinach plants, we converted the plants into functional devices that serve as self-powered autosamplers and preconcentrators of analytes within ambient groundwater, de- tectors of the organic molecules contained therein, and IR communication platforms that can send this information to a user's smartphone (Figure 4a). Their design employed a pair of NIR fluores- cent nanosensors embedded within the plant leaf mesophyll. ...
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... second IR channel is a PVA-functionalized SWNT (P-SWNT) that acts as an invariant reference signal. As contaminant nitroaromatics in solution are transported up the roots and stem into the leaf tissues, they accumulate in the mesophyll where the pair of SWNT sensors is embedded (Figure 4b). The reported results demonstrate the ability of interfacing nanoma- terials with living wild-type plants to create plant-based chemical monitors of groundwater and communication devices to external electronics at standoff distances. ...
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... and coworkers (92) reported imprinted nanowires consisting of an MWNT core on which a layer of conducting poly-arginine was cast using an electropolymerization technique (Figure 4c). Through studying the total uptake of Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) ions in the soil, water, and plant tissues (fruit and leaves of potato, tomato, and mango), it was clear that plants growing in contaminated environments have large accumulations of metal ions in their leaves and fruits. ...

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... The toxicological effects of NMs are influenced by their chemical and physical properties and also depend upon plant species (Kwak et al., 2017;Rastogi et al., 2017). It was observed that phytotoxicity is also affected by surface modification of NMs, for example, various toxicity levels of QDs coated or capped with different materials (Rico et al., 2015a,b;Singh et al., 2019). ...
Article
Green synthesis of nano-fertilizers is emerging as a potential strategy and could play a crucial role in disease mitigation, diagnosis, or suppression. Different nanoscale devices (nanoparticles, NPs), biosensors, nano-diagnostic kits, nanofabrication, nanobarcodes, microRNA detection, quantum dots, and nanopore sequencing systems can be used to diagnose plant biotic stress. New research innovations include nanoformulations (nanogels, nanosuspensions, nanoemulsions) and various types of nanoparticles that are useful as nanopesticides (e.g., nanoinsecticids, nanobactericides, nanofungicides and nanonematicides) to enhance plant productivity. These nanomaterials may be involved in different mechanisms of pathogen interactions with plants e.g., ROS production, expression of stress-resistant genes, pathogen cell lysis, and DNA mutation. The optimum use of nano-fertilizers and nanopesticides is a remedy for agriculture and the food industry. The present study endeavors to unveil the mechanisms behind developing resistance against new biotic stresses in fruits and vegetables, and therefore to develop exciting new techniques to resist biotic stress.
... Виявити та дослідити леткі речовини можна через бездротову електронну мережу наносенсорів та інфрачервоних передавачів, вбудованих у рослини (Kwak et al., 2017). Підраховано, що наземні рослини повторно викидають в атмосферу приблизно 1-2% чистої первинної продукції у вигляді ізопрену та монотерпенів (МТ) (Harrison et al., 2013). ...
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The article analyzes and summarizes data of scientific publications related to biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) of forests, their impact on atmospheric processes and climate. Studies of BVOCs of forests attracted the attention of many scientists ruring recent decades, including such aspects asmechanisms of synthesis and emissions, chemical composition, influence of biotic and abiotic factors. It was noted that during processes of their life activities, higher plants emit volatile organic substances into the air, which affects the chemical composition and physical state of the atmosphere, and adaptation of forests to ecological stress associated with climate change. BVOCs play a key role in the ozone formation and quenching, resulting in the formation of oxidation products — secondary organic aerosols that scatter sunlight and affect the formation of clouds and, ultimately, the climate. The need to take into account the functional dynamics of BVOCs at the ecosystem level is demonstrated: from the interaction of different types of ecosystems to the degradation of atmospheric compounds and potential functions of products of their reactions.
... In addition, there is substantial evidence that exposure to nanomaterials can improve plant growth, seed germination, and resistance to stress [18]. In addition, NT can be used to monitor a plant's development in real-time, to easily alter its genome, and to express a foreign gene inside its cells (transgene expression) [19,20]. ...
... The targeted delivery of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats), Cas mRNA (CRISPR-associated protein), and sgRNA via nanoparticles is one of the most notable successes to date. Additionally, nanotechnology has the necessary solutions for the current agricultural issues with the addition of the use of nanosensors to enhance plants' tolerance to disease and stress (Afsharinejad et al., 2016;Kwak et al., 2017). ...
Article
Heavy metals, drought, salinity, cold stress, and heat stress are some of the main abiotic stresses that adversely affect plant growth and crop productivity generally. For crop production systems to be sustainable in the face of abiotic environmental constraints, effective strategies must be used in conjunction with technological advancement to achieve this goal. In recent times, the emergence of nanotechnology as an intriguing field of study with application potential in the field of agriculture needs to be given the necessary attention to address some of the abiotic stresses. Due to their environmental friendliness, affordability, special physicochemical properties, and increased plant productivity, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as nano fertilizers has enormous potential and much interest is developed in the field in recent times. Abiotic stress management involves NPs, according to several studies. In order to create a practical and environmentally responsible plan for the long-term sustainability of agriculture, this review focuses on the effects of abiotic stress on plants, synthesis, and the roles of NPs in managing abiotic stresses, and future prospects.
... Nanobionics introduces specific engineered NMs into plant cells and organelles to alter or intensify their general functioning (Ghorbanpour and Fahimirad, 2017;Koyande et al., 2021). As a result, nanobionics has evolved, with various plant-based applications, from efficient drug delivery vehicles for nutrient and plant hormones and plant-based nanosensors to self-illuminating plants (Ahmar et al., 2021;Kwak et al., 2017;Shang et al., 2019). Recent reviews have highlighted the potential of nanobionics for enhancing nutrient use efficiency while safeguarding the environment and non-target organisms from unavoidable exposure to agrochemicals resulting from their excessive use (Chugh et al., , 2022Ranjan et al., 2022). ...
Article
The world's human population is increasing exponentially, increasing the demand for high-quality food sources. As a result, there is a major global concern over hunger and malnutrition in developing countries with limited food resources. To address this issue, researchers worldwide must focus on developing improved crop varieties with greater productivity to overcome hunger. However, conventional crop breeding methods require extensive periods to develop new varieties with desirable traits. To tackle this challenge, an innovative approach termed plant nanobionics introduces nanomaterials (NMs) into cell organelles to enhance or modify plant function and thus crop productivity and yield. A comprehensive review of nanomaterials affect crop yield is needed to guide nanotechnology the research. This article critically reviews nanotechnology applications for engineering plant productivity, seed germination, crop growth, enhancing photosynthesis, and improving crop yield and quality, and discusses nanobionic approaches such as smart drug delivery systems, plant nanobiosensors, and plant illumination. Moreover, the review describes NM classification and synthesis and human health-related and plant toxicity hazards. Our findings suggest that nanotechnology application in agricultural production could significantly increase crop yields to alleviate global hunger pressures. However, the environmental risks associated with NMs should be investigated thoroughly before their widespread adoption in agriculture.
... This approach to gene modification seems to work well for other plants besides model species similar to A. thaliana, such as Nicotiana and Solanum lycopersicum [47]. NMs can be successfully designed by carefully controlling their size and surface functionalization in order to add new functions to the living plant [48]. In other words, all designed NPs can enter in the leaf mesophyll cells because the stomatal opening is larger than 10 m. ...
... In the presence of oxygen (O 2 ), magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ), and adenosine triphosphate, firefly luciferase is responsible for catalysing the oxidation of released luciferin, which ultimately results in the production of bioluminescence (ATP). Additionally, a concept that is applicable to agricultural sensing will be developed through this strategy [48]. ...
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In the current scenario, the rising concentration of heavy metals (HMs) due to anthropogenic activities is a severe problem. Plants are very much affected by HM pollution as well as other abiotic stress such as salinity and drought. It is very important to fulfil the nutritional demands of an ever-growing population in these adverse environmental conditions and/or stresses. Remediation of HM in contaminated soil is executed through physical and chemical processes which are costly, timeconsuming, and non-sustainable. The application of nanobionics in crop resilience with enhanced stress tolerance may be the safe and sustainable strategy to increase crop yield. Thus, this review emphasizes the impact of nanobionics on the physiological traits and growth indices of plants. Major concerns and stress tolerance associated with the use of nanobionics are also deliberated concisely. The nanobionic approach to plant physiological traits and stress tolerance would lead to an epoch of plant research at the frontier of nanotechnology and plant biology.
... This approach to gene modification seems to work well for other plants besides model species similar to A. thaliana, such as Nicotiana and Solanum lycopersicum [47]. NMs can be successfully designed by carefully controlling their size and surface functionalization in order to add new functions to the living plant [48]. In other words, all designed NPs can enter in the leaf mesophyll cells because the stomatal opening is larger than 10 m. ...
... In the presence of oxygen (O 2 ), magnesium ions (Mg 2+ ), and adenosine triphosphate, firefly luciferase is responsible for catalysing the oxidation of released luciferin, which ultimately results in the production of bioluminescence (ATP). Additionally, a concept that is applicable to agricultural sensing will be developed through this strategy [48]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In the current scenario, the rising concentration of heavy metals (HMs) due to anthropogenic activities is a severe problem. Plants are very much affected by HM pollution as well as other abiotic stress such as salinity and drought. It is very important to fulfil the nutritional demands of an ever-growing population in these adverse environmental conditions and/or stresses. Remediation of HM in contaminated soil is executed through physical and chemical processes which are costly, time-consuming, and non-sustainable. The application of nanobionics in crop resilience with enhanced stress tolerance may be the safe and sustainable strategy to increase crop yield. Thus, this review emphasizes the impact of nanobionics on the physiological traits and growth indices of plants. Major concerns and stress tolerance associated with the use of nanobionics are also deliberated concisely. The nanobionic approach to plant physiological traits and stress tolerance would lead to an epoch of plant research at the frontier of nanotechnology and plant biology.
... Due to these advantages, research on agricultural biosensors has advanced in the past few years. [90,91] This technology has been extensively applied in nanomedicine for sensing different biomarkers. However, few studies are available for POC diagnosing of food and plant diseases. ...
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The global food supply constantly faces the threats of emerging crop diseases initiated by pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Plant diseases can cause significant economic and production losses in the agriculture industry, and early disease detection will significantly mitigate losses. Monitoring the food quality and detecting pathogens during the food supply chain is essential in confirming the food’s safety and reducing crop loss. This results in lowering production costs and increasing average yield in the agriculture industry. Considering the significant development of nanotechnology in biomedicine for human health monitoring, diagnostics and treatment, there is an increasing interest in using nanotechnology in crop production, health, and plant science. This technology can allow continuous monitoring of plant health and on‐site diagnostics of plant diseases. While many microneedle‐based devices have been previously reported for human health monitoring, diagnostics, and treatment, the application of this technology to agriculture started relatively recently. This review paper investigates the recent development of microneedle technology in food and crop health, where the most state‐of‐the‐art microneedle‐based devices were utilized for plant drug delivery, disease monitoring, and diagnosis. Finally, the current challenges and future directions in developing microneedle technology for food and crop health will be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The tailored size tuning of these nanomaterials in biosensors has resulted in high stability, selectivity, rapid dynamics, sensitivity, and reproducibility in plant pathogen detection (Giraldo et al., 2019). Nanomaterials have been employed to boost the analyte and surface contact in biosensors because of their higher surface-to-volume ratio (Kwak et al., 2017). In addition to that, the small size of nanomaterial allows these engineered nanomaterial to be embedded in plants for monitoring of signaling molecules which can be monitored in real-time. ...
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Worldwide, a substantial economic loss in agricultural products is caused by plant pathogens. The increased losses in agriculture have drawn attention towards the development of miniaturized pathogen detection systems for phytopathology. This review paper's main selling point supports recent research (from 2015 to 2022) and technological advancements in the field of plant pathogen detection. The article discusses in depth important developments in the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, microfluidics, Molecular Imprinted Polymer (MIP) based biosensors, digital droplet PCR (ddPCR), disposable all-printed electronics, and nanoparticle-based sensors for instantaneous pathogen detection in agricultural applications. Utilizing nanoparticles to identify agricultural pathogens is a crucial topic that is explored. A brief on various commercially available detection systems worldwide have been listed. Finally, we discuss the perspective in the development of portable miniaturized systems and novel assay technologies based on advanced nanomaterials. Gold standard techniques: Although Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and culture counting have been widely used for plant pathogen detection, they are not appropriate for measurements made in the field due to their higher installation costs, lack of portability, need for well-equipped laboratories, and requirement of skilled personnel. Therefore, these recent trends are overtaking the traditional methods in Agri-diagnostics because of their superior performances and suitability for the task.
... To date, research into the application of nanotechnologies in horticulture is still at an early stage, but is developing rapidly [40,228,[233][234][235][236]. NMs are materials created using nanoparticles and/or by means of nanotechnologies that have some unique properties due to the presence of these particles in the material. ...
... Judging by the considerable amount of literature data, the use of nanotechnology products successfully copes with the main problems of modern plant growing. Nanocapsules, nanotubes, nanofibers and nanocompositions with metals have found wide application [233][234][235][236]. At the same time, a thorough study of all the potential consequences and risks of the widespread introduction of nanotechnology in horticulture is required [227]. ...
... CNTs are widely used in the delivery of mineral and protective substances, as nanosensors for monitoring the condition of plants, and nanotubes are effective for converting ultraviolet and infrared radiation into visible light, which can be a potential means of enhancing plant photosynthesis [234][235][236][246][247][248]. Haghigh and da Silva [237] discovered the effect of nanotubes on the germination and growth of plants, depending on the concentration used and their ability to localize in plant tissues. ...
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Reduction of plant growth, yield and quality due to diverse environmental constrains along with climate change significantly limit the sustainable production of horticultural crops. In this review, we highlight the prospective impacts that are positive challenges for the application of beneficial microbial endophytes, nanomaterials (NMs), exogenous phytohormones strigolactones (SLs) and new breeding techniques (CRISPR), as well as controlled environment horticulture (CEH) using artificial light in sustainable production of horticultural crops. The benefits of such applications are often evaluated by measuring their impact on the metabolic, morphological and biochemical parameters of a variety of cultures, which typically results in higher yields with efficient use of resources when applied in greenhouse or field conditions. Endophytic microbes that promote plant growth play a key role in the adapting of plants to habitat, thereby improving their yield and prolonging their protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. Focusing on quality control, we considered the effects of the applications of microbial endophytes, a novel class of phytohormones SLs, as well as NMs and CEH using artificial light on horticultural commodities. In addition, the genomic editing of plants using CRISPR, including its role in modulating gene expression/transcription factors in improving crop production and tolerance, was also reviewed.