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Ressourcen und Rohstoff e in der Bronzezeit Nutzung – Distribution – Kontrolle Beiträge zur Sitzung der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Bronzezeit auf der Jahrestagung des Mittel-und Ostdeutschen Verbandes für Altertumsforschung in Brandenburg an der Havel, 16. bis 17. April 2012 Brandenburgisches Landesamt für Denkmalpfl ege und Archäologisches Landesmuseum W...

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... This type of glass has been correspondingly designated as LMHK (low magnesium -high potassium) by Henderson (1988). Variants of this glass were further differentiated: glass with rather high K 2 O values (between 16% and 20%) in combination with a minute Na 2 O content was recognized as an independent glass type and designated as HKG (high-potassium glass) (Mildner et al., 2014(Mildner et al., , 2018Henderson, 2013). ...
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A series of prehistoric glass beads and other glass items (bracelets, brooches with glass overlays, spindles, amphoriskos) from Slovenia was analyzed by a combined PIXE-PIGE method. The items were selected from seven late prehistoric horizons spanning uniformly from the 11th c. BCE to 2nd and 1st c. BCE. Totally 74 measurements on 60 objects were made on bulk material and on some ornamental bands. The beads of the Late Bronze Age (LBA) were made of mixed alkalis that we estimate to be plant ash origin (precipitated potash and non-precipitated ash of halophytic plants). According to the type of pigmentation (Co or Cu) there are hints, either direct or indirect, to connect particular beads with Egyptian workshops. Egyptian influence continues well into the Early Iron Age (EIA), until the 5th c. BCE when the low Zr values signalize glass of Levantine origin. Sorting the measured glass by discriminant analysis considering the elements Al, Ti, Mn and Fe we observe grouping of the beads according to historic horizons. This indicates particular beads were made in specific workshops and spread over a large area by exchange and commerce. Local production for traded or recycled glass may be presumed in LBA, as well as in later phases of the EIA, around 5th–4th c., when the beads show a variety of forms.
... Analyses of the chemical composition of Bronze Age glass artefacts from Europe have demonstrated the application of different technologies in their production. High magnesium glass (HMG) is characterized most often by average K 2 O content (up to 4%) and high MgO content (from approx. 2 to 6%, more rarely >6%; Henderson 1989Henderson , 2000Towle et al. 2001;Mildner et al. 2014). Low magnesium and high potassium glass (LMHK) is characterized by a high content of K 2 O (most often approx. ...
... Low magnesium and high potassium glass (LMHK) is characterized by a high content of K 2 O (most often approx. 6-13%), often higher than that of Na 2 O (the latter component usually comprises about 4-9%), and low content of MgO (about 0.5-1%) (Henderson 1988;Towle et al. 2001;Angelini et al. 2004;Venclová et al. 2011;Mildner et al. 2014;Henderson et al. 2015). High potassium glass (HKG) is characterized by high K 2 O content (approx. ...
... 0.2-2%) and MgO (approx. 0.1-1%) (Henderson 2013, 196;Mildner et al. 2014Mildner et al. , 2015Henderson et al. 2015, 2). HKG and LMHK glasses are known from Bronze Age sites in Europe (Venclová et al. 2011, Fig. 1;Mildner et al. 2014Mildner et al. , 2015Bellintani 2014, Fig. 6). ...
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The article discusses the chemical composition of 56 glass samples from 52 beads found in Poland at 13 archaeological sites (mainly cemeteries). The artefacts have been dated to the II–V period of the Bronze Age (=phases BzB–HaB; c. 1600–750/700 bc). The LA-ICP-MS method was applied. Two groups were distinguished in this assemblage based on a comparison of the MgO to K2O ratio in glass: (i) high magnesium glass (HMG)—23; and (ii) low magnesium and high potassium glass (LMHK)—33 (29 matrix glass specimens and 4 decorative). In southern Poland, beads made of HMG and LMHK are often found in the same cemeteries. Analyses have shown that HMG was most probably made in Mesopotamia and that at least one cobalt glass is of Egyptian provenance. LMHK glass was made in Europe, most probably in Italy. Also, Italy was the most probable transit point for artefacts made of HMG en route to East-Central Europe.
... A number of beads from both hoards have been analyzed. The beads from the Neustrelitz hoard were analyzed by Stephanie Mildner (Mildner et al., 2010(Mildner et al., , 2014. In the present article the chemical composition of the Neustrelitz beads, as presented by Mildner et al. is compared with the composition of the steadily increasing amount of analyzed Bronze Age glass material at hand. ...
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This article presents new evidence of the wide dispersion of Mesopotamian glass, 1400–1100 BCE. The chemical analyses of glass material from Amarna, Egypt, demonstrate that glass of Mesopotamian origin reached Egypt. The recently obtained physical evidence substantiates the words of the Amarna letters, referring to glass trade between Syria and Egypt. Furthermore, the chemical analyses of glass beads from Romania, Northern Germany and Denmark demonstrate that they were made of Mesopotamian glass. The current results presented here contribute to our understanding of the long distance exchange networks between the Mediterranean and the Nordic Bronze Age cultures. Finally, on the background of the analysis results it is proposed that the chemical composition of some of the beads in question indicates a mixture of glass of Mesopotamian and Egyptian origin. Probably, the mixture of the glass material took place at secondary workshops in the Mycenaean world.
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The presented study evaluated a set of beads primarily originating from the Hallstatt period (800–400 BC) and uncovered in the region of Bohemia. Utilizing an SEM/EDS method, the chemical composition of the glass samples was determined and their homogeneity measured. Owing to the presence of opaque glass, Raman spectroscopy was applied, enabling the definition of the phases causing the opacity of the glass, as well as its coloring. This article discusses opacifying agents, including the possible ways in which they entered the artefacts. In addition, the techniques used to produce the glass beads are described, for both the single-colored beads, as well as the so-called eye beads that are present in a significant amount in the set. The majority of the beads examined were found to be made of the LMG glass type (low-magnesium soda-lime glass). An unexpected result was the identification of glass with a high content of K2O not corresponding to the mixed alkali type (LMHK), which is frequently discussed in the literature. The glass type in question most likely does not come from the traditional area of glass production: the eastern Mediterranean territory.
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