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The present study has generated and analyzed Climate Change projections in Nicaragua for the period 2010-2040. The obtained results are to be used for evaluating and planning more resilient transport infrastructures in the next decades. This study has focused its efforts to pay attention into the effect of Climate Change on precipitation and temper...

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Southeast Asia (SEA) climate shows a large range of variability scales, from extreme events to interannual variability. Understanding its answer to climate change is of primary scientific and socio-economic importance. IPCC 5th assessment report however pointed the lack of knowledge in regional climate change and its impact in SEA. In particular li...

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... Climate change has an impact on agriculture [81][82][83][84]. Due to its geographical location in the inter-tropical convergence zone, one sixth of Nicaragua's surface is in zones with high or very high sensitivity to climate events [85][86]. The Northern Caribbean coast is the highest risk area to climate events, with gradual decrease in risk towards the south [86]. ...
... Due to its geographical location in the inter-tropical convergence zone, one sixth of Nicaragua's surface is in zones with high or very high sensitivity to climate events [85][86]. The Northern Caribbean coast is the highest risk area to climate events, with gradual decrease in risk towards the south [86]. ...
... This will be accompanied by a reduction in precipitation at the national level and a slight increase in the Pacific region [85,90]. The dry corridor of Central America of which 20% belongs to Nicaragua is predicted to experience severe drought conditions [86]. Climatic events were responsible for annual economic losses of 1.89% in GDP between 1990 and 2012 [86]. ...
... Temperature seasonality is low throughout the country (b2°C). The mean annual temperature on the coastal lowlands is about 27°C, 20°C in the Central Valley at around 1100 m a.s.l., and below 10°C at the summits of the Talamanca range ( Fig. 2B) Similarly, Nicaragua's landscape is divided by the central highlands into the Pacific domain and the large extension of the Caribbean lowlands (Solé et al., 2016). Overall, the climate of Nicaragua is controlled by 1) macro-scale systems (i.e., the north-American continental anticyclone, the Azores's oceanic anticyclones, tropical cyclones, ITCZ, and ENSO), 2) meso-scale systems such as tropical waves, convective cells, and troughs; and 3) local systems, marine breezes, and mountain waves (INETER, 2017). ...
... Temperature seasonality is low throughout the country (b2 °C). The mean annual temperature on the coastal lowlands is about 27 °C, 20 °C in the Central Valley at around 1100 m a.s.l., and below 10 °C at the summits of the Talamanca range (Fig. 2B) Similarly, Nicaragua's landscape is divided by the central highlands into the Pacific domain and the large extension of the Caribbean lowlands (Solé et al., 2016). Overall, the climate of Nicaragua is controlled by 1) macro-scale systems (i.e., the north-American continental anticyclone, the Azores's oceanic anticyclones, tropical cyclones, ITCZ, and ENSO), 2) meso-scale systems such as tropical waves, convective cells, and troughs; and 3) local systems, marine breezes, and mountain waves (INETER, 2017). ...
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The Central America volcanic front provides a unique opportunity to study hydrothermal inputs and their interaction and mixing with modern meteoric waters. The objectives of this study were to: a) characterize the isotopic composition (δ¹⁸O, δ²H, d-excess, and lc-excess) of hydrothermal/volcanic systems, b) analyze the influence of kinetic fractionation and meteoric water inputs in the isotopic composition of hydrothermal waters, and c) estimate the ‘andesitic water’ contribution (recycled subduction fluids) within the volcanic front of Nicaragua and Costa Rica. Hydrothermal evaporation lines are described as: δ²H = 4.7·δ¹⁸O − 13.0 (Costa Rica) and δ²H = 2.7·δ¹⁸O − 31.6 (Nicaragua). These regressions are significantly (p < 0.001) deviated from their respective meteoric water lines: δ²H = 7.6·δ¹⁸O + 7.4 (Costa Rica) and δ²H = 7.4·δ¹⁸O + 5.2 (Nicaragua). The greater rainfall inputs in Costa Rica with respect to Nicaragua, resulted in the attenuation of the evaporative effect as observed in the strong bimodal distribution of the hydrothermal waters, which can be divided in fluids: a) isotopically-close to meteoric conditions and b) isotopically-altered by the interaction with recycled subduction fluids and kinetic fractionation. The latter is clearly depicted in the significantly (p < 0.001) low d-excess and lc-excess median values between Costa Rica (+ 5.10‰ − 5.25‰) and Nicaragua (− 2.42‰ − 10.65‰), respectively. Poor correlations between δ¹⁸O/δ²H and the elevation gradient emphasize that the contribution of recycled subduction fluids and subsequent surface kinetic fractionation are the main drivers of the isotopic departure from the orographic distillation trend captured in the rainfall isoscapes. End-member mixing calculations resulted in a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the mean ‘andesitic water’ contribution to the hydrothermal systems of 15.3 ± 10.8 (%, ± 1σ) (Nicaragua) and 19.7 ± 10.3 (%, ± 1σ) (Costa Rica). The spectrum of ‘andesitic water’ contribution largely reflects the degree of mixing with isotopically ‘pre-shifted’ recycled subduction fluids. The latter is supported by previous strong evidence of mantle-derived N2/He contributions across the volcanic front of Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
... American is projected to receive less precipitation due to the increase of very dry seasons in the next century (Fuentes-Franco et al., 2015;Solé et al., 2010). As alterations in climate continue to impact water resources, identifying and understanding potential drivers is crucial (IPCC, 2013). ...
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