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The phenomenon of insight is frequently characterized by the experience of a sudden and certain solution. Anecdotal accounts suggest insight frequently occurs after the problem solver has taken some time away from the problem (i.e., incubation). However, the mechanism by which incubation may facilitate insight problem solving is unclear. Here we us...

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... A total of 37 studies explored the process of insight problem solving using RAT, including how individuals' memory (e.g., false memory) affects their developing insight (Howe et al., 2010(Howe et al., , 2011(Howe et al., , 2016Garner and Howe, 2014;Kizilirmak et al., 2016b;Ellis and Brewer, 2018;Howe and Garner, 2018), the incubation mechanism, such as dreams (Sio and Rudowicz, 2007;Vul and Pashler, 2007;Cai et al., 2009;Kohn and Smith, 2009;Penaloza and Calvillo, 2012;Nam and Lee, 2015;Sio and Ormerod, 2015;Morrison et al., 2017;Sio et al., 2017), how representational change affects one's insight problem solving (Barton et al., 2009), the aha! experience of insight (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2003b;Du et al., 2017;Kraus and Holtgraves, 2018), the mechanisms that occur in the brain when solving insight problems, such as brain networks, brain structure, brain function, and brain waves (Sandkühler and Bhattacharya, 2008;Kizilirmak et al., 2016a;Shen et al., 2016b;Rothmaler et al., 2017;Erickson et al., 2018;Ji et al., 2018;Ogawa et al., 2018;Ruggiero et al., 2018;Tik et al., 2018;Tempest and Radel, 2019), and eye movements (Huang, 2017;Huang et al., 2019). In addition, some studies focused on how individuals' attention (Cushen and Wiley, 2018;Zmigrod et al., 2019), meta-cognition (Storm and Hickman, 2015), creative thinking fluency (Ansburg, 2000), and intuition (Kizilirmak et al., 2018) influence insight problem solving. ...
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The study examines how the remote associates test (RAT) has been used to examine theories of creativity through a review of recent studies on creativity. Creativity-related studies published between 2000 and 2019 were retrieved from the SCOPUS database. A total of 172 papers were chosen for further analysis. Content analysis shows that research on creativity using RAT mainly concerns remote association, insight problem-solving, general creative process, test development, individual difference, effect of treatment, clinical case, social interaction effect, and predictor or criterion. The study constructs a theoretical framework based on the 4P (Product-Person-Process-Place) model and demonstrates how empirical studies using the RAT explore the individual differences, internal processes, and external influences of creative thinking. In addition, the most commonly used version of the RAT is the Compound Remote Associates Problems (Bowden and Jung-Beeman, 2003a). Current research shows a trend whereby the creative thinking process has been receiving greater attention. In particular, a growing number of studies in this field have been carried out using cognitive neuroscience technologies. These findings suggest that the RAT provides researchers with a way to deepen their understanding of different levels of creativity.
... The greater robustness of intuitive judgment compared to analytical judgment in dealing with missing information can be explained by a feature of parallel processing that has been called "graceful degradation": In contrast to parallel processing of many input elements, sequential step-by-step processing is likely to break down if only one element in the sequence is missing. Likewise, the fact that intuitive judgment outperforms analytical judgment whenever many, even remotely associated, inputs (constraints) have to be taken into account (Bowden, Jung-Beeman, Fleck, & Kounios, 2005;Morrison, McCarthy, & Molony, 2017), can be related to "multiple constraint satisfaction", a key feature of parallel processing. ...
... The greater robustness of intuitive judgment compared to analytical judgment in dealing with missing information can be explained by a feature of parallel processing that has been called "graceful degradation": In contrast to parallel processing of many input elements, sequential step-by-step processing is likely to break down if only one element in the sequence is missing. Likewise, the fact that intuitive judgment outperforms analytical judgment whenever many, even remotely associated, inputs (constraints) have to be taken into account (Bowden, Jung-Beeman, Fleck, & Kounios, 2005;Morrison, McCarthy, & Molony, 2017), can be related to "multiple constraint satisfaction", a key feature of parallel processing. ...
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In this chapter, we present the theory of Personality Systems Interactions (PSI) as a meta framework for analyzing the functional architecture of human motivation and personality functioning. Section 1 delineates how PSI theory integrates various traditional motivation theories into seven distinct levels of human motivation and individual differences thereof. Section 2 covers principles of PSI theory that determine how motivational systems, located at the same level or at different levels, interact with each other. Sections 3 and 4 show how these principles can explain two major paradoxes in motivation psychology, namely a) people’s frequent failure to act upon their best intentions, and b) people’s tendency to adopt goals that run counter to their personal preferences and needs. Section 5 discusses how PSI theory conceives of implicit motives as “switch boards” that connect motivational systems at different levels. Section 6 reports neuroscientific evidence supporting PSI theory. Finally, Section 7 reflects more broadly on PSI theory’s key contributions to motivation science and its applications.
... Several studies have found that incubation intervals facilitate solving insight problems (Penney, Godsell, Scott, & Balsom, 2004;Segal, 2004). Incubation implies that the unconscious mind has the ability to work on ideas or problems while the active mind is engaged elsewhere in pursuit of other ends, and has been shown to be effective at reducing fixation and enhancing creativity (Cai, Mednick, Harrison, Kanady, & Mednick, 2009;Kohn & Smith, 2011;Morrison, McCarthy, & Molony, 2015.) If an individual has enough time to work on a problem, the fixating, confusing or misdirecting problems that caused the fixation will be forgotten; however, the benefits of incubation are concurrent with challenging problems that may have misdirection at the heart of the fixation (Vul & Pashler, 2007). ...
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Employing forgetting fixation theory, we distinguish between passive and active procrastinators by examining their impacts on creativity along with the moderating roles of emotional stability and conscientiousness. Across two independent studies with students (Study 1) and the general public (Study 2), we found different effects on self-reported versus expert-rated task creativity. Passive procrastination had a negative relationship with self-reported creativity but a positive relationship with expert-rated creativity. The four dimensions of active procrastination had mixed effects on creativity. The effects of a person's ability to meet deadlines-a facet of active procrastination-on both creativity measures were further enhanced by conscientiousness. Emotional stability weakened the positive effect of another facet of active procrastination, preference for pressure, on expert-rated creativity. By delineating the differential relationship of two types of procrastination with creativity, this study highlights the importance of refining a model of purposeful delay in creativity.
... Self-reports of aha experiences have become a standard behavioural measure to indicate when a problem has been solved through insight (Aziz-Zadeh, Kaplan, & Iacoboni, 2009;Bowden, 1997;Danek & Wiley, 2017;Jung-Beeman et al., 2004;Laukkonen & Tangen, 2018;Morrison, McCarthy, & Molony, 2017;Salvi, Bricolo, Bowden, Kounios, & Beeman, 2016). Some studies use self-reports of aha experience to analyse potential differences in neural networks underlying the problem solving process (e.g., Bowden & Jung-Beeman, 2003a;Kounios et al., 2006;Luo et al., 2004). ...
... The remote associates task was originally developed by Mednick (Mednick, 1962), but modified by Bowden and Jung-Beeman (Bowden & Jung-Beeman, 2003b), who used words for which a fourth word could be combined to create different compound words with the three presented words (e.g., wise, tower, and work combine with clock). Bowden and Jung-Beeman termed this task the compound remote associates task and presented normative data regarding solution rates and reaction times (Ball & Stevens, 2009;Bowden & Jung-Beeman, 2003a;Chein & Weisberg, 2014;Cranford & Moss, 2012;Morrison et al., 2017;Steenburgh, 2011). Compound remote associates have been translated and adapted into various languages, including Chinese (Wangbing Shen et al., 2015), German (Kizilirmak et al., 2016;Rothmaler et al., 2017), Italian (Salvi, Costantini, Bricolo, Perugini, & Beeman, 2016) and Dutch (Chermahini, Hickendorff, & Hommel, 2012). ...
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Insight has been investigated under the assumption that participants solve insight problems with insight processes and/or experiences. A recent trend has involved presenting participants with the solution and analysing the resultant experience as if insight has taken place. We examined self-reports of the aha experience, a defining aspect of insight, before and after feedback, along with additional affective components of insight (e.g., pleasure, surprise, impasse). Classic insight problems, compound remote associates, and non-insight problems were randomly interleaved and presented to participants. Solution feedback increased ratings of aha experience in both insight and non-insight problems, with this result being driven by responses to solutions that were initially incorrectly generated. Ratings of aha for correctly generated solutions decreased after the correct solution was presented. These findings have implications for insight research paradigms as well as informing teaching methods.
... An incubation effect occurs when time spent away from a problem (i.e., an incubation period; Wallas, 1926) results in better performance on that problem than what would have occurred without time spent away (Smith & Blankenship, 1989; for a review, see Sio & Ormerod, 2009a). There are many theories regarding how an incubation period benefits problem solving and divergent thinking (e.g., Beeftink, Van Eerde, & Rutte, 2008;Ellwood, Pallier, Snyder, & Gallate, 2009;Lehrer, 2008;Miller & Cohen, 2001;Morrison, McCarthy, & Molony, 2017;Ohlsson, 1984Ohlsson, , 1992Scheerer, 1963;Segal, 2004;Weisberg, 1995Weisberg, , 2006Weisberg, , 2013; according to the forgetting fixation hypothesis, however, incubation effects can occur because taking time away from a problem allows fixating information to become inaccessible and thus less likely to limit or constrain creative thinking (Kohn & Smith, 2009;Smith, 1995;Smith & Blankenship, 1989;Smith & Linsey, 2011). In the remote associates test, for example, participants are presented with three seemingly unrelated words and asked to find a new word that forms a relationship with each of the words (e.g. ...
... Obviously, people are unlikely to always drift toward ideas and spaces that are useful, but they may do so occasionally, and the potential benefits of happening upon a new and truly creative connection may more than outweigh the potential costs of more frequently happening upon something that is not useful. Indeed, some creativity research has argued that people are able to come to new insight through the unconscious spreading activation from one idea to another (e.g., Morrison et al., 2017;Sio & Ormerod, 2009b;Sio & Rudowicz, 2007;Yaniv & Meyer, 1987). ...
Article
Schacter’s (2001) work on The Seven Sins of Memory conceptualized and communicated many of the failures of memory and their critical role in cognition. At the heart of the framework is the idea that memory often fails not because it is dysfunctional or maladaptive, but because it prioritizes flexibility and the ability to think and behave adaptively over the ability to retain and remember veraciously. This article adapts the 7 sins framework to a new domain—that of creative cognition. Each of the 7 sins are discussed in relation to how they might play a role in allowing people to generate new ideas, solve problems, and overcome the various barriers that hinder creative thought. Expanding upon the creative cognition approach, it is argued that memory and creativity are intrinsically interconnected and that one’s ability to think and behave creatively relies in part on the ability to forget and misremember.