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The final instar larva of Heliaeschna idae Brauer is described and figured for the first time based on the exuvia from an advanced female larva collected in Sarawak, Borneo (East Malaysia). It is compared with the known larvae of the genus and is concluded to be most closely allied to Heliaeschna simplicia Karsch, with which it shares a unique stru...

Contexts in source publication

Context 1
... Large, robust, roughly rounded pentagonal, with very prominent eyes (Figure 2a). Pos- tocular lobes well developed and evenly rounded. ...
Context 2
... with rather low profile ( Figure 3a); vertex scarcely rising above level of eyes; frons slightly convex anteriorly but with median transverse groove; ante-and postclypeus broad and well defined but almost in same plane, labrum slanted sharply downward. Labium (Figure 2b, c, d, e) with prementum long and robust, the distal third expanded laterally with a rounded margin bearing a row of 30+ strong, dark, recurved spines. This row continues basad onto the dorsal surface of the prementum with up to 10 more smaller spines, gradually diminishing in size. ...
Context 3
... row continues basad onto the dorsal surface of the prementum with up to 10 more smaller spines, gradually diminishing in size. Most spines are associated with a single long pale seta, inserted anteroventrally at the base of the spine (Figure 2c). Lateral margins in basal two thirds of prementum taper evenly to a narrow base. ...
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... margins in basal two thirds of prementum taper evenly to a narrow base. Anterior margin of the prementum with two prominent lobes each occupying about one fifth of its total width, separated centrally by a deep V-shaped incision, and also defined laterally by two further incisions on each side, before the base of the labial palps which in dorsal view overlap a second, smaller, outer pair of fleshy lobes, clearly seen in ventral view (Figure 2d). The inner lobes have a thin, naked, blade-like rim centrally, extending slightly beyond the fleshy part of the lobe; this rim ends in a well-defined step at approximately one third of the lobe width measured from the central 'V', after which the margin continues smoothly bearing a row of 30+ short stout setae inserted ventrally and reaching the outer shoulder of the lobe (Figure 2d, e). ...
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... margin of the prementum with two prominent lobes each occupying about one fifth of its total width, separated centrally by a deep V-shaped incision, and also defined laterally by two further incisions on each side, before the base of the labial palps which in dorsal view overlap a second, smaller, outer pair of fleshy lobes, clearly seen in ventral view (Figure 2d). The inner lobes have a thin, naked, blade-like rim centrally, extending slightly beyond the fleshy part of the lobe; this rim ends in a well-defined step at approximately one third of the lobe width measured from the central 'V', after which the margin continues smoothly bearing a row of 30+ short stout setae inserted ventrally and reaching the outer shoulder of the lobe (Figure 2d, e). The labial palps bear long, fairly robust hooks, strongly curved inward apically and forming a blunt point; inner margin with row of coarse serrations. ...
Context 6
... hooks long, slender and curved. Mandibles in ventral view (Figure 2f) with protruding, outer corners forming an angle of c.90 • and moderately long, with complex well-defined dentition arising from both incisor and molar surfaces, the former bifid on the left, weakly trifid on the right, the latter strongly bifid on both sides. ...
Context 7
... processes robust, the anterior one finger-like, the posterior one broad and subquadrate, the two lying close together and separated by a narrow 'V' shape. Both processes covered in small tubercles and bearing coarse, sparse setae basally and apically (Figure 2g). In the posterior part of the thorax are slight protuberances above meso-and metacoxae, the intervening area being saddle-shaped (Figure 1). ...
Context 8
... (Figure 2g) long; epiproct 1.6 times length of S10, terminating bluntly; row of small spines along dorsum. Paraprocts slightly longer, turned slightly inwards apically and terminating in a sharp point; outer surface with scattering of small blunt spines especially along outer margin; overall with a few long fine setae and a sparse covering of fine short setae. ...
Context 9
... relatively very long, almost reaching end of epiproct, slightly hooked inward toward the tip and terminating in a sharp point. Gonapophyses (Figure 2i) extend for full length of sternum 9 and overlap base of S10; outer gonapophyses extending beyond tips of inner gonapophyses, their inner margin with a subapical step. ...

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Citations

... There is an additional complication in that H. idae was described from a female but H. crassa from a male, so it is at least possible that H. crassa is a junior synonym of H. idae and that the species referred to as H. idae here is actually unnamed. I can find no reliable means to separate females of these taxa at present, and for this reason the female Heliaeschna reared from a larva described as that of H. idae in Orr, Ngiam & Dow (2013) is regarded as of uncertain status here. Note 53. ...
... Note 53. Orr, Ngiam & Dow (2013), on the basis of larval characteristics, questioned the inclusion of this species in Heliaeschna. This is an issue that is only likely to be resolved through molecular analysis. ...
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The first checklist of the Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) of the state of Sarawak in Malaysian Borneo is presented. 303 species are included in the list. Records are given to district level. For each species, a reference to the first record from each district in which it occurs is given, except where this paper represents the first published district record, in which case this is indicated. Additionally all references for the species containing original records from Sarawak, or significant discussion of material from or relevant to Sarawak, are given. Known taxonomic issues are discussed in notes. The number of records from each district and division is summarised.