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Transformer becomes the state-of-the-art translation model, while it is not well studied how each intermediate component contributes to the model performance, which poses significant challenges for designing optimal architectures. In this work, we bridge this gap by evaluating the impact of individual component (sub-layer) in trained Transformer mo...
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This paper presents analytical procedures for the synthesis of centric crank-rocker and double-crank four-bar mechanisms. The procedures are based on minimizing the longest-to-shortest link-length ratio and finding the corresponding extreme transmission angle. The addressed problems include designing the crank-rocker to convert a full-rotation inpu...

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... Positive deviance (PD) is a person-centered research approach that is promising in disentangling the relationship between suicide risks and suicidal behavior. This approach is gaining prominence in identifying and understanding individuals' exceptional performance in complex health situations [15][16][17] . The PD approach is grounded on the premise that in each community there are certain individuals whose uncommon behavior and strategies enable them to find better solutions to the same problems than their peers 18 . ...
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Despite decades of research on suicide risk factors in young people, there has been no significant improvement in our understanding of this phenomenon. This study adopts a positive deviance approach to identify individuals with suicide resilience and to describe their associated psychological and sociodemographic profiles. Australian young adults aged 18–25 years with suicidal thoughts (N = 557) completed an online survey covering sociodemographic, mental health status, emotion regulatory and suicide-related domains. Latent class analysis was used to identify the individuals with suicide resilience. The predictors of suicide resilience were assessed using logistic regression models. The results suggested that one in ten (n = 55) met the criteria for suicide resilience. Factors that had a significant association with suicide resilience included greater cognitive flexibility, greater self-efficacy in expressing positive affect, reduced use of digital technology and less self-harm and substance use as a response to emotional distress. This study identified the factors that may protect young adults with suicidal thoughts from progressing to suicide attempts. Suicide prevention programs might be optimised by shifting from a deficit-based to a strength-based approach through promoting cognitive flexibility, self-efficacy and reducing maladaptive coping.
... An approach showing how certain farms achieve better results than their peers while having similar resources and facing similar constraints is needed, and the positive deviant approach is one such approach. The positive deviant approach was first used in nutrition research to identify locally adapted practices to improve child nutrition (Sternin et al., 1998). Recently, this approach has been adopted in the field of agricultural science to identify farms that outperform their peers despite having the same resources and constraints, and the innovative practices they implement to achieve those results (Modernel et al., 2018;Steinke et al., 2019). ...
Article
CONTEXT Transitions to more sustainable livestock production systems are increasingly demanded by parts of society. Scientists suggest moving towards diversified farming systems due to their potential environmental and economic benefits, especially in the organic sector. However, empirical knowledge of multi-species livestock farms, i.e. farms keeping two or more animal species, is lacking. OBJECTIVE Our objectives were to identify European organic multi-species livestock farms that outperform their peers despite having the same resources and constraints, and characterize their distinctive management principles. METHODS We conducted surveys on 102 farms in seven European countries: Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden and Switzerland. We restricted the analysis to a sub-sample of 75 farms that had complete data and that covered 3 main livestock combinations (cattle and sheep, cattle and pigs, cattle and poultry) with similar number of farms. We implemented a positive deviant approach based on three indicators: land productivity, nitrogen input dependence and satisfaction regarding income. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS Five structurally diverse positive deviant farms were identified with 4 types of livestock combinations represented, and farmland area ranging from 25 to 273 ha, herd size from 33 to 146 livestock units (LU) and total workforce size from 1 to 24 annual worker units (AWU). These farms were located on a trade-off between land productivity and autonomy for feed, and all but one had high overall autonomy for feed (89–100% against a mean of 76% for the whole sample). Their diversity of pastures, crops and livestock species and their diversification beyond agricultural production were controlled (e.g. no agritourism) and below that of the other sample farms, to remain manageable by the farmers while still allowing to buffer shocks and hazards. Interactions among farm enterprises remained limited to matter (mainly grain, straw, hay, manure) flows, and practices requiring specific efforts and investments (e.g. for fencing), such as co-grazing of different livestock and crop residues grazing, were avoided. SIGNIFICANCE We conducted the first integrated study on European organic multi-species livestock farms and identified key management principles implemented on positive deviant farms. We showed that whatever their size, farms outperforming their peers do not necessarily maximize diversity of agricultural productions and of non-agricultural activities, and interactions among farm enterprises but that they remain at a level of complexity manageable by the farmers. These principles will inform farmers running multi-species livestock farms or transitioning to this model.
... Additionally, the following criteria will be applied for the selection of positive deviant mothers (hearth nutrition educators): poor families, normal nutritional status, family who is representative of geographical and social groups living in the village, no severe health problems, belong to the community, and head of the household should have the same occupation as the majority of villagers. The positive deviant child cannot be: a big baby who is losing weight now, be a first-born or only child since it may receive special care, have any severely malnourished sibling, have any serious or typical social or health problem, have families enrolled in a supplementary feeding program and be a very small, low-weight baby who is now growing well [33]. Therefore, all the above-listed criteria for both mother and child should be well understood before deciding they are as positive deviant (hearth educator) mothers or not. ...
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Background Non-optimal infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) are linked to malnutrition and infant mortality in poor countries, notably in Ethiopia. The majority of growth stalls occur within the first two years of life; hence, there is a need to discover interventions that enhance appropriate IYCFP for improving nutritional outcomes during this critical period. Using the experience of mothers who have come up with solutions to their IYCFP problems to educate others is is a potential pathway to initiate and sustain behavioral changes in resource-limited areas. However, such interventions are not widely implemented in Ethiopia. Objective This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a positive deviant (hearth nutrition education) intervention to improve appropriate feeding practices and nutritional outcomes in West Omo Zone, Maji District: South West region, Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial will be conducted to compare the effect of positive deviant intervention versus routine health educationa. The intervention will be provided by positive deviant mothers who are members of the community using WHO infant and young child feeding guidelines, and “training of the trainers manual on counseling and supporting non-positive deviant mothers, infant and young child feeding” in the local language. Culturally appropriate and scientifically acceptable operational packages of information will be developed. Using preset criteria, 516 mothers will be recruited from 36 zones. The intervention arm will receive 12 demonstration (hearth) session in groups and every 15 th day home visit by positive deviant mothers. Data will be entered into epi-data version 3.1 and analyzed using STATA version 13.0. All analyses will be done as intention-to-treat. We will fit mixed effects linear regression models for the continuous outcomes and mixed effects linear probability models for the binary outcomes with the study zone as random intercept to estimate study arm difference (intervention vs. routine health education) adjusted for baseline value of the outcome and additional relevant covariates. The protocol was developed in collaboration with the West Omo Zone and Maji Woreda Health Office. Ethical approval (Ref no: IHRPG/938/2020) was obtained from Jimma University, Institute of Health Research and Postgraduate Office. This study is funded by Jimma University research and postgraduate office. Discussion We expect that the trial will generate findings informing IYCFP and nutritional policies and practices in Ethiopia. Trial registration Registry: PACTR202108880303760 (30/08/2021); www.pactr.org , URL : https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/TrialDisplay.aspx?TrialID=16081
... Positive Deviance (PD) is a strength-based or asset-based approach based on the belief that in every community there are certain individuals ("Positive Deviants") who's special, or uncommon practices and behaviours enable them to find better ways to prevent malnutrition than their neighbours who share the same resources and face the same risk [6][7][8]. The positive deviance intervention is designed to contribute to the reduction of the high levels of malnutrition by rehabilitating the malnourished children, affordably and sustainably in a culturally acceptable manner, enabling families to sustain the rehabilitation of these children at home on their own and prevent malnutrition among the community's other children, current and future [9] The Positive Deviance approach has been in literature since 1967 with the aim of fighting malnutrition, although field research has been recent [10]. ...
... PD/heath seeks to Identify and optimize existing and available resources and solutions within the community to solve community nutrition underweight among children. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of the PD/hearth approach [7]. In the reduction of underweight among under-five children aged 6-24 months. ...
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Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Positive deviant hearth (PH/hearth) has been recommended as one way of overcoming the high morbidity and mortality rates among under-five children. The current study aimed at assessing the effect the positive deviance hearth approach (PD/Hearth) had on underweight among children in Chinkozya community of Kazungula district in Southern Province Zambia.
... Positive Deviance (PD) is a strength-based or asset-based approach based on the belief that in every community there are certain individuals ("Positive Deviants") who's special, or uncommon practices and behaviours enable them to find better ways to prevent malnutrition than their neighbours who share the same resources and face the same risk [6][7][8]. The positive deviance intervention is designed to contribute to the reduction of the high levels of malnutrition by rehabilitating the malnourished children, affordably and sustainably in a culturally acceptable manner, enabling families to sustain the rehabilitation of these children at home on their own and prevent malnutrition among the community's other children, current and future [9] The Positive Deviance approach has been in literature since 1967 with the aim of fighting malnutrition, although field research has been recent [10]. ...
... PD/heath seeks to Identify and optimize existing and available resources and solutions within the community to solve community nutrition underweight among children. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effect of the PD/hearth approach [7]. In the reduction of underweight among under-five children aged 6-24 months. ...
Article
Background: Malnutrition is one of the major causes of childhood morbidity and mortality in Zambia. Positive deviant hearth (PH/hearth) has been recommended as one way of overcoming the high morbidity and mortality rates among under-five children. The current study aimed at assessing the effect the positive deviance hearth approach (PD/Hearth) had on underweight among children in Chinkozya community of Kazungula district in Southern Province Zambia. Method: An intervention study was 44 children aged 6 – 24 months were admitted to the hearth for a period of 3 months. The intervention was conducted through experimental learning. Mothers/caregivers and community volunteers met at a local point where knowledge on practices from mothers with wellnourished children were shared with mothers with acute malnourished children. Questionnaires were administered to the head of the households of the 44 children who were admitted into the hearts and socio-demographic information was obtained. We conducted anthropometric measurements at baseline (day 1)and at the end of the three months intervention. Data analysis was conducted using STATA version 16 and WHO Anthro software version 3.2.2. Results: The baseline prevalence of stunting was 40.9%, underweight 25% and wasting 4.5%. At the end of the intervention underweight among children was 6.8%. PD/heath reduced underweight by 18.2% (from 25% - 6.8) in Chinkozya community. Based on the paired t-test, the mean WAZ difference reduced by 0.27 (95%CI:-0.67, 0.13) between baseline and endline. However, this effect was not significant. (P-value = 0.1806). Conclusion: PD/hearth reduced the prevalence of underweight in Chinkozya community, Kazungula district. Keywords: Positive deviance; Hearth; Acute malnutrition; Children; Zambia
... The positive deviance approach differs from traditional needsbased or problem-solving approaches in that it does not focus primarily on the identification of needs and external inputs that someone with power and control deems necessary to meet certain needs or to solve certain problems. Instead, a positive deviance approach seeks to identify and optimize existing resources and solutions within the community in question and to solve that community's problems (Positive Deviance Initiative, 2017; Sternin et al., 1998). Organizations can learn from Starbucks's widely publicized and swiftly enacted move to shut down all of their stores and focus on a full day to listen to their communities (Starbucks, 2018)dvs. ...
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In this article, we describe how the black ceilingdupheld by the powerful institutional logics of patriarchy and white supremacy, inordinately challengingand interlocking systemic barriers to leadership advancementdleads to the dearthof Afro-Diasporic women in senior corporate leadership positions and pathologizesAfro-Diasporic women as multiple outsiders. As a result, Afro-Diasporic women’swell-being in the workplace is compromised and many adopt coping and survivalstrategies to navigate a myriad of relational and environmental phenomena, suchas spirit murder, emotional taxation, social closure, white privilege, and whitefragility. To navigate and ameliorate these dynamics, we advance several individual, relational, and organizational strategies that support Afro-Diasporic women thriving in the workplace.
... The positive deviance approach differs from traditional needsbased or problem-solving approaches in that it does not focus primarily on the identification of needs and external inputs that someone with power and control deems necessary to meet certain needs or to solve certain problems. Instead, a positive deviance approach seeks to identify and optimize existing resources and solutions within the community in question and to solve that community's problems (Positive Deviance Initiative, 2017; Sternin et al., 1998). Organizations can learn from Starbucks's widely publicized and swiftly enacted move to shut down all of their stores and focus on a full day to listen to their communities (Starbucks, 2018)dvs. ...
Article
In this article, we describe how the black ceiling—upheld by the powerful institutional logics of patriarchy and white supremacy, inordinately challenging and interlocking systemic barriers to leadership advancement—leads to the dearth of Afro-Diasporic women in senior corporate leadership positions and pathologizes Afro-Diasporic women as multiple outsiders. As a result, Afro-Diasporic women’s well-being in the workplace is compromised and many adopt coping and survival strategies to navigate a myriad of relational and environmental phenomena, such as spirit murder, emotional taxation, social closure, white privilege, and white fragility. To navigate and ameliorate these dynamics, we advance several individual, relational, and organizational strategies that support Afro-Diasporic women thriving in the workplace.
... Then, they re-visited those households to identify any 'deviant' hygiene and child feeding practices that might explain their relative success. Subsequently, these locally suitable practices were promoted to other households in similar resource and cultural context (Sternin et al. 1998;Mackintosh et al. 2002). ...
... Positive Deviance emerged in the 1990s as an action research approach to identify promising childcare and nutrition behavior in Asia and Africa (Sternin et al. 1998;Marsh et al. 2004; Bisits Bullen 2011). Over the years, the methodology has been applied by research and development organizations to a diversity of intervention areas, including HIV prevention, hospital patient safety, and pregnancy in resource-poor environments (Ahrari et al. 2002;Lapping et al. 2002;Lawton et al. 2014). ...
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Smallholder farmers across the Global South increasingly need to adapt their farming activities to fast-paced changes. Worldwide, agricultural extension services face the challenge of reaching a large and growing clientele with highly diverse information needs. In recent years, increased penetration of modern information and communication technology (ICT) has created new opportunities for disseminating agricultural information. At the same time, digital communication can also allow the involvement of large numbers of farmers in the creation and aggregation of relevant knowledge and information. By collecting well-defined data inputs from farmers and processing these data in systematic ways, agricultural advisory services can potentially improve their overall performance towards a large and heterogeneous clientele. Through three proof-of-concept studies, this dissertation delivers empirical evidence on the feasibility of different ways of employing modern ICT to harness large-scale farmer participation in agricultural extension. A first study explores the feasibility and usefulness of digitally-enabled agricultural citizen science for involving large numbers of farmers in knowledge generation. A second study adapts the ‘Positive Deviance approach’ to multi-dimensional agricultural development and delivers evidence on its feasibility. A third study suggests and tests a procedure for employing two-way communication through mobile phone interfaces for improving the targeting of agricultural advisory messages in smallholder context. Based on the empirical evidence from these three independent proof-of-concept studies, the dissertation suggests how agricultural extension services in the Global South can address the challenges of scale and complexity in smallholder farming context through increased methodological pluralism, greater farmer participation, and efficient, systematic use of digital media.
... A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods with explicit emphasis on house- hold heterogeneity is the Positive Deviance approach. This research approach was pioneered by nutritionists to identify child nutrition improvement practices that are locally viable and acceptable [21,22]. They used quantitative survey data to identify households with exception- ally good child health indicator scores compared to other households in similar circumstances. ...
Article
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Agricultural development must integrate multiple objectives at the same time, including food security, income, and environmental sustainability. To help achieve these objectives, development practitioners need to prioritize concrete livelihood practices to promote to rural households. But trade-offs between objectives can lead to dilemmas in selecting practices. In addition, heterogeneity among farming households requires targeting different strategies to different types of households. Existing diversity of household resources and activities, however, may also bear solutions. We explored a new, empirical research method that identifies promising options for multi-objective development by focusing on existing cases of strong multi-dimensional household performance. The “Positive Deviance” approach signifies identifying locally viable livelihood practices from diverse households that achieve stronger performance than comparable households in the same area. These practices are promising for other local households in comparable resource contexts. The approach has been used in other domains, such as child nutrition, but has not yet been fully implemented for agricultural development with a focus on the simultaneous achievement of multiple objectives. To test our adapted version of the Positive Deviance approach, we used a quantitative survey of over 500 rural households in South-Eastern Tanzania. We identified 54 households with outstanding relative performance regarding five key development dimensions (food security, income, nutrition, environmental sustainability, and social equity). We found that, compared to other households with similar resource levels, these “positive deviants” performed strongest for food security, but only slightly better for social equity. We then re-visited a diverse sub-sample for qualitative interviews, and identified 14 uncommon, “deviant” practices that plausibly contributed to the households’ superior outcomes. We illustrate how these practices can inform specific recommendations of practices for other local households in comparable resource contexts. The study demonstrates how, with the Positive Deviance approach, empirical observations of individual, outstanding households can inform discussions about locally viable agricultural development solutions in diverse household context.
... Community-based programs have the advantage of increased sustainability, as programs can be designed utilizing existing resources that are accessible to all members of a community. The involvement of local community leaders and volunteers reinforces community-based programs [4]. In hearing health provision, trained community-health workers can generate awareness in the community, mobilize families for screenings and follow-ups, and guide families through the rehabilitation process [5]. ...
... It is test routinely used for screening hearing. 4 Infants: Children under 1 year of age. 5 Young children: Children older than 1 year and under 5 years of age. 6 Balwadis are Indian pre-school run for economically weaker sections of the society, either by government or NGOs. ...
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Background In an attempt to reach remote rural areas, this study explores a community-based, pediatric hearing screening program in villages, integrating two models of diagnostic ABR testing; one using a tele-medicine approach and the other a traditional in-person testing at a tertiary care hospital. Methods Village health workers (VHWs) underwent a five day training program on conducting Distortion Product Oto Acoustic Emissions (DPOAE) screening and assisting in tele-ABR. VHWs conducted DPOAE screening in 91 villages and hamlets in two administrative units (blocks) of a district in South India. A two-step DPOAE screening was carried out by VHWs in the homes of infants and children under five years of age in the selected villages. Those with ‘refer’ results in 2nd screening were recommended for a follow-up diagnostic ABR testing in person (Group A) at the tertiary care hospital or via tele-medicine (Group B). The overall outcome of the community-based hearing screening program was analyzed with respect to coverage, refer rate, follow-up rate for 2nd screenings and diagnostic testing. A comparison of the outcomes of tele-versus in-person diagnostic ABR follow-up was carried out. Results Six VHWs who fulfilled the post training evaluation criteria were recruited for the screening program. VHWs screened 1335 children in Group A and 1480 children in Group B. The refer rate for 2nd screening was very low (0.8%); the follow-up rate for 2nd screening was between 80 and 97% across the different age groups. Integration of tele-ABR resulted in 11% improvement in follow-up compared to in-person ABR at a tertiary care hospital. Conclusions Non-availability of audiologists and limited infrastructure in rural areas has prevented the establishment of large scale hearing screening programs. In existing programs, considerable challenges with respect to follow-up for diagnostic testing was reported, due to patients being submitted to traveling long distance to access services and potential wage losses during that time. In this program model, integration of a tele-ABR diagnostic follow-up improved follow-up in comparison to in-person follow-up. VHWs were successfully trained to conduct accurate screenings in rural communities. The very low refer rate, and improved follow-up rate reflect the success of this community-based hearing screening program. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12913-018-3827-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.