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Technical Report
Full-text available
Aviation emissions are an important contributor to climate change. This report examines New Zealand's emissions from domestic and international aviation and explores options for reducing these emissions.


... The two largest groups of migrants are from the UK (265,000 people) and China (144,000). Perhaps 1 million New Zealanders live overseas, including one in six Māori [71]. ...
... IATA [44] The lion's share of many aviation pathways focus on sustainable aviation fuels (SAF); see Rae and Callister [71] for a New Zealand-oriented review. The challenges of these pathways are extreme. ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Prior to Covid, the global aviation industry was undergoing a period of unprecedented growth and was predicted to continue growing rapidly for at least the next three decades. But the emissions growth associated with this forecast traffic growth was incompatible with the goals of the Paris Agreement on climate change. Therefore, many industry groups, governments, and NGOs have been preparing net zero 2050 pathways for aviation. One sign of this increased activity is the 'International Aviation Climate Ambition' group formed at Glasgow in 2021, whose members, including New Zealand, have committed to preparing 'ambitious and concrete' plans this year to reduce aviation emissions. New Zealand has particularly high aviation emissions, both per capita and as a proportion of all carbon dioxide emissions, and proven ability to increase them rapidly. New Zealand has the experience of an almost complete halt to international aviation during Covid. We survey recent developments in this area with particular reference to New Zealand, finding that aviation pathways with very high proportions of sustainable aviation fuel are unrealistic, even more so when combined with high traffic growth. Therefore, the main other thing that affects emissions-the amount of flying, and the factors that determine it-is examined closely. We conclude that a national action plan should include consideration of the "avoid, shift, improve" framework; emissions pricing and the "polluter pays" principle; regulation of emissions and emissions intensity; the non-CO 2 effects of aviation; the distribution of flying; the availability of substitutes, and the national strategies for those substitutes; coordination with the tourist industry; the rate of growth or degrowth; the role of airports; timely implementation; emphasis on proven technologies; the lifecycle emissions and resource requirements of sustainable aviation fuels; a fair share for aviation emissions with reference to the whole population and economy; and the transition to true sustainability respecting the rights of future generations.
The high carbon emissions arising from academic air travel has become a priority issue for university sustainability programmes. However, efforts to mitigate academic air travel emissions requires the commitment and attention of a range of actors. It is essential to comprehensively identify and understand the factors affecting academics’ established aeromobility as a critical step towards system-wide practice change. This research explores this issue by proposing a practice-based academic flying framework and empirically applying the framework. This research found that cognitive norms are the key to affecting academic air travel decisions. The change of cognitive norms depends on collective action of all stakeholders. The empirical application allows the framework to align with university practices and provide stakeholders with a sufficient understanding of factors affecting academic air travel practices. We conclude with a call for all stakeholders to collaboratively create an environment that supports academics through a period of post-COVID practice transition.