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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...

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Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the current study, responses from a cross-cultural survey of...

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... As human beings have come into increasing contact with people from other parts of the globe, understanding the psychological differences and similarities between people of different cultures has become increasingly critical [1][2][3] , with broad-reaching economic and political implications. Over the last few decades, researchers in fields including anthropology, evolutionary biology, and cognitive science have investigated questions about universals in human nature [4][5][6][7][8] . During the same period, there has been increasing interest in psychological differences across cultures 2,[9][10][11] . ...
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How does psychology vary across human societies? The fundamental social motives framework adopts an evolutionary approach to capture the broad range of human social goals within a taxonomy of ancestrally recurring threats and opportunities. These motives—self-protection, disease avoidance, affiliation, status, mate acquisition, mate retention, and kin care—are high in fitness relevance and everyday salience, yet understudied cross-culturally. Here, we gathered data on these motives in 42 countries (N = 15,915) in two cross-sectional waves, including 19 countries (N = 10,907) for which data were gathered in both waves. Wave 1 was collected from mid-2016 through late 2019 (32 countries, N = 8,998; 3,302 male, 5,585 female; Mage = 24.43, SD = 7.91). Wave 2 was collected from April through November 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic (29 countries, N = 6,917; 2,249 male, 4,218 female; Mage = 28.59, SD = 11.31). These data can be used to assess differences and similarities in people’s fundamental social motives both across and within cultures, at different time points, and in relation to other commonly studied cultural indicators and outcomes.
... Firstly, it includes in the study of the SWB the gender-typing attributions and the differentiation between positive and negative dimensions. This approach adds a new explanation about why men report higher levels than women in SWB (Schmitt et al., 2017). The analysis of gender typing shows that there is a majority of stereotypical gender attribution for the positive aspects. ...
... En primer lugar, incluye las atribuciones de tipificación por género en el estudio del SWB, y la diferenciación entre dimensiones positivas y negativas. Este enfoque aporta una nueva explicación de por qué los hombres tienen niveles superiores que las mujeres en el SWB (Schmitt et al., 2017). ...
... Regarding religiosity, the religious beliefs held by most contemporary Americans encourage long-term mating relationships and discourage short-term mating relationships (Li & Cohen, 2014). Psychopathy and narcissism, and possibly Machiavellianism, are associated with status-seeking and preference for shortterm mating relationships (Jonason, Li, Webster, & Schmitt, 2009;Lee et al., 2013;Schmitt et al., 2017;Tsoukas & March, 2018), both of which comprise elements of mating effort. Based on an expectation of a tradeoff between mating effort and parental effort (MacArthur & Wilson, 1967;Figueredo et al., 2004; but see Kruger, 2017), we predicted that parental effort would have negative edges with mating effort, attachment avoidance, preference for short-term mating relationships, and experience in shortterm mating relationships. ...
Article
Two of the controversies besetting the field of life history theory in psychology (LHT-P) are (1) whether life history strategy (LHS) is most fruitfully conceptualized as a latent reflective factor, or as a formative, descriptive construct and (2) whether the instruments most commonly used to measure psychometric LHS adequately cover its components. Psychological network analysis, as an alternative to latent factor modeling, affords an opportunity to map the relationships among narrower constructs hypothesized to comprise psychometric LHS. We recruited 1064 U.S. undergraduates, who completed instruments comprising 23 network nodes, including the K-SF-42 scales, Kruger's (2017) mating effort and parental effort scales, and measures of childhood environmental harshness, current stability of resource access, sociosexuality, future orientation, and the dark triad. We tested pre-registered hypotheses pertaining to node centrality and node clustering (communities), and found mixed support for our predictions. Observed values of node predictability suggested that these 23 indicators comprise a self-determined network. The mating effort and parental effort scales were among the most central nodes, along with developmental SES, current resource stability, Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Contrary to prediction, most of the K-SF-42 subscales clustered into a single community of nodes. Our results add to recent literature casting doubt on the usefulness of widely used psychometric LH instruments. We expect that future research will reveal considerable heterogeneity in the sources of associations between the variables that have been characterized LHS indicators.
... Traditionally, people use individualistic trait descriptions (e.g., "competitive", "independent", or "efficient") to characterize people from Western societies (e.g., USA or Europe), whereas collectivistic trait descriptions (e.g., "cooperative", "interdependent", or "loyal") are used to describe people from non-Western societies (e.g., Asia or Africa; Markus & Kitayama, 1991). More recently, researchers have also shown that people from different world regions differ in narcissistic traits, suggesting cross-cultural differences in narcissism (e.g., Foster et al., 2003;Jonason et al., 2020;Schmitt et al., 2017). For example, people from Western societies are more likely to engage in self-enhancement, whereas people from non-Western societies are more likely to engage in self-criticism and modesty (Kurman & Sriram, 2002;Sedikides et al., 2015). ...
... The overarching aim of the present study was to reassess the proposition that world regions that include individualistic cultures have higher narcissism values than those including collectivistic ones (Foster et al., 2003;Schmitt et al., 2017). We thereby also extend the study by Jonason et al. (2020) who similarly did not acknowledge the multifaceted nature of narcissism, which can be problematic (Ackerman et al., 2011;Back et al., 2013). ...
... fact describe themselves as more narcissistic than residents of the USA, Europe, and Australia/Oceania. At first glance, these results appear to conflict with prior investigations that tend to show heightened NPI scores in Anglo-European societies (Foster et al., 2003;Schmitt et al., 2017). Yet, these results comport with studies showing typically collectivistic countries to transform towards individualization (Yan, 2010) and with studies showing increased narcissism in Eastern societies (Fukunishi et al., 1996;Kwan et al., 2009). ...
Article
People from societies with increased individualism are assumed to be more narcissistic, yet previous research has produced highly contradictory results. Using a large international convenience sample (N = 2754) of English speaking adults and taking measurement invariance into account, we examined latent mean differences in the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) and its facets across five different world regions. Results revealed that two out of three NPI facets, Leadership/Authority and Grandiose Exhibitionism, were invariant across cultures (while Entitlement/Exploitativeness was not). Crucially, we found that individuals from more collectivistic cultures (i.e., Asia and Africa) reported higher levels in these facets than individuals from more individualistic cultures (i.e., USA, Europe, and Australia/Oceania). Together, results challenge the common view that narcissism is a central feature of Western societies.
... Well-known misattribution dynamics (Zillman, 1971) may actually promote some individualsespecially those with unrestricted sexualityto associate the two emotions. 10 Nevertheless, we acknowledge research linking sociosexuality to other dark personalities (Lee et al., 2013;Reise & Wright, 1996;Schmitt et al., 2017;Visser, 2019). Moreover, our sadism-sexuality finding was not predicted in advance and more focused research is necessary to confirm the singular strength of this association. ...
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To date, no studies have examined a range of structural models of the interpersonally aversive traits tapped by the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4; narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism), in conjunction with their measurement invariance (males vs. females) and how the models each predict external correlates. Using a large sample of young adults ( N = 3,975), four latent variable models were compared in terms of fit, measurement invariance, and prediction of intrapersonal and interpersonal functioning. The models tested were as follows: (Model A) confirmatory factor analytic, (Model B) bifactor, (Model C) exploratory structural equation model, and (Model D) a reduced-item confirmatory factor analytic that maximized item information. All models accounted for item covariance with good precision, although differed in incremental fit. Strong invariance held for all models, and each accounted similarly for the external correlates, highlighting differential predictive effects of the SD4 factors. The results provide support for four theoretically distinct but overlapping dark personality domains.
... Individuals with high scores on narcissism are oriented to shortterm mating, have a higher number of sexual partners, and seek shortterm mates (Jonason et al., 2009;Schmitt et al., 2017). Individuals with high levels of narcissism are also involved in mate poaching and poaching success (both men and women; Kardum, Hudek-Knezevic, Schmitt, & Grundler, 2015). ...
Article
There is considerable evidence suggesting the Dark Triad traits (i.e., psychopathy, narcissism, & Machiavellianism) are associated with greater promiscuity, but the mechanisms liking them are poorly understood. In this study (N = 379) we replicated prior associations between the Dark Triad traits and sociosexuality and considered the potential mechanisms of mate value and (limited) sexual disgust in meditation and moderated-mediation models. The Dark Triad traits were correlated with short-term mating, but only narcissism was associated with more mate value and only psychopathy was associated with limited sexual disgust. Mate value moderated the relationship between psychopathy, sexual disgust, and short-term mating. Sexual disgust acted as a mediator between psychopathy and short-term mating. As such, people high in psychopathy who have high mate value are more promiscuous because they are less disgusted.
... Collective narcissism in reference to the national group is particularly relevant not only to intergroup relations (Golec de Zavala et al., 2009, 2013, but also to cross-cultural comparisons, given that "country" is the typical unit in such comparisons (Hofstede et al., 2010;Różycka-Tran et al., 2018;Schwartz, 2008), including studies on individual narcissism Foster et al., 2003;Schmitt et al., 2017). Although the ingroup is perceived positively on both agency and communion (Abele & Wojciszke, 2014), the content of one's national stereotype is modified by culture, historical experience, and actual position in the world (Espinoza & Paez, 2015). ...
Chapter
distinction refers to ingroup enhancement based on perceived exceptional agency (e.g., bragging about the group’s competence, ability, and ambition) or based on perceived exceptional communion (e.g., bragging about the ingroup’s helpfulness, compassion, and morality). We consider the relevance of the agency-communion model of individual narcissism for the group level. In particular, we discuss the theoretical and empirical consequences of splitting the collective narcissism into agentic and communal as well as the psychometric properties of two scales: the Collective Narcissism Scale (purported to assess agentic collective narcissism) and the Communal Collective Narcissism Inventory (purported to assess communal collective narcissism). Further, we present evidences for the scales’ reliability, validity, as well as cross-cultural and cross-group replicability. We conclude that the Collective Narcissism Scale measures predominantly agentic ingroup enhancement, whereas the Communal Collective Narcissism Inventory measures predominantly communal ingroup enhancement. Keywords: collective narcissism; agency; communion; Collective Narcissism Scale; Communal Collective Narcissism Inventory
... Slower LHS as measured by the Mini-K is either unrelated or positively related (Birkás et al., 2018;Jonason et al., 2017) to narcissism. A study of over 30,000 participants from 53 countries found consistent associations of narcissism with short-term mating indicators (Schmitt et al., 2017). Narcissism has been found to be positively associated with a present-hedonistic time perspective but unrelated to future time perspective (Birkás & Csathó, 2015). ...
... The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979;Raskin & Terry, 1988), the most widely used self-report narcissism instrument, is a contentious issue (reviewed by Schmitt et al., 2017). Most researchers classify some aspects of narcissism, including confidence and effective leadership, as "socially adaptive," in contrast to other aspects of narcissism, including exploitativeness and feelings of entitlement, which are classified as "socially maladaptive." ...
... Functional evolutionary analysis seeks to elucidate the conditions under which traits promote fitness (i.e., are biologically adaptive) even when these traits lead their possessors to violate social norms. The socially maladaptive facets of narcissism are more strongly associated with the pursuit of short-term mating than are the socially adaptive facets of narcissism (Schmitt et al., 2017). A three-factor solution of the NPI (Ackerman et al., 2011) has yielded the dimensions leadership/authority, grandiose exhibitionism, and entitlement/exploitativeness. ...
Article
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The dark triad (DT) traits are differentially related to psychometrically assessed life history strategy (LHS), such that psychopathy is strongly associated with a faster LHS, whereas narcissism appears to be, if anything, a slow LHS indicator. However, the research supporting these generalizations has been based largely on undergraduate samples in which LHS has been measured using the Arizona Life History Battery (ALHB; or its short version the Mini-K), an instrument that arguably lacks adequate coverage of low-extroversion content linked to a slower LHS. In this study, 929 U.S. MTurk workers completed a set of DT instruments, a 10-item Big Five Inventory, a 42-item version of the ALHB (K-SF-42), and the life history rating form (LHRF), which is less weighted toward high extroversion content than the ALHB. Factor analysis of the DT instruments yielded factors corresponding to callousness, secondary psychopathy, and socially adaptive narcissism (leadership/authority and grandiose exhibitionism). Callousness and secondary psychopathy were fast LHS indicators with respect to both LHS instruments. Socially adaptive narcissism appeared as a slow LHS indicator with respect to the K-SF-42 but as a fast LHS indicator with respect to the LHRF. Variation in extroversion accounted entirely for the K-SF-42's positive association with socially adaptive narcissism. This study suggests that narcissism's apparent status as a slow LHS indicator may be more a matter of measurement than of substance.
... Well-known misattribution dynamics (Zillman, 1971) may actually promote some individualsespecially those with unrestricted sexualityto associate the two emotions. 10 Nevertheless, we acknowledge research linking sociosexuality to other dark personalities (Lee et al., 2013;Reise & Wright, 1996;Schmitt et al., 2017;Visser, 2019). Moreover, our sadism-sexuality finding was not predicted in advance and more focused research is necessary to confirm the singular strength of this association. ...
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Consensus is emerging that the constellation of dark personalities should include the sadistic personality. To build a four-factor measure, we modified and extended the Short Dark Triad (SD3) measure to include sadism. A series of three studies yielded the Short Dark Tetrad (SD4), a four subscale inventory with 7 items per construct. Study 1 ( N = 868) applied exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to a diverse 48-item pool using data collected on MTurk. A 4-factor solution revealed a separate sadism factor, as well as a shifted Dark Triad. Study 2 ( N = 999 students) applied EFA to a reduced 37-item set. Associations with adjustment and sex drive provided insight into unique personality dynamics of the four constructs. In Study 3 ( N = 660), a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the final 28 items showed acceptable fit for a four-factor solution. Moreover, the resulting 7-item subscales each showed coherent links with the Big Five and adjustment. In sum, the four-factor structure replicated across student and community samples. Although they overlap to a moderate degree, the four subscales show distinctive correlates – even with a control for acquiescence. We also uncovered a novel link between sadism and sexuality, but no association with maladjustment.
... Well-known misattribution dynamics (Zillman, 1971) may actually promote some individualsespecially those with unrestricted sexualityto associate the two emotions. 10 Nevertheless, we acknowledge research linking sociosexuality to other dark personalities (Lee et al., 2013;Reise & Wright, 1996;Schmitt et al., 2017;Visser, 2019). Moreover, our sadism-sexuality finding was not predicted in advance and more focused research is necessary to confirm the singular strength of this association. ...
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We present a new measure of the Dark Tetrad (narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy, sadism). The measure is brief (28 items), making it useful in identifying socially aversive individuals in an economical fashion.