Citations

... Erwin, come raccontato da lui stesso in un'intervista con Rice (2015), pubblicò nel 1982 un articolo sulla rivista "The Coleopterists Bulletin", a seguito della richiesta del Direttore del Missouri Botanical Garden, il quale stava lavorando per un progetto per il National Research ...
... First pioneered by Southwood (1961) in temperate forests and then later adapted for tropical research by numerous others (Lowman and Wittman 1996), canopy fogging methods use insecticide to collect arthropods from the upper architecture of the forest habitat. These methods have been used in surveying arthropod diversity, particularly in lowland rain forests and at several neotropical localities (Erwin 1982;Basset 2001;Rice 2015). These data in part were used to make Erwin's (1982) bold estimate of 30-50 million arthropod species which was a stark contrast to previous estimates of 1.5-10 million (Erwin 1982). ...
... Sampling occurred during dry, wet, and transitional seasons to measure temporal turnover in species composition. Over nine million specimens were collected from these fogging events (Rice 2015) and many new taxa have been described from the specimens (e.g., Erwin 2010). ...
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Canopy fogging was used to sample the diversity of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) at two western Amazonian rainforest sites in Ecuador. Sampling was conducted by Dr Terry Erwin and assistants from 1994–2006 and yielded 1158 samples containing 2500 scolytine specimens representing more than 400 morphospecies. Here, we analyze a subset of these data representing two ecological groups: true bark beetles (52 morphospecies) and ambrosia beetles (69 morphospecies). A high percentage of these taxa occurred as singletons and doubletons and their species accumulation curves did not reach an asymptote. Diversity estimates placed the total scolytine species richness for this taxon subset present at the two sites between 260 and 323 species. The α-diversity was remarkably high at each site, while the apparently high β-diversity was an artifact of undersampling, as shown by a Monte Carlo resampling analysis. This study demonstrates the utility of canopy fogging for the discovery of new scolytine taxa and for approximate diversity assessment, but a substantially greater sampling effort would be needed for conclusive alpha as well as beta diversity estimates.
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Terry Erwin's influence on amateur entomologists is described by means of a personal experience form a field trip to Ecuador in 1988.
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Background: We challenge the oft-repeated claim that the beetles (Coleoptera) are the most species-rich order of animals. Instead, we assert that another order of insects, the Hymenoptera, is more speciose, due in large part to the massively diverse but relatively poorly known parasitoid wasps. The idea that the beetles have more species than other orders is primarily based on their respective collection histories and the relative availability of taxonomic resources, which both disfavor parasitoid wasps. Though it is unreasonable to directly compare numbers of described species in each order, the ecology of parasitic wasps-specifically, their intimate interactions with their hosts-allows for estimation of relative richness. Results: We present a simple logical model that shows how the specialization of many parasitic wasps on their hosts suggests few scenarios in which there would be more beetle species than parasitic wasp species. We couple this model with an accounting of what we call the "genus-specific parasitoid-host ratio" from four well-studied genera of insect hosts, a metric by which to generate extremely conservative estimates of the average number of parasitic wasp species attacking a given beetle or other insect host species. Conclusions: Synthesis of our model with data from real host systems suggests that the Hymenoptera may have 2.5-3.2× more species than the Coleoptera. While there are more described species of beetles than all other animals, the Hymenoptera are almost certainly the larger order.