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The Cactaceae with c. 1,435 species are the most important plant family of the arid regions of the Americas. Recent revisions and molecular studies resulted in an improved knowledge of the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. Due to their high value as ornamental plants, countless publications with data on ecological preferences and geographic occ...

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O crescente entusiasmo observado com o cultivo de plantas ornamentais tem despertado o interesse por plantas exóticas, principalmente de cactos e outras suculentas. Apesar de necessitarem poucos cuidados quando plantadas diretamente no solo, tornam-se vulneráveis se vegetam em ambientes restritos e muito diferentes dos seus hábitats. Nesses casos,...

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... Cactaceae is a charismatic group of plants and a bona fide example of recent radiation (Arakaki et al., 2011), harboring remarkable diversity in growth forms (Hunt et al., 2006). Additional reasons to assess the endemic levels within the family are to evaluate the levels of endemism, the number of species with disjunct and small range sizes, the threatened IUCN criteria for many species, and the insufficiently protected areas for the group (Barthlott et al., 2015;Goettsch et al., 2019;Pillet et al., 2022). Moreover, the low level of protected areas may cover just a small portion of the cactus occurrence, which needs to be evaluated and formally recognized in semiarid and arid lands in the Neotropics (Barthlott et al., 2015). ...
... Additional reasons to assess the endemic levels within the family are to evaluate the levels of endemism, the number of species with disjunct and small range sizes, the threatened IUCN criteria for many species, and the insufficiently protected areas for the group (Barthlott et al., 2015;Goettsch et al., 2019;Pillet et al., 2022). Moreover, the low level of protected areas may cover just a small portion of the cactus occurrence, which needs to be evaluated and formally recognized in semiarid and arid lands in the Neotropics (Barthlott et al., 2015). ...
... In this study, we integrated phylogenetic and spatial approaches to determine levels of diversity and endemism across the distribution of the family Cactaceae. Hotspots of cactus diversity were previously described (e.g., Rzedowski, 1993;Taylor, 1997;Barthlott et al., 2015;Noroozi et al., 2018;Sosa et al., 2018Sosa et al., , 2020Nanni et al., 2019;Lavor et al., 2020), including deserts (Chihuahuan and Sonoran, southwest portion of the United States and Mexico, and Atacama, in Chile) and montane dry tropical forests (e.g., the Sierra Madre Oriental, Mexico). These analyses were able to identify similar areas previously described by Taylor (1997) and Barthlott et al. (2015) using patterns of species richness and endemism, respectively. ...
Article
Mapping biodiversity patterns across taxa and environments is crucial to address the evolutionary and ecological dimensions of species distribution, suggesting areas of particular importance for conservation purposes. Within Cactaceae, spatial diversity patterns are poorly explored, as are the abiotic factors that may predict these patterns. We gathered geographic and genetic data from 921 cactus species by exploring both the occurrence and genetic databases, which are tightly associated with drylands, to evaluate diversity patterns, such as phylogenetic diversity and endemism, paleo-, neo-, and superendemism, and the environmental predictor variables of such patterns in a global analysis. Hotspot areas of cacti diversity are scattered along the Neotropical and Nearctic regions, mainly in the desertic portion of Mesoamerica, Caribbean Island, and the dry diagonal of South America. The geomorphological features of these regions may create a complexity of areas that work as locally buffered zones over time, which triggers local events of diversification and speciation. Desert and dryland/dry forest areas comprise paleo- and superendemism and may act as both museums and cradles of species, displaying great importance for conservation. Past climates, topography, soil features, and solar irradiance seem to be the main predictors of distinct endemism types. The hotspot areas that encompass a major part of the endemism cells are outside or poorly covered by formal protection units. The current legally protected areas are not able to conserve the evolutionary diversity of cacti. Given the rapid anthropogenic disturbance, efforts must be reinforced to monitor biodiversity and the environment and to define/plan current and new protected areas.
... Opuntia Mill. is one of the cacti genera with the highest number of species, approximately 150, which are naturally distributed in the Americas from Canada to Argentina (Hunt et al. 2006; Barthlott et al. 2015). In Mexico, there are approximately 93 species, making it a country with a high diversity of species of this genus (Hunt et al. 2006). ...
Article
Abstract This study is focused on the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley (Oaxaca, Mexico), which has a high diversity of Opuntia species whose phylogenetic relationships and chromosome numbers are mostly unknown. We aimed to investigate the phylogenetic position of Opuntia tehuacana and its sympatric species and to analyze the ploidy levels in fve O. tehuacana localities. We performed phylogenetic analysis under Bayesian inference using three chloroplast markers (matK, ycf1 and psbJ-petA) and two nuclear introns (AT3G48380 and AT1G18270) as well as chromosome counts for three Opuntia species and fow cytometry analysis in O. tehuacana. In a broad phylogenetic context, O. tehuacana is a member of the Basilares clade, as are most of its sympatric species, except for Opuntia decumbens, Opuntia lasiacantha, and Opuntia huajuapensis, which are in the Nopalea clade. The comparison between nuclear and plastid trees showed incongruences for the positions of the eight analyzed Opuntia species, although the O. tehuacana clade was recovered by both analyses. Furthermore, the phylogeny of nuclear evidence showed a geographic structure congruent with the sampled localities for O. tehuacana. The ploidy levels of O. tehuacana are 11x and 12x, the highest reported thus far for the genus, whereas for Opuntia pilifera it is 8x and for O. huajuapensis it is 2x. Finally, we found that the signifcant diferences among O. tehuacana genome sizes and the high ploidy level might be due to multiple polyploidization events occurring between individuals from the same species and involving other Opuntia species. Keywords Aneuploidy · Hybridization · Interspecifc gene fow · Polyploidy · Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley
... Species previously included in Hylocereus and four species of Weberocereus were merged into Selenicereus (Korotkova et al. 2017). The distribution of this group ranges from northern Mexico to South America and the Antilles (Bauer 2003; Barthlott et al. 2015) (Fig. 2). Several species in Selenicereus have restricted distributions with particular niches; for example S. minutiflorus, which inhabits coastal vegetation in the north of Central America and S. trigonus, which is distributed in a few of the islands of the Antilles (Bauer 2003; Barthlott et al. 2015). ...
... The distribution of this group ranges from northern Mexico to South America and the Antilles (Bauer 2003; Barthlott et al. 2015) (Fig. 2). Several species in Selenicereus have restricted distributions with particular niches; for example S. minutiflorus, which inhabits coastal vegetation in the north of Central America and S. trigonus, which is distributed in a few of the islands of the Antilles (Bauer 2003; Barthlott et al. 2015). The majority of its species grow in seasonally tropical dry forests, habitats that are affected by multiple activities (DeClerck et al. 2010;Devine et al. 2021). ...
... Our results indicate that most of the species we studied inhabit areas with seasonal precipitation and temperature. In contrast, columnar cacti thrive in hot climates, with less than 1500 mm of annual precipitation, low temperature seasonality and medium to high seasonality in precipitation with a prolonged dry season (Barthlott et al. 2015). ...
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Diverse tools and approaches are currently utilized to propose conservation strategies for ecosystems, areas and individual taxa. Here, ecological niche-based modeling, identification of areas of endemism, and diverse methods to determine conservation status are carried out to detect endangered species in Selenicereus. This genus in the Cactaceae has epiphytic species that are known for their edible fruit, called pitahayas or dragon fruit. With the exception of two species (S. grandiflorus and S. undatus), the other 21 studied species in Selenicereus were identified as threatened. Unique ecological niches were identified for these species, with implications for conservation. The most significant areas of species richness and endemism occur in Central America in unprotected areas, followed by other important regions in southern Mexico, which in contrast lie within reserves. Seasonal climates are characteristic of Selenicereus species commonly distributed in seasonally tropical dry forests and coastal vegetation, in areas in Central America where land transformation is rampant.
... The Cactaceae (cacti) family is one of the most threatened plant families on the planet, while being some of the most important flora in arid regions of the North American continent [1,2]. A variety of mammals, birds, and insects rely on cacti for shelter and as a source of nutrients and hydration during the hot summer season [3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. People also use various cacti for ornamental horticulture, food, and medicinal purposes [2]. ...
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Accurate identification of cacti, whether seen as an indicator of ecosystem health or an invasive menace, is important. Technological improvements in hyperspectral remote sensing systems with high spatial resolutions make it possible to now monitor cacti around the world. Cacti produce a unique spectral signature because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics. We demonstrate in this paper that we can leverage a reflectance dip around 972 nm, due to cacti’s morphological structure, to distinguish cacti vegetation from non-cacti vegetation in a desert landscape. We also show the ability to calculate two normalized vegetation indices that highlight cacti. Furthermore, we explore the impacts of spatial resolution by presenting spectral signatures from cacti samples taken with a handheld field spectroradiometer, drone-based hyperspectral sensor, and aerial hyperspectral sensor. These cacti indices will help measure baseline levels of cacti around the world and examine changes due to climate, disturbance, and management influences.
... Clade AII; Non-Brazilian species P. alensis P. alensis P. alensis P. alensis P. chrysacanthus P. chrysacanthus P. chrysacanthus P. chrysacanthus P. collinsii P. collinsii P. collinsii P. fulvilanatus P. lanuginosus P. lanuginosus P. lanuginosus P. leucocephalus P. leucocephalus P. leucocephalus P. leucocephalus P. magnificus P. pachycladus P. polygonus P. polygonus P. polygonus P. purpusii P. purpusii P. purpusii P. purpusii P. quadricentralis P. quadricentralis P. quadricentralis P. quadricentralis P. royenii P. royenii P. royenii* P. royenii* P. ulei Fig. 1 Geographical distribution of Pilosocereus leucocephalus group s.s. taxa based on georeferenced specimen records, as considered by Barthlott et al. (2015), Guzmán et al. (2003), and Yetman (2007) Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. ...
... Most of the species with a columnar growth form are members of the tribes Cereeae, Echinocereeae, and Browningieae (Anderson 2001;Hunt et al. 2006). In Cereeae, Pilosocereus Byles & G.D.Rowley is one of the genera with the widest distribution in the Americas compared to the remaining 13 genera of this tribe, which are restricted mostly to eastern South America (Barthlott et al. 2015;Hunt et al. 2006). Furthermore, Pilosocereus stands out in Cactaceae as a genus with a high number of species with 42 to 50 species (Calvente et al. 2016;Franck et al. 2019;Hunt et al. 2006). ...
... Over time, there have been discrepancies in the number of recognized species inside the P. leucocephalus group s.s., ranging from seven to eleven species (Byles and Rowley 1957;Hunt et al. 2006), with notable controversies on the recognition of P. collinsii, P. cometes, and P. gaumeri, suggesting P. collinsii as a synonym of P. purpusii, P. cometes of P. leucocephalus, and P. gaumeri of P. royenii (Anderson 2001;Hunt et al. 2006;Zappi 1994). As a consequence of these uncertain interspecific boundaries, there is also confusion in recognizing their geographical ranges, but the distributional pattern of this group is well known, extending from the eastern and western coasts of Mexico to Central America (Barthlott et al. 2015;Guzmán et al. 2003;Yetman 2007) (Fig. 1). ...
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Pilosocereus is one of the Cactaceae family’s most relevant genera in terms of the number of species and its wide geographical range in the Americas. Within Pilosocereus , five informal taxonomic groups have been recognized, one of which is P. leucocephalus group s.s. , whose phylogenetic relationships remain unresolved. Therefore, our objectives are to recognize the circumscriptions of the species in P. leucocephalus group s.s. and to corroborate the monophyly and phylogenetic relationships of this group through a set of morphological and molecular characters. This study is based on representative sampling along the broad distribution of this group in Mexico and Central America using multivariate and phylogenetic analyses. The morphological characters identified to contribute to species recognition and group formation are branch diameter, areole length, the areole length-width ratio, the distance between areoles, the length of the longest radial spine, and branch and spines colors. The chloroplast markers rpl16 , trnL-trnF , and petL-psbE and the nuclear marker AT1G18270 support the monophyly of the P. leucocephalus group s.s. , and two probable synapomorphies are suggested, including one transversion in rpl16 and another in petL-psbE . Together, our results demonstrate that sampled species of P. leucocephalus group s.s. encompass six species distributed in Mexico and Central America: P. alensis and P. purpusii in the western region, P. chrysacanthus and P. collinsii in the central region, and P. gaumeri and P. leucocephalus in the eastern region. A taxonomic key to recognized species is provided.
... Cactaceae -This family includes between 1450 and 1870 species, with approximately 130 recognized in the broad sense as "epiphytes" (Barthlott et al. 2015;Hunt et al. 2006), which are found in at least five different evolutionary lines in the Americas. ...
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For decades, tropical ecologists distinguished primary (PH) and secondary hemiepiphytes (SH) as two structurally dependent life forms with an epiphytic phase at, respectively, the beginning or the end of their ontogeny. However, the use of these terms has been criticized repeatedly because the term “hemiepiphyte” suggests an unsubstantiated biological similarity in ontogeny, and worse, because it is often used without a qualifier, which makes unambiguous interpretation of the life history of such species impossible. In this paper, we go one step further and ask the question whether an ontogenetic trajectory as described by the term “secondary hemiepiphyte” does exist at all. We show that until now all evidence available for the three families that were traditionally listed as taxa with SHs (Araceae, Cyclanthaceae, Marcgraviaceae) falsifies such claims, but critically discuss reports of possible SHs in other families. In all these cases unambiguous conclusions about the existence of any SH are difficult, but our detailed discussion of potential candidates is meant to provide the basis for focused field studies. Irrespective of the outcome of these studies, we urge researchers to abandon the use of the term SH for the time being: Terminological issues can be discussed once there are data.
... length of 1250 km (Fig. 1). Three major ecoregions are recognized in the peninsula based on the attributes and organization of plant communities (Shreve and Wiggins 1964;Wiggins 1980;González-Abraham et al. 2010): (1) Temperate-Mediterranean in (Barthlott et al. 2015). ...
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The Cactaceae is considered one of the most threatened taxa in the world. However, the extent to which climate change could compromise the conservation status of this group has rarely been investigated. The present study advances this issue under three specific aims: (1) to assess the impact of climate change on the distribution of endemic cacti species in the Baja California Peninsula (n = 40), (2) to study how the impact of climate change is distributed in this group according to the species’ conservation status, and (3) to analyze how these impacts are organized from a biogeographical and functional perspective. We addressed these objectives under three socioeconomic emission pathways (RCP 2.6, 4.5, and 8.5), and using two extreme migration scenarios: full climate change tracking and no migration. Altogether, all socioeconomic emission pathways under the two extreme migration scenarios show consistency regarding the identity of the species most vulnerable to climate change, and depict a discrepant future scenario that has, on one hand, species with large potential habitat gains/stability (winners); and on the other, species with large habitat reductions (losers). Our work indicates that winner species have a tropical affinity, globose growth, and includes most of the currently threatened species, whereas loser ones are in arid and Mediterranean systems and are mostly non-threatened. Thus, current and future threat factors do not overlap in the biogeographic and taxonomic space. That reveals a worrisome horizon at supraspecific levels in the study area, since the total number of threatened species in the future might largely increase.
... collected (Barthlott et al., 2015). In Linnaeus's Species Plantarum (1753), he listed around 22 cactus species and tried to differentiate species using morphological characters amidst their "exotic appearance." ...
Article
Cactus species are plants that grow in the arid and semiarid regions of the world. They have long fascinated the attention of the scientific community due to their unusual biology. Cactus species are used for a variety of purposes, such as food, fodder, ornamental, and as medicinal plants. In the last regard, they have been used in traditional medicine for eras by the ancient people to cure several diseases. Recent scientific investigations suggest that cactus materials may be used as a source of naturally‐occurring products, such as mucilage, fiber, pigments, and antioxidants. For this reason, numerous species under this family are becoming endangered and extinct. This review provides an overview of the habitat, classification, phytochemistry, chemical constituents, extraction and isolation of bioactive compounds, nutritional and pharmacological potential with pre‐clinical and clinical studies of different Cactus species. Furthermore, conservation strategies for the ornamental and endangered species have also been discussed.
... Several plant families are particularly noteworthy in this floristic realm because of their extraordinary species richness, e.g. Cactaceae (Barthlott et al., 2015), Bromeliaceae (Palma-Silva & Fay, 2020;Zizka et al., 2020), Orchidaceae (Givnish et al., 2018) and Araceae (Mora et al., 2006;Carlsen & Croat, 2013). A number of reasons are typically given to explain such an exceptional richness, e.g. ...
... Moreover, thorough data compilation and critical synthesis are also essential for the effective design and execution of any conservation effort. Recently published works by Barthlott et al. (2015) for Cactaceae and by Zizka et al. (2020) for Bromeliaceae represent real advances in this regard. Using mostly publically available data (e.g. ...
... Apart from the Andes, with the greatest species diversity in the Andes of northwestern South America, Luteyn (2002) Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/194/2/164/5873897 by BIS-Bibliotheksund Informationssystem der Universitat Oldenburg user on 28 September 2020 diversity in the more arid regions of the Neotropics (e.g. caatinga and drier parts of tropical Mexico, cerrado in Brazil and the Gran Chaco; Barthlott et al., 2015), but the distribution of Cactaceae tribe Rhipsalidae, with many epiphytes, is more similar to that of Anthurium. ...
Article
The tropics of the New World are a biodiversity hotspot, the genus Anthurium being an example of a megadiverse taxon with currently > 1000 described species. In this study, we provide detailed information on species distributions and analyse patterns of diversity and endemism, with a particular focus on the comparison of epiphytic and terrestrial congenerics. Using a dataset of occurrence records for 1041 Anthurium spp. (c. 98% of the genus), we modelled geographical species distributions using climate-based species distribution models or buffered convex hulls depending on the number of occurrences available. We identified nine bioregions using cluster analysis. The Andean slopes, Central America, the Chocó and the Atlantic Forest in eastern Brazil are the most important centres of diversity for Anthurium, whereas endemism is highest in the central Andes. These macroecological patterns agree largely with diversity centres for other Neotropical plant groups. Epiphytes, accounting for about two-thirds of all species, have much larger range sizes than terrestrials, but do not differ in elevational ranges. Almost 40% of all Anthurium spp. are restricted to the lowlands, but a few species grow at elevations of almost 4000 m. Although individual species have an average elevation range of just c. 1000 m, there are taxa that cover > 3500 m of elevation.
... Several plant families are particularly noteworthy in this floristic realm because of their extraordinary species richness, e.g. Cactaceae (Barthlott et al., 2015), Bromeliaceae (Palma-Silva & Fay, 2020;Zizka et al., 2020), Orchidaceae (Givnish et al., 2018) and Araceae (Mora et al., 2006;Carlsen & Croat, 2013). A number of reasons are typically given to explain such an exceptional richness, e.g. ...
... Moreover, thorough data compilation and critical synthesis are also essential for the effective design and execution of any conservation effort. Recently published works by Barthlott et al. (2015) for Cactaceae and by Zizka et al. (2020) for Bromeliaceae represent real advances in this regard. Using mostly publically available data (e.g. ...
... Apart from the Andes, with the greatest species diversity in the Andes of northwestern South America, Luteyn (2002) Downloaded from https://academic.oup.com/botlinnean/article/194/2/164/5873897 by BIS-Bibliotheksund Informationssystem der Universitat Oldenburg user on 28 September 2020 diversity in the more arid regions of the Neotropics (e.g. caatinga and drier parts of tropical Mexico, cerrado in Brazil and the Gran Chaco; Barthlott et al., 2015), but the distribution of Cactaceae tribe Rhipsalidae, with many epiphytes, is more similar to that of Anthurium. ...
Article
The tropics of the New World are a biodiversity hotspot, the genus Anthurium being an example of a megadiverse taxon with currently > 1000 described species. In this study, we provide detailed information on species distributions and analyse patterns of diversity and endemism, with a particular focus on the comparison of epiphytic and terrestrial congenerics. Using a dataset of occurrence records for 1041 Anthurium spp. (c. 98% of the genus), we modelled geographical species distributions using climate-based species distribution models or buffered convex hulls depending on the number of occurrences available. We identified nine bioregions using cluster analysis. The Andean slopes, Central America, the Chocó and the Atlantic Forest in eastern Brazil are the most important centres of diversity for Anthurium, whereas endemism is highest in the central Andes. These macroecological patterns agree largely with diversity centres for other Neotropical plant groups. Epiphytes, accounting for about two-thirds of all species, have much larger range sizes than terrestrials, but do not differ in elevational ranges. Almost 40% of all Anthurium spp. are restricted to the lowlands, but a few species grow at elevations of almost 4000 m. Although individual species have an average elevation range of just c. 1000 m, there are taxa that cover > 3500 m of elevation. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: biodiversity-biome-environmental niche-epiphyte-elevation-life form-Neotropics-species distribution model.